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000-634 - Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 - BrainDump Information

Vendor Name : IBM
Exam Code : 000-634
Exam Name : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2
Questions and Answers : 72 Q & A
Updated On : December 14, 2018
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000-634 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2

Test Code : 000-634
Test Name : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 72 Real Questions

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IBM IBM Object Oriented Analysis

Analyst firm Positions IBM in Leaders Quadrant of Magic Quadrant record | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

supply: IBM

July 12, 2006 08:00 ET

SOMERS, ny -- (MARKET WIRE) -- July 12, 2006 -- IBM today announced that Gartner, Inc. has located IBM in the leaders quadrant in its Magic Quadrant document of the article Oriented evaluation and Design equipment space. in response to the report*, Gartner estimates that IBM has greater than 50 p.c of the market share versus its two nearest competitors who mixed grasp 30 % or greater of the market.

model-driven development helps utility construction teams understand, doc and communicate the company system of application and systems construction to show structure resilience previous to making full scale development investments, and to define a carrier oriented architecture roadmap leading to enterprise transformation.

IBM's leadership within the Object Oriented analysis and Design (OOA&D) tools market for 2H06-2H07 is the influence of a comprehensive portfolio of offerings which help groups use fashions or patterns to power their software development, including:

-- IBM Rational application Modeler, IBM Rational application Architect, and IBM Rational systems Developer -- IBM's award-winning mannequin-driven development tools, according to Eclipse, to assist construction groups create powerful applications; -- endured aid of Microsoft environments via IBM Rational Rose demonstrates IBM's commitment to presenting a utility development platform that goals a wide range of implementation technologies; -- IBM WebSphere company Modeler -- the outcomes of IBM's acquisition of Holosofx -- supports company method analysis to shut the gap between an company's traces of company and their development organization's understanding of the company drivers; -- IBM Rational statistics Architect -- an business information modeling and database design tool that additionally helps clients map facts belongings to each and every different to more with ease create database and integration schemas. "Gartner's evaluation of the OOA&D positions IBM in the leaders quadrant which we consider confirms our approach around mannequin-driven construction," said Danny Sabbah, established supervisor, Rational utility, IBM. "IBM's mannequin-pushed equipment support geographically distributed software construction groups to speak their designs and necessities visually, getting rid of the risk of mission failures as a result of mis-conversation resulting from language and cultural boundaries."

Gartner's Magic Quadrant positions providers along two dimensions: completeness of vision, and skill to execute on that imaginative and prescient. For 2006, Object Oriented analysis and Design tools are neatly into mainstream use attaining 20 percent to 50 p.c of the target viewers: counsel architects, analysts and developers. according to the document, most groups have converted to OOA&D methods and tools in live performance with enforcing provider oriented architectures (SOAs), leading to a rapid explosion of this market from 2000-2004.

ultra-modern news builds on IBM's management in assisting customers govern their application and methods building. IBM changed into recently named the worldwide market share chief within the software building and venture and portfolio administration application industry according to complete utility profits for 2005 for the fifth consecutive 12 months, in keeping with independent analyst enterprise Gartner Inc. according to the independent document**, IBM became the main market share supplier in total software income with 25.4 percent market share, greater than double the percentage of its nearest competitor.

For extra advice, consult with http://www.ibm.com/software/rational.

about the Gartner Magic Quadrant

The Magic Quadrant is copyrighted June 1, 2006 by means of Gartner, Inc. and is reused with permission. The Magic Quadrant is a graphical illustration of a marketplace at and for a particular time period. It depicts Gartner's analysis of how certain companies measure against standards for that market, as described with the aid of Gartner. Gartner doesn't recommend any dealer, product or service depicted within the Magic Quadrant, and doesn't propose know-how clients to choose only those companies placed in the "Leaders" quadrant. The Magic Quadrant is intended totally as a analysis device, and is not supposed to be a selected ebook to motion. Gartner disclaims all warranties, categorical or implied, with recognize to this research, including any warranties of merchantability or health for a selected aim.

* The Gartner Magic Quadrant for Object Oriented evaluation and Design (OOA&D) tools, 2H06-2H07 file changed into authored by means of Michael J. Blechar.

** The Gartner market records record is entitled "Market Share: application building and project and Portfolio administration, worldwide, 2005" authored with the aid of Laurie Wurster and Fabrizio Biscotti.

What Apple, Inc. gets from its new iOS partnership with IBM | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps



Apple's newly announced mobile partnership with IBM has been greeted through a few analysts and pundits as being each "not that big a deal," or conversely, the dramatic reversal of an extended standing contention. each are wrong, right here's why. No big deal?

Piper Jaffray analyst Gene Munster offered probably the most least enthusiastic views on the announcement, noting that Apple already has massive commercial enterprise penetration while postulating that even "if half of the Fortune 500 had been to each and every purchase an incremental 2,000 iPhones and 1,000 iPads above what they were planning to buy as a result of the IBM deal, it might imply a couple of half a p.c to CY15 profits."

Munster additionally offered a broad interpretation of the "exclusive partnership" both agencies targeted, writing, "we are expecting IBM to ultimately offer similar options on Android over time."

"Robert X. Cringely" in a similar fashion provided a dim view of IBM's company apps and flatly estimated that "iOS cloud features from IBM may not happen," concluding that "neither business could be significantly plagued by the different. it be simply no longer that massive a deal."

IBM's existing cell company apps and cloud services actually don't seem able to dramatically boosting Apple's iOS income on their personal. but this is not what the corporations introduced. as a substitute, both described "exclusive" plans to work together to "seriously change commercial enterprise mobility through a new type of enterprise apps."

As stated in greater detail beneath, the language both corporations use in describing their partnership indicates that it is not merely an effort to promote just a few agencies an extra thousand iPads. Apple and IBM have massive dreams in intellect.

Apple and IBM have a lot of background as shut allies

on the identical time, Apple and IBM aren't working together for the first time. We're a very long methods from 1982, when IBM entered the new microcomputer market that Apple had ignited with the Apple II. Apple in the beginning "welcomed" IBM to the laptop market (under), as a a good deal bigger competitor.

It subsequently portrayed big Blue as a 1984 big Brother in 1984 with its iconic original advert for the Macintosh. It then insulted IBM and its clients even more explicitly in "Lemmings," a 2nd and much more provocative SuperBowl ad that portrayed blindfolded laptop users marching themselves off a cliff.

by means of the late 80s, IBM had lost manage of the workstation to Microsoft on its own, and failed to win it back with its proprietary design for brand spanking new PS/2 techniques. whereas IBM sold notebooks and drugs that competed in opposition t Apple's PowerBooks and Newton MessagePads in the Nineteen Nineties, all the way through that decade Apple and IBM in reality aligned to work together in several fundamental initiatives.

