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000-636 - Requirements Management with Use Cases - Part 1 - BrainDump Information

Vendor Name : IBM
Exam Code : 000-636
Exam Name : Requirements Management with Use Cases - Part 1
Questions and Answers : 99 Q & A
Updated On : March 21, 2019
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000-636 exam Dumps Source : Requirements Management with Use Cases - Part 1

Test Code : 000-636
Test Name : Requirements Management with Use Cases - Part 1
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 99 Real Questions

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IBM Requirements Management with Use

Watson Goes any place at IBM consider 2019 | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Ginni Rometty delivering the keynote at IBM's Think 2019 picture: IBM

AI and machine learning took core stage at IBM feel this year, as the display’s principal AI announcements served as a reminder that the enterprise has one of the crucial most differentiated and competitive services for enforcing AI in commercial enterprise operational procedures in the market. but when massive Blue is to win the AI race in opposition t AWS, Microsoft and Google Cloud in 2019 and past, it ought to improve its developer method and give a boost to its communications, principally in areas it leads the market, such as in trusted AI and governance.

Let's dig a bit deeper into IBM’s AI strategy, the leading believe bulletins and what they mean for the market.

Welcome to Chapter 2 of Digital Transformation

IBM CEO Ginni Rometty kicked off the believe experience with an emphasis on how groups are getting into "chapter two" of cloud adoption and digital transformation. This subsequent phase is defined by corporations scaling up their digital initiatives, making use of information on a combination of ordinary IT programs and public and private clouds, and putting AI at the core of their business tactics.

Rometty took the possibility to shed some easy on IBM's next chapter as neatly, following its $34 billion acquisition of purple Hat in 2018. besides the fact that children the acquisition is pending regulatory approval and isn't expected to shut until the 2nd half of 2019, pink Hat has breathed new lifestyles into IBM and its approach, which is now focussed on hybrid, multicloud capabilities. IBM claimed that 94 percent of organizations are the use of a mix of public and private cloud environments these days, and two-thirds are the use of multiple public cloud company. Many large companies remain fearful of lock-in by means of the hyperscale cloud providers and are rightly involved about their skill to move information between clouds, and about applying connectivity, management and protection among them normally.

IBM's strategy, which was evident during Rometty's keynote, is to tackle these concerns by means of providing a decide upon-and-combine set of features formed from its middleware heritage that assist shoppers manipulate workloads spanning these environments. here is in keeping with open-source applied sciences comparable to Kubernetes containers and OpenShift, crimson Hat’s container application platform.

linked Article: How Will the $34B IBM Acquisition have an effect on crimson Hat clients?

IBM’s AI approach: moving organizations beyond Experimentation

This set the stage for an enormous raise to IBM’s AI strategy. Rometty brought up that Watson engagements now total 20,000 — a 25 percent increase from sixteen,000 in 2018, spanning 20 industries and 80 countries. although, regardless of this adoption, the market remains particularly experimental, with many customers still accomplishing proofs of conception or imposing slim element options and preferring to birth small. however we predict that by way of the end of 2020, 90 percent of giant organizations might be operating pilot or creation-level laptop learning purposes, only a few can have thoroughly applied the know-how inside business techniques or have a complete AI strategy. here is because of poor first-rate of statistics, an absence of advantage, and issues about trust in the expertise.

IBM’s approach and portfolio focuses on these core challenges and contains a prioritization of its latitude of big records and analytical tools, and the plumbing of AI, mirrored in Rometty’s keynote slogan "there is not any AI with out IA" (advice architecture). A key product is IBM Cloud deepest for information, its oddly named platform for managing and governing machine researching statistics that integrates records science, statistics engineering and utility constructing tactics right into a single console and administration ambiance.

built-in with IBM Cloud deepest for facts are several key Watson options:

  • Watson Studio, a collection of design tools and a collaborative environment for facts scientists, developers and area specialists.
  • Watson computer discovering, infrastructure and capabilities working on IBM cloud capabilities to construct analytical models, neural networks and coach methods with records to deploy AI.
  • Watson Developer APIs, a collection of internet APIs to enable developers to construct purposes using speech processing, dialog and language, visible attention, sentiment and behavior analysis.
  • Watson applications, a group of prebuilt functions for general makes use of comparable to in analytics, digital assistants, tips discovery and business automation. IBM additionally offers items for selected sectors, equivalent to healthcare, fiscal functions and media and entertainment.
  • IBM Releases Watson to move anywhere

    feel’s biggest announcement become IBM Watson anyplace, which adds an additional key dimension to this portfolio. consistent with its corporate method, IBM cited that it could make Watson transportable throughout dissimilar public clouds, giving businesses a constant way to construct, installation and run AI models and purposes in on-premises and public cloud environments comparable to AWS, Alibaba, Google Cloud or Azure.

    IBM has built new Watson microservices in Kubernetes containers the usage of OpenShift, which abstracts Watson from its previous dependency on the underlying IBM cloud infrastructure. It hopes the flexibility of Watson anywhere, in line with open-supply, will motivate extra companies to circulate beyond experimenting with AI by giving them greater alternate options to run AI wherever facts resides and thereby decreasing the worry of lock-in.

    IBM has staked out an immense claim within the AI market with the circulation. In Rometty's words, Watson is now "probably the most open and scalable AI platform for agencies on earth" which is poles aside from 18 months ago, when Watson became tormented by PR problems and a attractiveness for being high priced, inflexible and a black-container system. however IBM will need to put money into integrating, configuring and optimizing Watson to work perpetually with the entire principal public clouds, the move reinvigorates its strategy after a tricky few years.

    connected Article: Is the IBM Watson company Unassailable?

    main in the Governance of artificial Intelligence

    a further elementary part of IBM's strategy that came alive at consider become Watson OpenScale, its AI administration and governance platform that comprises the believe, monitoring, rationalization and transparency tools launched in 2018 (see Trusting Watson). Born out of its analysis arm, the platform aims to tackle concerns about "black box" AI via giving shoppers ways to improve the visibility and control of AI systems as well as explain effects. It does this through monitoring the efficiency, fitness and conduct of computer learning fashions at runtime.

    CCS insight has long argued that companies want extra contraptions to support them build guardrails around AI and X-ray visibility into working methods. have faith in AI — or a scarcity of it — is emerging as the greatest barrier to computer researching adoption in enterprises. for instance, in CCS perception's 2018 survey of IT determination-makers in the US and Europe, 43 % of respondents noted trust as a hurdle to adoption in their organization. here's why IT choice makers placed the potential to make sure statistics security, compliance and the transparency of how techniques work among the top three requirements for his or her laptop gaining knowledge of investments in 2019, according to the survey.

    The suitable governance of AI will turn into critical in establishing believe in the technology, certainly as organizations implement AI in their operations over the subsequent 12-18 months. Governance spans 4 vital domains: moral design and bias; transparency and explainability; privacy; and protection, management and compliance. Watson OpenScale consists of probably the most first devices in the market and is as a minimum three hundred and sixty five days ahead of the competition in this crucial box.

    task Debater historic experience

    IBM made several other key moves worth noting. It introduced a new product for business procedure automation, referred to as method Automation Intelligence with Watson. It also opened consider with a historic experience which featured the primary ever live and public debate between IBM’s task Debater and human debate champion, Harish Natarajan. in accordance with its AI analysis in Tel Aviv, task Debater is the first AI system within the fields of herbal language processing, computational argumentation and reasoning, laptop listening comprehension and deep studying, designed to debate people on complicated themes.