The purpose Alliance between Apple, IBM and Motorola scaled down IBM's energy RISC server chipset into the PowerPC processor that turned into used in Macs starting in 1994 and carrying on with into 2006.

Apple also collaborated with IBM to improve "Macintosh application features" to host PowerPC Mac software on IBM's AIX Unix workstations, and in parallel shipped IBM's AIX by itself high end Apple community Server in 1996.

In parallel with PowerPC, the Taligent assignment teamed Apple's future plans for "red," a brand new OS intended to replace device 7, with IBM's parallel efforts for office OS. It intended to advance a new OS microkernel able to assisting Macs, OS/2 and Unix, and developed object oriented frameworks pattered after Steve Jobs' subsequent. Taligent primarily aimed to replica subsequent and steal away Jobs' early supporters (together with IBM, and later HP).

After the Taligent partnership collapsed, Apple decided to purchase subsequent because the basis for its superior new Mac OS X in its place.

Kaleida Labs turned into a 3rd high profile partnership between Apple in IBM in the early Nineties, aimed at making a move platform, scriptable multimedia construction platform. The collaboration effectively raided Apple's QuickTime crew of skill and spent tens of tens of millions of greenbacks earlier than collapsing in failure in 1996. Its role became supplanted by using Macromedia Director, and then by the net, chiefly via plugins like Java and Flash.

Apple & IBM partnerships in the 2000s

Apple's acquisition of Jobs' next in 1996 additional helped to align the enterprise with IBM as a co-competitor to Microsoft and an ally to Unix and open supply software. In 2005 IBM offered its pc business to Lenovo. It increasingly threw its guide in the back of Linux, and in 2007 created a fork of OpenOffice that it offered as a Microsoft office competitor named IBM Lotus Symphony.

In 2007, IBM's research assistance features performed a examine that supplied employees with MacBook execs instead of home windows machines. worker remarks mentioned comments including, "this may free us from the windows stranglehold," and "I have been a true pc stalwart for two+ many years, but after making an attempt Vista, i'm able for a metamorphosis."

The subsequent 12 months, IBM ported its Informix information Server to OS X Server and introduced plans to carry Lotus Notes (IBM's competitor to Microsoft's trade) and the Symphony workplace app suite to Apple's Mac and iOS platforms.

IBM now has a portfolio of dozens of business apps for iOS, and changed into actually one of the crucial first App save builders to include the platform in 2008 before Apple had even launched its iPhone SDK and App keep.

IBM targets huge information on the big platform

The large information of the new partnership between Apple and IBM therefore is neither that they are actually working together for the primary time, nor that IBM offers some apps for iOS instruments. What's new is the evidently emphasized exclusivity of the relationship, and the longer term direction for new iOS apps, management tools and cloud services.

IBM already gives Android cellphone help roughly on par with iPhone, and Android pill guide it is just about the same as its iPad's. It additionally offers assist for BlackBerry, PlayBook, BB10, home windows mobile, windows RT and even Symbian. IBM's new apps will completely target iOS youngsters.

That makes sense because IBM may be promoting and leasing iOS devices, however also because IBM can now focus on developing native apps for the one platform it is already being greatly used in the enterprise, devoid of spending loads of elements checking out and keeping help for a wide array of OS models and APIs and a bewildering range of hardware gadgets.

In parallel with the building of Apple's iOS platform over the last seven years, IBM has moved far from selling office apps (abandoning its OpenOffice / Symphony suite) to as an alternative focus on offering managed cloud infrastructure, consulting and management services, in addition to "huge statistics" evaluation.

IBM's SmartCloud hosts public cloud functions for purchasers (corresponding to Amazon internet capabilities) and additionally presents deepest cloud functions, where IBM sells the consumer servers they then personal and operate. machine can then again be leased from and/or managed onsite by way of IBM.

The partnership exceptionally outlined, "IBM's massive records and analytics capabilities, with the vigour of more than one hundred,000 IBM industry and area consultants and utility developers behind it," could be used to "create apps that can transform specific elements of how businesses and personnel work the use of iPhone and iPad."

One style of IBM's big records analytics has regarded over the last two holiday browsing seasons. In 2012, the IBM Digital Analytics Benchmark highlighted (below) that most browsing was being completed on iOS devices--even earlier than the media become manipulated to record that Apple had run out of "innovation" and that Android and Samsung had been "taking over" cell instruments.

the following 12 months, IBM's analytics revealed that the divide had grown even stronger, with Apple's iOS clients now accounting for 5 instances the orders of Android clients. The media's handwringing about Apple all the way through in 2013 had temporality affected the enterprise's stock expense, however wasn't affecting the outcomes that count within the machine market.

The ability to as it should be determine these styles of tendencies--devoid of the statistics being contaminated via lack of knowledge or wishful thinking--is severely critical to enterprise clients. That explains why the partnership's announcement described new apps powered by means of such analytics as "enabling businesses to achieve new ranges of efficiency, effectiveness and client pride."

As Apple noted, IBM has "centered the realm's deepest portfolio in massive information and Analytics consulting and expertise capabilities in keeping with experiences drawn from greater than forty,000 records and analytics customer engagements. This analytics portfolio spans analysis and construction, options, software and hardware, and includes greater than 15,000 analytics consultants, four,000 analytics patents, 6,000 industry answer business partners, and four hundred IBM mathematicians who're assisting consumers use huge facts to radically change their agencies."

iWork commercial enterprise

Apple has its own iWork apps for small business and training clients, it currently received Microsoft's office cellular apps (at the moment completely) on iPad, and is now working with IBM to enhance "a brand new type of 'made-for-enterprise apps' focused on selected industry considerations or opportunities in retail, healthcare, banking, commute and transportation, telecommunications and assurance, among others, for you to become accessible beginning this fall and into 2015."

in preference to just being some new App save titles listed by IBM, the companies have outlined that IBM should be selling Apple's iOS as a part of its personal MobileFirst platform, which will "convey the features required for an end-to-end enterprise skill, from analytics, workflow and cloud storage, to fleet-scale device administration, security and integration."

additionally, "more suitable mobile management contains a personal app catalog, records and transaction security services, and productivity suite for all IBM MobileFirst for iOS solutions. besides on-premise software options, all these capabilities can be obtainable on Bluemix--IBM's building platform on the IBM Cloud marketplace."IBM is offering the entire issues Apple has never been very first rate at or shown a whole lot pastime in doing itself

That means IBM is offering all the things Apple hasn't ever been very good at or proven lots pastime in doing itself, from selling consultation and assist functions, to building and protecting server infrastructure and custom apps for valued clientele. That comprises enhancing AppleCare for enterprise users with "on-web page carrier delivered through IBM."