    Natarajan received the controversy according to the audience vote, but 60 percent felt IBM’s platform more desirable enriched their expertise of the area as project Debater became able to be mindful topics accurately, contextualize expertise and put collectively a significant narrative all over the debate. The adventure illustrated how quick AI is progressing and was an extra reflection of how beneficial IBM’s analysis arm is to its business as few corporations are transitioning AI research into items sooner than IBM in 2019.

    linked Article: The subsequent Frontier for IT: AI Ethics

    IBM in 2019 and beyond

    consider showed us that IBM has one of the most differentiated and aggressive enterprise functions for enforcing AI in enterprise operational processes available in the market. In improving the readability of its corporate message, IBM has additionally introduced some a good deal vital simplification to the positioning of its range of AI products during the last 12 months, which may also be optimal considered during the photo I took on the experience below.

    IBM's AI Portfolio

    a much cry from 18 months in the past, IBM can now aspect to powerful differentiators in proposing open, hybrid and multicloud capabilities, governance and utilized AI for industries, as well as having a wide portfolio running from programs to capabilities which is supported by using a bold analysis arm and Massachusetts Institute of know-how partnership that are feeding its manufacturing facility of latest AI products at an expanding expense.

    besides the fact that children, IBM's approach isn't ideal and it nonetheless has work to do in enhancing its advertising and messaging, exceptionally in the areas it leads, similar to trusted AI and governance. Key product names are inclined to confuse and don’t accentuate the value proposition sufficient. And despite advancements in how Watson is marketed, it remains an inconsistent company used broadly throughout the business.

    specifically, IBM will additionally deserve to enrich its approach for developers. This enviornment obtained little consideration at think 2019. purple Hat's eight million open-supply builders should still be a major raise to its Apple partnership, as will the pliability in its method with Watson anyplace, however IBM will should provoke upon the developer community about why its AI tools are the highest quality.

    standard, believe published some positive steps ahead in IBM’s AI strategy. but these improvements should be important if IBM is to win the AI wars and commercial enterprise AI market in 2019 and beyond.

    Nicholas McQuire is vp, commercial enterprise research and artificial intelligence analysis at CCS perception. He has over 15 years' journey in commercial enterprise expertise advisory services, most lately as managing director of the global enterprise Mobility Alliance.


    Rational CLM a collection of up to date legacy IBM tools | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    IBM's software lifecycle administration (ALM) suite is a group of products known as IBM Rational collaborative lifecycle administration (CLM). IBM Rational CLM covers necessities management, first-class management, trade and configuration management, venture planning and monitoring all on one platform.

    The IBM Rational ALM suite goals to enhance productivity by means of getting rid of working in silos, which can commonly trigger task delays, lower best consequences and trigger budget overruns. This device also presents in-context crew collaboration, lifecycle traceability across disciplines, actual-time planning and building intelligence that makes it possible for developers and task managers to make fact-based choices. The IBM Rational CLM items are appropriate with a couple of working systems, together with home windows, Mac OS, Linux, Solaris, AIX, IBM I and z/OS.

    IBM Rational CLM is a group of three integrated equipment: Rational crew concert, Rational quality manager and Rational doorways subsequent era.

    Rational crew concert

    Rational crew concert (RTC) integrates assignment tracking, supply manage and Agile planning with continuous builds and a configurable technique to adapt to varying work styles. RTC also provides collaborative change administration capabilities and built-in points including work-item, construct and utility configuration management.

    RTC offers visibility into actions and progress with multilevel dashboards and reporting facets, and enables planning and execution of initiatives with planning tools and templates, including a brand new Scaled Agile Framework template. moreover, RTC presents superior source manage, which helps disbursed teams talk and collaborate. Pricing for RTC is flexible and licensing is role-based with dissimilar platform aid in a single unlock, permitting the implementation of individual add-ons at buy or in the future.

    Rational high-quality supervisor

    Rational best manager (RQM) can provide capabilities for test administration including verify planning, creation and execution. RQM helps groups share information and use automation to accelerate mission schedules. It helps satisfactory assurance teams share mission counsel and status updates, cut back labor-intensive actions and record on undertaking metrics more reliably. It allows users to create and control test plans that describe venture nice goals and exit criteria, while tracking obligations and prioritized items for verification and validation.