IBM is additionally offering "equipment deliver, activation and management services for iPhone and iPad, with leasing options." those once again are the sorts of functions that HP and Dell had been historically lots superior than Apple at offering for the laptop trade.

With BYOD, Apple acquired its foot in the door and iOS instruments grew to be extensively adopted by way of enterprise and govt clients. Partnering with IBM, Apple can work on turning its cell devices into an enterprise volume play.

Apple, IBM are thinking large

up to now, the market looks to have considered Apple and IBM as an glaring risk to BlackBerry, which certainly does have plenty left to lose: 72 million subscribers as of the first quarter of 2014. iPhones have taken a painful bite out of BlackBerry's enterprise earnings, however iPads goal some thing different: ordinary PCs.

This makes Munster's estimates of Apple probably promoting handiest an further '2,000 iPhones and 1,000 iPads' to half of the Fortune 500 via some new IBM apps in particular puzzling. Apple somewhat certainly plans to aggressively target business workstation sales--a considerable market--with its submit-laptop cell devices. Tim cook addresses the iPad's broadly mentioned skills to eclipse laptop sales at every possibility.

"We continue to accept as true with that the pill market will surpass the computing device market in dimension inside the next few years and we accept as true with that Apple should be an immense beneficiary of this trend," prepare dinner brought up in the enterprise's April revenue name."We proceed to consider that the pill market will surpass the pc market in dimension in the following few years and we trust that Apple might be a major beneficiary of this vogue " - Tim cook

Apple already has no issue promoting fleets of tens of thousands of iPhones and iPads to company, executive and education consumers. it might only need IBM's support to target the everyday laptop for mass eradication throughout the enterprise, pushed the use of imaginative, exclusive native apps able to radically altering how groups use know-how. Apple's description of IBM makes it very clear it is precisely what each groups plan to achieve.

On its new iPad business web page, the business states "Apple and IBM are working collectively to convey iPhone, iPad, and IBM MobileFirst for iOS apps to firms around the globe. Our unique world partnership will convey a new class of apps that connect users to big data and analytics right on their iOS devices with greater ease and effectivity than ever earlier than. Apple and IBM are redefining the cell business by using combining the exponential power of corporate data with the world's most fulfilling mobile expertise."

In its original press release Apple cited, "IBM's 5,000 cellular experts were on the forefront of mobile commercial enterprise innovation. IBM has secured greater than four,300 patents in cellular, social and safety, that have been included into IBM MobileFirst solutions that allow enterprise shoppers to radically streamline and accelerate cell adoption, help corporations interact greater individuals and seize new markets."

moreover, "IBM has made a dozen acquisitions in protection in the past decade, has more than 6,000 security researchers and developers in its 25 security labs international that work on constructing commercial enterprise-class solutions."

Apple's own method in acquisitions (in addition to in patents) has commonly centered the speedy implementation of differentiating elements and technologies (such as touch id, the custom silicon in the A7 chip, and contours ranging from Siri to face awareness to iTunes Radio to App store enhancements).

by way of partnering with IBM, Apple can leverage backyard expertise in protection, social and cell deployment with out distracting itself from its core competency in building hardware, utility and structures.

And now, a warning

looking back, the historical partnerships between Apple and IBM didn't have an excellent music record. Taligent and Kaleida were total screw ups, whereas PowerPC didn't sustain with the tempo of the stronger market. IBM Lotus Notes and Symphony did not exactly transform the trade on any platform.

however modern-day Apple and IBM share little in ordinary with their old incarnations within the 1990s. Apple is now no longer handiest very a hit and ecocnomic, however has a digital lock on mobile business products, and in specific devices with a complicated native app building platform (as adverse to BlackBerry's messaging-centric platform developed as an easy Java VM).

where Microsoft once ruled the commercial enterprise and partnered with a sequence of organizations that shut Apple out, it's now frantically trying to keep the fame quo for windows (whilst its clients reject Microsoft's latest direction) as it flip flops between strategic directions in different markets.

From closing year's "contraptions and features" plan, which above all did not sell instruments, to its newest nebulous cloud method that did not in fact articulate a specific approach at all, Microsoft is presently presiding over a stagnant market for popular PCs that just about each market research company sees as being overtaken with the aid of pills, and specifically Apple's iPad.

That fact highlights another reality: considering that the iPad's debut in 2010, advertising corporations have deliberately framed it as a gap equipment with out a feasible influence on notebook market, using selected statistics teased into conclusions that always flattered Microsoft even with the facts involved.

With an immense ally in IBM helping to promote its products, Apple will likely face much less brazenly misleading media insurance denying the now clear and obvious shift occurring as time-honored PCs are replaced and augmented by greater cell--and plenty less complicated to manage--post computer instruments.

The Promise of (pretty much) ‘Serverless Computing’ | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

The definition of cloud computing may well be nebulous, but its promise is apparent. as an alternative of filling a warehouse with servers and paying people to control them, a corporation can pay a cloud computing issuer for computing supplies on demand and pay handiest for what it definitely makes use of.

This prospect lured groups starting from startups to large corporations to stodgy executive companies onto cloud offerings from Amazon, Google, Microsoft, and others. those now smartly-established features may keep corporations from buying and managing physical servers, but they do not rather deliver on the dream of paying handiest for what you employ.

functions like Amazon’s EC2 nevertheless require you to choose—and pay for—a certain quantity of computing supplies, together with reminiscence and community ability. that you may dial these components up or down as demand to your internet application alterations. however that might still go away you with much less computing energy than you want for a unexpected or unanticipated spike in traffic, leaving your app less conscious of users. So, many cloud customers comply with pay for more substances than they mechanically want.

Worse, these virtual servers still require consumers to do lots of actual preservation, says Donald F. Ferguson, cofounder and CTO of video-streaming business Seeka tv and a professor of computing device science at Columbia college. for example, shoppers need to install safety updates and verify them to be certain they don't damage latest facets. Ferguson, who spent many years as a software architect for businesses together with Dell and Microsoft and helped create IBM’s application server WebSphere, says this consumes more time than you might consider. "for many projects, we would spend 20 p.c of our time managing cloud environments," he says.

it truly is why Seeka tv depends on a burgeoning method to cloud computing that eliminates digital servers. The theory goes by the paradoxical identify of serverless computing. So-referred to as serverless services do in fact rely on servers. The change is that users don't manipulate the servers. as a substitute of renting and managing digital servers, easily add the code you need to run, or the records you need to store, and pay for the substances you actually use. For the developer, the server is almost invisible.

Ferguson says about ninety nine percent of Seeka tv's code runs on serverless platforms. That’s reduced the time spent managing the cloud ambiance to almost zero, he says.

It’s not simply startups the usage of serverless. Motorola solutions uses serverless computing for some of its work with legislation enforcement and public safeguard purchasers, says govt Andrew Sinclair. "Serverless services permit us to spend extra time on constructing new facets and less time on provisioning and managing servers," he says.

Cloud management enterprise Cloudability saw a nearly seven-fold enhance in serverless utilization amongst its clients in the remaining quarter of 2017, in comparison with the prior quarter, based on a report the company released past this 12 months. "everybody knows about serverless, and everyone is brooding about the place to use it," says Craig Lowery, research director at business evaluation enterprise Gartner.

'characteristic as a carrier'

Serverless computing has been around for years, however only recently has it develop into manageable to create complete applications in keeping with it. during the last decade, programmers have shifted extra of the code for working purposes from servers to either your mobilephone or your browser. Many builders would opt for not to keep servers for the few things that cannot run on the user’s device, like facts storage and password authentication. The earliest serverless services, which were designed to handle specific tasks, helped builders outsource these sorts of things. Amazon's storage carrier S3, as an instance, allows you to upload data devoid of caring about how many servers it be stored on, and pay most effective for what you employ. Twilio presents a provider that lets developers use its computing infrastructure to ship textual content messages to clients, with out setting up or configuring selected servers. a newer service called Auth0 handles tasks like password verification.

the first wave of serverless computing proved common with app developers, but builders still needed average servers for lots of their customized code. That modified in 2014 with the launch of "characteristic-as-a-provider" choices like Hook.io and Amazon Lambda, which permit developers to add small chunks of their own code, and pay simplest for the computing supplies that code consumes. That made it possible for agencies like Seeka television to rely virtually solely on serverless computing.

counting on serverless computing presents challenges. For one, developers must write utility differently than in the event that they planned to run an software on a desktop or common cloud provider. and some capabilities, together with Amazon Lambda limit the size of a code equipment, that means builders of tremendous functions need to divide them into items. That’s complicated for present purposes, so serverless is more perfect for creating new applications which are built with this sort of modularity in intellect.

efficiency can also be an issue for serverless computing. a standard, server-based mostly software usually runs continuous, able to reply any question from a user. but services like Lambda cease working code that isn't in use and most effective load it lower back into memory when it be obligatory. that may slow response time for users. further delays strengthen as distinctive serverless components speak with one one more over a network. Sinclair says Motorola options shies far from serverless computing for purposes that need short responses after lengthy intervals of state of being inactive.

That potential there'll at all times be a market for extra established cloud computing services, says Mango Capital founder Robin Vasan, who has invested both in serverless organizations like Netlify and businesses that offer equipment for managing greater common cloud functions. "I think serverless is the long run, however it's now not the future for everything," he says. "no longer each characteristic should still reside in a serverless framework."

Ferguson admits that serverless computing is rarely right for each difficulty, however says the kinds of efficiency concerns that Vasan describes are hardly ever an issue for Seeka television. Its code is used commonly satisfactory that Amazon Lambda hardly, if ever, has to close it down.

in the meantime, an ecosystem of tools is emerging to assist with the challenges of serverless computing. Motorola solutions uses a carrier called Twistlock to monitor protection of its serverless code, as an example.

Lowery and Ferguson liken serverless computing these days to "object-oriented programming," which made it less complicated for software builders to reuse code, in the Nineteen Eighties. It took time for builders to study the new approach, and for the equipment and other substances to mature. by means of the Nineteen Nineties, notwithstanding, it grew to be the default, however not exclusive, method to programming. They feel serverless will comply with an analogous path.

"Any software that may also be made serverless, may be made serverless," Lowery says. "If it may not work as serverless, then you definately'd study other options."

Ferguson's college students are already there. He still teaches students to build utility the use of strategies other than serverless computing. "nevertheless it looks like i'm punishing the students," he says. "as a result of serverless is so a lot less demanding."

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000-634 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2

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Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2

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Object-Oriented Analysis & Design | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Object-Oriented Analysis & DesignJune 2, 3, 9, 10Worcester State CollegeTaught by Jan Bergandy, Computer Science, UMass, Dartmouth

Seminar Objectives:

  • To develop an in-depth understanding of object-oriented paradigm
  • To obtain a working knowledge of object-oriented analysis & design techniques
  • To learn object-oriented modeling using Unified Modeling Language (UML)
  • To learn about basic design patterns and the role of patterns is software development
  • To understand the impact of object paradigm on software development activities
  • To explore synergy between object-oriented design and object-oriented programming
  • To learn about key object technologies
  • Who should attend:This workshop is addressed to faculty involved in teaching programming, software design, and other courses related to software development. It is addressed to those who face a transition to object technology and want to learn about challenges and benefits of this transition. The workshop does not require any prior knowledge of object-oriented programming or knowledge of object paradigm. General computer fluency and general knowledge of issues associated with software and software development are expected.

    Seminar Organization:The course will be conducted as a project with instructor giving short presentations pertaining to a specific stage of the analysis and design process. During this course the participants will construct an analysis model for a selected problem. This model will be refined in to the detailed design level providing an opportunity for discussion about the relationship between object-oriented design and object-oriented programming. Each student will receive a copy of the course materials and the textbook.

    Tools & Platforms:Rational-Rose CASE toolThe CASE tool is used exclusively to expedite the process of model construction. The students spend no more than half an hour of their time during the entire class on learning how to use the tool. Not using the CASE toll will make it almost impossible to experience hands-on all the elements of the object-oriented analysis and design process.

    Textbooks:M. Fowler, ÒUML DistilledÓ, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-32563-2 (additional/optional )

    E. Gamma, R. Helm, R. Johnson, J. Vlissides, ÒDesign PatternÓ, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-63361-2


    June 2, 2001, 9:00 - 5:00Topics to be addressed:Object paradigm top-down - analysis & design perspectiveObject paradigm bottom-up - programming perspectiveBasic concepts: abstraction, encapsulation, information hiding, modularityResponsibility view of the requirementsClasses and objects emerging from responsibilitiesComparison of procedural and object-oriented paradigmsClasses and relationships as the building blocks of software architectureCriteria of class qualityIntroduction to Unified Modeling Language (UML)Static & dynamic modelActors and use casesTransitioning from functional requirements to objects - introduction

    Project:Analysis of the requirements for the selected projectIdentifying actors and use casesConstructing use case diagrams