    RQM uses a browser-based mostly interface constructed on Java and internet 2.0 know-how that comprises customizable dashboards made from a big set of predefined widgets. users can speak inside and among groups the use of aspects reminiscent of adventure feeds, integrated chat, assessment and approval and automatic traceability.

    It also comprises a complete textual content editor that can trap textual examine steps alongside embedded pictures for accelerating manual trying out using rich-text, in-line pictures, and assisted statistics entry and validation for textual content definition and execution. Testers can share normal steps between tests via keyword phrases, and the minimal number of assessments required for a given degree of environment coverage is automatically recognized.

    RQM makes use of chance-primarily based testing for prioritizing the facets and capabilities to be demonstrated in accordance with significance and likelihood or affect of failure, supporting possibility management top-quality practices, in addition to check lab management for monitoring, scheduling and executing assessments on actual and digital lab assets. talk over with the RQM product web page for pricing suggestions.

    Rational DNG

    Rational doorways subsequent technology (DNG) captures, manages and traces necessities during the utility construction lifecycle. by means of having all requirements obtainable from a vital, obtainable and secure region, this software is first rate for clients to gain transparency and increase reusability. DNG provides a important and accessible place for requirements, concurrent modifying, automatic versioning and prioritization.

    DNG allows for users to tune alterations in textual content documents or spreadsheets -- recording time, consumer and edit history -- and allows for users to view historical past, experiences and dialogue feedback within the context of the doc. DNG also lets users access requirements databases concurrently throughout distinctive profiles without conflict or disruption, whereas making certain that groups use consistent terminology with an integrated glossary.

    users can create diverse views that use filters and screen settings for diverse roles and tasks. files and task templates have predefined and customizable alternate options. Customizable dashboards and automated studies visualize information, and clients can edit, author and analyze artifacts on an internet client that also supports commercial servers. DNG can also import files, CSVs, and ReqIF or work with the provided assignment and module templates.

    DNG can also be purchased on a fixed-term license, an authorized person Single deploy, or a Floating person Single install groundwork, together with a 12-month subscription to the aid functions. fees fluctuate with the aid of license classification. Rational DNG is an improve to Rational doorways 9, unifying its facets into a single-server or web-primarily based necessities platform that allows for for more suitable collaboration amongst construction groups.


    necessities administration using IBM® Rational® RequisitePro® | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the ebook 

    counting on the format, supply, and common qualities, the necessities can also be break up into distinct requirement types. listed below are some requirement varieties that are sometimes utilized in tasks:

  • Stakeholder need: a requirement from a stakeholder
  • feature: a service supplied by way of the device, always formulated through a company analyst; a goal of a characteristic is to fulfill a stakeholder want
  • Use case: an outline of device conduct when it comes to sequences of moves
  • Supplementary requirement: a further requirement (constantly nonfunctional) that cannot be captured in use instances
  • check case: a specification of look at various inputs, execution circumstances, and anticipated outcomes
  • state of affairs: a specific sequence of moves; a particular direction through a use case
  • These requirement types can be presented within the form of a pyramid, as shown in determine 1.1.

    at the top stage are stakeholder needs. On the decrease ranges are points, use situations, and supplementary necessities. rather regularly, at distinctive levels of those requirements, different levels of element are captured. The lessen the degree, the more specific the requirement. as an instance, a need might be “statistics should be persistent.” The feature can refine this requirement to be “gadget should still use a relational database.” On the supplementary specification level, the requirement is much more specific: “gadget should use Oracle 9i database.” The further down, the more targeted the requirement. one of the crucial most effective practices of requirements administration is to have at the least two different degrees of requirement abstraction. for example, the vision incorporates excessive-degree necessities (facets), and the lower degrees within the pyramid categorical the requirements at an in depth level. Senior stakeholders (reminiscent of vice presidents) should not have time to read 200 pages of certain necessities but may still be expected to study a 12-web page imaginative and prescient doc.

    although, it's as much as enterprise analysts to choose the granularity of requirements at every degree. Nothing is incorrect with placing fairly detailed necessities from stakeholders on the stakeholder needs degree.