    June 3, 2001, 9:00 - 2:00Topics to be addressed:Transitioning from functional requirements to objectsIdentifying the first group of classesClass specificationClass as an encapsulation of a responsibilityClass, Utility Class, Parameterized Class and its instantiationClass diagram - introductionIdentifying relationships between classesAssociation relationshipsAssociation classesRepresenting relationships with cardinalityAggregation versus compositionRepresenting aggregation and composition relationshipsRepresenting generalization/ specialization (inheritance)PolymorphismAbstract classes and interfacesSpecification of relationshipsImplementing classes & relationships (bottom-up view of relationships)Class diagram

    Project:Identifying first group of classes based on responsibilitiesPreliminary class diagramIdentifying relationships between classesDefining cardinalitiesClass diagram

    June 10, 2001, 9:00 - 5:00 (part I)Topics to be addressed:Static versus dynamic modelIdentifying scenarios through refinement of use casesModeling scenarios using object-interaction and sequence diagrams

    Project:Refining use casesDeveloping and modeling scenariosIdentifying methodsRefining class specifications

    June 10, 2001 (part II)Topics to be addressed:Events, states and actionsState diagramCriteria for using state diagramsConcurrency, active objectsMutual exclusion problemSequential, guarded, and synchronous objectsModeling concurrencyConcurrent state diagramsActivity diagrams

    Project:Evaluating classes for the need of state diagramsConstructing state diagrams for selected classes(Constructing activity diagrams)Refining class specifications

    June 10, 2001, 9:00 - 2:00Topics to be addressed:Introduction to design patterns: Creational patterns, Abstract Factory, Builder, Prototype, Singleton, Virtual Constructor

    Structural Patterns: Adapter, Bridge, Composite, Decorator, Façade, Proxy

    Behavioral Patterns: Chain of Responsibility, Command, Iterator, Mediator, Memento

    Other important topics to be covered in this course:What to expect from an object-oriented languageDynamic nature of object-oriented systems and the issues of garbage collectionEffective use of inheritance and polymorphism and their impact on software qualitySingle versus multiple inheritancePolymorphism versus genericsClass design and data normalization (attribute dependence issues)

    Object-Oriented Analysis And Design — Conceptual Model (Part 2) | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Conceptual Model

    Once we’ve some use cases or user stories, the next thing we can do is create a conceptual model of our system. It simply means you’re identifying the most important objects.

    You shouldn’t be worried about software object right now, but more generically what are the things in the application that we need to be aware of.

    Things like product, item, shopping cart, order, invoice, paycheck, spaceship, asteroid, level, that’s what we’re identifying here. Some of them will become actual classes and software object, but not all of them.

    The Process

    So, we’re going to identify those objects, start to refine them, and then draw them in a simple diagram. And we can also show the relationship and interactions between them.

    An Advice

    Creating a simple conceptual model for most applications is not and should not be a long process. A few hours spent on this is usually more than enough.

    Don’t worry about perfection. First time through it will be incomplete, and that’s absolutely normal to miss out even important objects, things that you will discover later on during programming.

    1. Identifying Objects

    What we do is to start collecting our use cases, user stories, and any other written requirements together.

    Now, we are going to identify the most important parts of our software; the most important things, or objects.

    Objects will be in form of nouns. Those are the candidate objects, some of them will be actual objects in the system, and the rest won’t, as you’ll see later.

    Identifying objects

    You are just identifying the objects, you don’t analyze or judge them. We also don’t worry about missing one, at the first spin, you may miss some objects, which is normal.

    2. Refining Objects

    After underlying on your candidate objects, you start refining them, you start choosing your actual objects that will be in the system. So, to do that, …

    Refining objects
  • Remove any duplicates. We may find same objects with different names, but they actually mean the same thing.
  • You may need to combine some objects, or, even splitting them into some other objects.
  • You may identify an attribute as an object instead.
  • You may identify a behavior as an object instead.
  • An attribute is a property or characteristic of the object. For example, when we say “A car is red”, red here is a property for the car, which is the actual object.

    A behavior is something an object can do (responsibility). For example, when we say, “A bird can fly”, fly here is a behavior, while the bird is the actual object.

    You don’t have to consume a lot of time refining your objects, don’t look for perfection, it’s normal to encounter some mistakes, or miss up some objects that will be figured out through the process.

    3. Drawing Objects

    What you need to do now is using your pencil and paper, just draw the conceptual model by box all objects.

    There are some tools you may use, but for now, a pencil, and piece of paper are more than enough.

    Conceptual model 3. Identifying Object Relationships

    You start indicate the relationships between your objects.

    It’s very obvious that these objects will interact with each other. For example, a customer can place an order, a student can enroll in a course, an admin can update a post, and so on.

    Drawing a line between objects, and writing the relationship verbs is enough to denote there is a relationship.

    Define object relationships 4. Identifying Object Behaviors

    Behaviors are the things (verbs) the object can do, or, in other words, the responsibilities of an object, that will become the methods in our object class.

    So, we can go back to the use case or a user story, and look for verbs and verb phrases to pick responsibilities.

    Identifying object behaviors (responsibilities)

    Things like verifies items, provides payment and address, process sale, validate payment, confirm order, provide order number, check order status, and send order details email.

    Now, not all of these will become behaviors, some will be combined, some will need to be split apart, and some will just not be needed or be replaced by something else, but they are a good starting point.

    Assigning responsibilities Whose Responsibility Is This?

    What isn’t always obvious is where these responsibilities belong, particularly if they affect different objects. It’s because the use case describes what initiates a behavior, not necessarily who’s responsible to perform that behavior.

    So, even though it’s the customer who wants to know the status of the order, it’s the responsibility of the order to check it’s status. The customer should ask the order object to report it’s own status.

    When you ask whose responsibility is this? Always remember that an object should be responsible for itself.

    The Generic Verbs

    We can change the generic verb provide to set and get instead to make it clear for what we are trying to do.

    The “System” Object

    Now, here’s another issue that often comes up. It’s common to see phrases like “system” validates payment or “system”will send the customer an email at use cases, and that can lead to people creating a system object and putting a huge amount of responsibilities in it.

    These phrases really mean that some part of this system validates payment, some part of this system will send an email, and it’s our job to figure out what part of the system should be responsible for that behavior.

    The God Object

    If you have an object that has a lot of responsibilities, chances are, you are doing it wrong.

    You may need to re-think about the responsibility of each object, and distribute the responsibilities among the objects. Remember that an object should be responsible for itself as much as possible.

    Class Responsibility Collaborator (CRC) Cards

    Class Responsibility Collaborator (CRC) is another technique for organizing the objects.

    Object-oriented design patterns in the kernel, part 2 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

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    June 7, 2011

    This article was contributed by Neil Brown

    In the first part of this analysis we looked at how the polymorphic side of object-oriented programming was implemented in the Linux kernel using regular C constructs. In particular we examined method dispatch, looked at the different forms that vtables could take, and the circumstances where separate vtables were eschewed in preference for storing function pointers directly in objects. In this conclusion we will explore a second important aspect of object-oriented programming - inheritance, and in particular data inheritance.

    Data inheritance

    Inheritance is a core concept of object-oriented programming, though it comes in many forms, whether prototype inheritance, mixin inheritance, subtype inheritance, interface inheritance etc., some of which overlap. The form that is of interest when exploring the Linux kernel is most like subtype inheritance, where a concrete or "final" type inherits some data fields from a "virtual" parent type. We will call this "data inheritance" to emphasize the fact that it is the data rather than the behavior that is being inherited.

    Put another way, a number of different implementations of a particular interface share, and separately extend, a common data structure. They can be said to inherit from that data structure. There are three different approaches to this sharing and extending that can be found in the Linux kernel, and all can be seen by exploring the struct inode structure and its history, though they are widely used elsewhere.

    Extension through unions

    The first approach, which is probably the most obvious but also the least flexible, is to declare a union as one element of the common structure and, for each implementation, to declare an entry in that union with extra fields that the particular implementation needs. This approach was introduced to struct inode in Linux-0.97.2 (August 1992) when

    union { struct minix_inode_info minix_i; struct ext_inode_info ext_i; struct msdos_inode_info msdos_i; } u;

    was added to struct inode. Each of these structures remained empty until 0.97.5 when i_data was moved from struct inode to struct ext_inode_info. Over the years several more "inode_info" fields were added for different filesystems, peaking at 28 different "inode_info" structures in when ext3 was added.

    This approach to data inheritance is simple and straightforward, but is also somewhat clumsy. There are two obvious problems. Firstly, every new filesystem implementation needs to add an extra field to the union "u". With 3 fields this may not seem like a problem, with 28 it was well past "ugly". Requiring every filesystem to update this one structure is a barrier to adding filesystems that is unnecessary. Secondly, every inode allocated will be the same size and will be large enough to store the data for any filesystem. So a filesystem that wants lots of space in its "inode_info" structure will impose that space cost on every other filesystem.

    The first of these issues is not an impenetrable barrier as we will see shortly. The second is a real problem and the general ugliness of the design encouraged change. Early in the 2.5 development series this change began; it was completed by 2.5.7 when there were no "inode_info" structures left in union u (though the union itself remained until 2.6.19).

    Embedded structures

    The change that happened to inodes in early 2.5 was effectively an inversion. The change which removed ext3_i from struct inode.u also added a struct inode, called vfs_inode, to struct ext3_inode_info. So instead of the private structure being embedded in the common data structure, the common data structure is now embedded in the private one. This neatly avoids the two problems with unions; now each filesystem needs to only allocate memory to store its own structure without any need to know anything about what other filesystems might need. Of course nothing ever comes for free and this change brought with it other issues that needed to be solved, but the solutions were not costly.

    The first difficulty is the fact that when the common filesystem code - the VFS layer - calls into a specific filesystem it passes a pointer to the common data structure, the struct inode. Using this pointer, the filesystem needs to find a pointer to its own private data structure. An obvious approach is to always place the struct inode at the top of the private inode structure and simply cast a pointer to one into a pointer to the other. While this can work, it lacks any semblance of type safety and makes it harder to arrange fields in the inode to get optimal performance - as some kernel developers are wont to do.

    The solution was to use the list_entry() macro to perform the necessary pointer arithmetic, subtracting from the address of the struct inode its offset in the private data structure and then casting this appropriately. The macro for this was called list_entry() simply because the "list.h lists" implementation was the first to use this pattern of data structure embedding. The list_entry() macro did exactly what was needed and so it was used despite the strange name. This practice lasted until 2.5.28 when a new container_of() macro was added which implemented the same functionality as list_entry(), though with slightly more type safety and a more meaningful name. With container_of() it is a simple matter to map from an embedded data structure to the structure in which it is embedded.

    The second difficulty was that the filesystem had to be responsible for allocating the inode - it could no longer be allocated by common code as the common code did not have enough information to allocate the correct amount of space. This simply involved adding alloc_inode() and destroy_inode() methods to the super_operations structure and calling them as appropriate.

    Void pointers

    As noted earlier, the union pattern was not an impenetrable barrier to adding new filesystems independently. This is because the union u had one more field that was not an "inode_info" structure. A generic pointer field called generic_ip was added in Linux-1.0.5, but it was not used until 1.3.7. Any file system that does not own a structure in struct inode itself could define and allocate a separate structure and link it to the inode through u.generic_ip. This approach addressed both of the problems with unions as no changes are needed to shared declarations and each filesystem only uses the space that it needs. However it again introduced new problems of its own.

    Using generic_ip, each filesystem required two allocations for each inode instead of one and this could lead to more wastage depending on how the structure size was rounded up for allocation; it also required writing more error-handling code. Also there was memory used for the generic_ip pointer and often for a back pointer from the private structure to the common struct inode. Both of these are wasted space compared with the union approach or the embedding approach.

    Worse than this though, an extra memory dereference was needed to access the private structure from the common structure; such dereferences are best avoided. Filesystem code will often need to access both the common and the private structures. This either requires lots of extra memory dereferences, or it requires holding the address of the private structure in a register which increases register pressure. It was largely these concerns that stopped struct inode from ever migrating to broad use of the generic_ip pointer. It was certainly used, but not by the major, high-performance filesystems.

    Though this pattern has problems it is still in wide use. struct super_block has an s_fs_info pointer which serves the same purpose as u.generic_ip (which has since been renamed to i_private when the u union was finally removed - why it was not completely removed is left as an exercise for the reader). This is the only way to store filesystem-private data in a super_block. A simple search in the Linux include files shows quite a collection of fields which are void pointers named "private" or something similar. Many of these are examples of the pattern of extending a data type by using a pointer to a private extension, and most of these could be converted to using the embedded-structure pattern.

    Beyond inodes

    While inodes serve as an effective vehicle to introduce these three patterns they do not display the full scope of any of them so it is useful to look further afield and see what else we can learn.

    A survey of the use of unions elsewhere in the kernel shows that they are widely used though in very different circumstances than in struct inode. The particular aspect of inodes that is missing elsewhere is that a wide range of different modules (different filesystems) each wanted to extend an inode in different ways. In most places where unions are used there are a small fixed number of subtypes of the base type and there is little expectation of more being added. A simple example of this is struct nfs_fattr which stores file attribute information decoded out of an NFS reply. The details of these attributes are slightly different for NFSv2 and NFSv3 so there are effectively two subtypes of this structure with the difference encoded in a union. As NFSv4 uses the same information as NFSv3 this is very unlikely to ever be extended further.

    A very common pattern in other uses of unions in Linux is for encoding messages that are passed around, typically between the kernel and user-space. struct siginfo is used to convey extra information with a signal delivery. Each signal type has a different type of ancillary information, so struct siginfo has a union to encode six different subtypes. union inputArgs appears to be the largest current union with 22 different subtypes. It is used by the "coda" network file system to pass requests between the kernel module and a user-space daemon which handles the network communication.

    It is not clear whether these examples should be considered as the same pattern as the original struct inode. Do they really represent different subtypes of a base type, or is it just one type with internal variants? The Eiffel object-oriented programming language does not support variant types at all except through subtype inheritance so there is clearly a school of thought that would want to treat all usages of union as a form of subtyping. Many other languages, such as C++, provide both inheritance and unions allowing the programmer to make a choice. So the answer is not clear.

    For our purposes it doesn't really matter what we call it as long as we know where to use each pattern. The examples in the kernel fairly clearly show that when all of the variants are understood by a single module, then a union is a very appropriate mechanism for variants structures, whether you want to refer to them as using data inheritance or not. When different subtypes are managed by different modules, or at least widely separate pieces of code, then one of the other mechanisms is preferred. The use of unions for this case has almost completely disappeared with only struct cycx_device remaining as an example of a deprecated pattern.

    Problems with void pointers

    Void pointers are not quite so easy to classify. It would probably be fair to say that void pointers are the modern equivalent of "goto" statements. They can be very useful but they can also lead to very convoluted designs. A particular problem is that when you look at a void pointer, like looking at a goto, you don't really know what it is pointing at. A void pointer called private is even worse - it is like a "goto destination" command - almost meaningless without reading lots of context.

    Examining all the different uses that void pointers can be put to would be well beyond the scope of this article. Instead we will restrict our attention to just one new usage which relates to data inheritance and illustrates how the untamed nature of void pointers makes it hard to recognize their use in data inheritance. The example we will use to explain this usage is struct seq_file used by the seq_file library which makes it easy to synthesize simple text files like some of those in /proc. The "seq" part of seq_file simply indicates that the file contains a sequence of lines corresponding to a sequence of items of information in the kernel, so /proc/mounts is a seq_file which walks through the mount table reporting each mount on a single line.

    When seq_open() is used to create a new seq_file it allocates a struct seq_file and assigns it to the private_data field of the struct file which is being opened. This is a straightforward example of void pointer based data inheritance where the struct file is the base type and the struct seq_file is a simple extension to that type. It is a structure that never exists by itself but is always the private_data for some file. struct seq_file itself has a private field which is a void pointer and it can be used by clients of seq_file to add extra state to the file. For example md_seq_open() allocates a struct mdstat_info structure and attaches it via this private field, using it to meet md's internal needs. Again, this is simple data inheritance following the described pattern.

    However the private field of struct seq_file is used by svc_pool_stats_open() in a subtly but importantly different way. In this case the extra data needed is just a single pointer. So rather than allocating a local data structure to refer to from the private field, svc_pool_stats_open simply stores that pointer directly in the private field itself. This certainly seems like a sensible optimization - performing an allocation to store a single pointer would be a waste - but it highlights exactly the source of confusion that was suggested earlier: that when you look at a void pointer you don't really know what is it pointing at, or why.

    To make it a bit clearer what is happening here, it is helpful to imagine "void *private" as being like a union of every different possible pointer type. If the value that needs to be stored is a pointer, it can be stored in this union following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern. If the value is not a single pointer, then it gets stored in allocated space following the "void pointers for data inheritance" pattern. Thus when we see a void pointer being used it may not be obvious whether it is being used to point to an extension structure for data inheritance, or being used as an extension for data inheritance (or being used as something else altogether).

    To highlight this issue from a slightly different perspective it is instructive to examine struct v4l2_subdev which represents a sub-device in a video4linux device, such as a sensor or camera controller within a webcam. According to the (rather helpful) documentation it is expected that this structure will normally be embedded in a larger structure which contains extra state. However this structure still has not just one but two void pointers, both with names suggesting that they are for private use by subtypes:

    /* pointer to private data */ void *dev_priv; void *host_priv;

    It is common that a v4l sub-device (a sensor, usually) will be realized by, for example, an I2C device (much as a block device which stores your filesystem might be realized by an ATA or SCSI device). To allow for this common occurrence, struct v4l2_subdev provides a void pointer (dev_priv), so that the driver itself doesn't need to define a more specific pointer in the larger structure which struct v4l2_subdev would be embedded in. host_priv is intended to point back to a "parent" device such as a controller which acquires video data from the sensor. Of the three drivers which use this field, one appears to follow that intention while the other two use it to point to an allocated extension structure. So both of these pointers are intended to be used following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern, where a void pointer is playing the role of a union of many other pointer types, but they are not always used that way.

    It is not immediately clear that defining this void pointer in case it is useful is actually a valuable service to provide given that the device driver could easily enough define its own (type safe) pointer in its extension structure. What is clear is that an apparently "private" void pointer can be intended for various qualitatively different uses and, as we have seen in two different circumstances, they may not be used exactly as expected.

    In short, recognizing the "data inheritance through void pointers" pattern is not easy. A fairly deep examination of the code is needed to determine the exact purpose and usage of void pointers.

    A diversion into struct page

    Before we leave unions and void pointers behind a look at struct page may be interesting. This structure uses both of these patterns, though they are hidden somewhat due to historical baggage. This example is particularly instructive because it is one case where struct embedding simply is not an option.

    In Linux memory is divided into pages, and these pages are put to a variety of different uses. Some are in the "page cache" used to store the contents of files. Some are "anonymous pages" holding data used by applications. Some are used as "slabs" and divided into pieces to answer kmalloc() requests. Others are simply part of a multi-page allocation or maybe are on a free list waiting to be used. Each of these different use cases could be seen as a subtype of the general class of "page", and in most cases need some dedicated fields in struct page, such as a struct address_space pointer and index when used in the page cache, or struct kmem_cache and freelist pointers when used as a slab.

    Each page always has the same struct page describing it, so if the effective type of the page is to change - as it must as the demands for different uses of memory change over time - the type of the struct page must change within the lifetime of that structure. While many type systems are designed assuming that the type of an object is immutable, we find here that the kernel has a very real need for type mutability. Both unions and void pointers allow types to change and as noted, struct page uses both.

    At the first level of subtyping there are only a small number of different subtypes as listed above; these are all known to the core memory management code, so a union would be ideal here. Unfortunately struct page has three unions with fields for some subtypes spread over all three, thus hiding the real structure somewhat.

    When the primary subtype in use has the page being used in the page cache, the particular address_space that it belongs to may want to extend the data structure further. For this purpose there is a private field that can be used. However it is not a void pointer but is an unsigned long. Many places in the kernel assume an unsigned long and a void * are the same size and this is one of them. Most users of this field actually store a pointer here and have to cast it back and forth. The "buffer_head" library provides macros attach_page_buffers and page_buffers to set and get this field.

    So while struct page is not the most elegant example, it is an informative example of a case where unions and void pointers are the only option for providing data inheritance.

    The details of structure embedding

    Where structure embedding can be used, and where the list of possible subtypes is not known in advance, it seems to be increasingly the preferred choice. To gain a full understanding of it we will again need to explore a little bit further than inodes and contrast data inheritance with other uses of structure embedding.

    There are essentially three uses for structure embedding - three reasons for including a structure within another structure. Sometimes there is nothing particularly interesting going on. Data items are collected together into structures and structures within structures simply to highlight the closeness of the relationships between the different items. In this case the address of the embedded structure is rarely taken, and it is never mapped back to the containing structure using container_of().

    The second use is the data inheritance embedding that we have already discussed. The third is like it but importantly different. This third use is typified by struct list_head and other structs used as an embedded anchor when creating abstract data types.

    The use of an embedded anchor like struct list_head can be seen as a style of inheritance as the structure containing it "is-a" member of a list by virtue of inheriting from struct list_head. However it is not a strict subtype as a single object can have several struct list_heads embedded - struct inode has six (if we include the similar hlist_node). So it is probably best to think of this sort of embedding more like a "mixin" style of inheritance. The struct list_head provides a service - that of being included in a list - that can be mixed-in to other objects, an arbitrary number of times.

    A key aspect of data inheritance structure embedding that differentiates it from each of the other two is the existence of a reference counter in the inner-most structure. This is an observation that is tied directly to the fact that the Linux kernel uses reference counting as the primary means of lifetime management and so would not be shared by systems that used, for example, garbage collection to manage lifetimes.

    In Linux, every object with an independent existence will have a reference counter, sometimes a simple atomic_t or even an int, though often a more explicit struct kref. When an object is created using several levels of inheritance the reference counter could be buried quite deeply. For example a struct usb_device embeds a struct device which embeds struct kobject which has a struct kref. So usb_device (which might in turn be embedded in a structure for some specific device) does have a reference counter, but it is contained several levels down in the nest of structure embedding. This contrasts quite nicely with a list_head and similar structures. These have no reference counter, have no independent existence and simply provide a service to other data structures.

    Though it seems obvious when put this way, it is useful to remember that a single object cannot have two reference counters - at least not two lifetime reference counters (It is fine to have two counters like s_active and s_count in struct super_block which count different things). This means that multiple inheritance in the "data inheritance" style is not possible. The only form of multiple inheritance that can work is the mixin style used by list_head as mentioned above.

    It also means that, when designing a data structure, it is important to think about lifetime issues and whether this data structure should have its own reference counter or whether it should depend on something else for its lifetime management. That is, whether it is an object in its own right, or simply a service provided to other objects. These issues are not really new and apply equally to void pointer inheritance. However an important difference with void pointers is that it is relatively easy to change your mind later and switch an extension structure to be a fully independent object. Structure embedding requires the discipline of thinking clearly about the problem up front and making the right decision early - a discipline that is worth encouraging.

    The other key telltale for data inheritance structure embedding is the set of rules for allocating and initializing new instances of a structure, as has already been hinted at. When union or void pointer inheritance is used the main structure is usually allocated and initialized by common code (the mid-layer) and then a device specific open() or create() function is called which can optionally allocate and initialize any extension object. By contrast when structure embedding is used the structure needs to be allocated by the lowest level device driver which then initializes its own fields and calls in to common code to initialize the common fields.

    Continuing the struct inode example from above which has an alloc_inode() method in the super_block to request allocation, we find that initialization is provided for with inode_init_once() and inode_init_always() support functions. The first of these is used when the previous use of a piece of memory is unknown, the second is sufficient by itself when we know that the memory was previously used for some other inode. We see this same pattern of an initializer function separate from allocation in kobject_init(), kref_init(), and device_initialize().

    So apart from the obvious embedding of structures, the pattern of "data inheritance through structure embedding" can be recognized by the presence of a reference counter in the innermost structure, by the delegation of structure allocation to the final user of the structure, and by the provision of initializing functions which initialize a previously allocated structure.


    In exploring the use of method dispatch (last week) and data inheritance (this week) in the Linux kernel we find that while some patterns seem to dominate they are by no means universal. While almost all data inheritance could be implemented using structure embedding, unions provide real value in a few specific cases. Similarly while simple vtables are common, mixin vtables are very important and the ability to delegate methods to a related object can be valuable.

    We also find that there are patterns in use with little to recommend them. Using void pointers for inheritance may have an initial simplicity, but causes longer term wastage, can cause confusion, and could nearly always be replaced by embedded inheritance. Using NULL pointers to indicate default behavior is similarly a poor choice - when the default is important there are better ways to provide for it.

    But maybe the most valuable lesson is that the Linux kernel is not only a useful program to run, it is also a useful document to study. Such study can find elegant practical solutions to real problems, and some less elegant solutions. The willing student can pursue the former to help improve their mind, and pursue the latter to help improve the kernel itself. With that in mind, the following exercises might be of interest to some.

  • As inodes now use structure embedding for inheritance, void pointers should not be necessary. Examine the consequences and wisdom of removing "i_private" from "struct inode".

  • Rearrange the three unions in struct page to just one union so that the enumeration of different subtypes is more explicit.

  • As was noted in the text, struct seq_file can be extended both through "void pointer" and a limited form of "union" data inheritance. Explain how seq_open_private() allows this structure to also be extended through "embedded structure" data inheritance and give an example by converting one usage in the kernel from "void pointer" to "embedded structure". Consider submitting a patch if this appears to be an improvement. Contrast this implementation of embedded structure inheritance with the mechanism used for inodes.

  • Though subtyping is widely used in the kernel, it is not uncommon for a object to contain fields that not all users are interested in. This can indicate that more fine grained subtyping is possible. As very many completely different things can be represented by a "file descriptor", it is likely that struct file could be a candidate for further subtyping.

    Identify the smallest set of fields that could serve as a generic struct file and explore the implications of embedding that in different structures to implement regular files, socket files, event files, and other file types. Exploring more general use of the proposed open() method for inodes might help here.

  • Identify an "object-oriented" language which has an object model that would meet all the needs of the Linux kernel as identified in these two articles.

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