    The leading change between needs and features is within the supply of the requirement. wants come from stakeholders, and contours are formulated via business analysts.

    The function of test instances is to assess if use circumstances and supplementary necessities are implemented appropriately. situations support derive use situations from test instances and facilitate the design and implementation of specific paths via use situations. In RequisitePro we are able to define many other requirement kinds, akin to glossary phrases and actors. They are not pure requirements conforming to the definition supplied firstly of this chapter, but if we characterize them in RequisitePro as requirements, we gain flexibility to tune their attributes and traceability the use of equal mechanisms that are offered for other requirement varieties.


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    Requirements Management with Use Cases - Part 1

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    Key Employment Law Questions For Hospitality Cos.: Part 1 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Law360 (February 25, 2019, 12:23 PM EST) -- This article from Lexis Practice Advisor discusses the key employment law issues that face employers in the hospitality industry. This is part one of a two-part article series. Part one provides...

    ONC Proposes New Requirements Around Information Blocking and Health IT Certification | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    CHICAGO, Illinois, March 1 -- The Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society issued the following news:

    On Monday, February 11, the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) continued its implementation of the 21st Century Cures Act with the publication of its proposed regulation designed to advance interoperability, support the access, exchange and use of electronic health information, and address occurrences of information blocking.

    ONC is also implementing Conditions and Maintenance of Certification requirements for health IT developers and supporting patient access to their electronic health information (EHI), such as making a patient's EHI more electronically accessible through the adoption of standards and certification criteria and the implementation of information blocking policies that support patient electronic access to their health information at no cost. In addition, the proposed rule would modify the 2015 Edition health IT certification criteria and ONC Health IT Certification Program in other ways to advance interoperability, enhance health IT certification, as well as reduce burden and costs.

    Moreover, the proposed rule focuses on establishing application programming interfaces (APIs) for several interoperability purposes, including patient access to their health information without special effort. The API approach also supports health care providers having the sole authority and autonomy to unilaterally permit connections to their health IT through certified API technology that health care providers have acquired.

    Through this regulatory policymaking, ONC is trying to ensure coordination with the proposed regulation from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) to advance interoperability and facilitate greater patient engagement with and control over their healthcare data. Overall, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is attempting to create opportunities for new market entrants and remove barriers to interoperability and EHI exchange, which would greatly benefit health care providers and patients.

    The key provisions of ONC's proposed regulation include the following.

    Health IT Certification Program to Focus on More than Just Technical and Functional Requirements

    ONC is proposing an approach where the Conditions and Maintenance of Certification express the initial and ongoing requirements for health IT developers and their certified Health IT Modules as part of the Health IT Certification Program. However, ONC is taking certification to a higher level beyond the technical and functional requirements to also include the conditions or requirements that health IT developers should also be held to, including:

    * Information Blocking

    * Must not take any action that constitutes information blocking.

    * Assurances

    * Must make certain assurances to not take any action that may inhibit the appropriate exchange, access and use of electronic health information as well as assurances regarding retaining records that demonstrate initial and ongoing compliance with the requirements of the Certification Program.

    * Communications

    * Expressed colloquially as "gag clauses," a developer must not prohibit or restrict communications regarding the usability, interoperability, or security of its health IT, including relevant information regarding users' experiences when using its health IT or the manner in which a user of the health IT has used such technology.

    * APIs

    * An API Technology Supplier must publish APIs and must allow health information from such technology to be accessed, exchanged, and used without special effort through the use of APIs or successor technology or standards. In addition, any and all fees charged by an API Technology Supplier for the use of its API technology must be described in detailed, plain language.

    *

    Real World Testing of Certified Health IT

    * A health IT developer with Health IT Modules to be certified to any one or more 2015 Edition certification criteria must successfully test the real world use of those Health IT Modules for interoperability in the type of setting in which such Health IT Modules would be/are marketed. A developer must submit an annual real world testing plan no later than December 15 of each calendar year.

    * Attestations

    * A health IT developer must provide an attestation of compliance with the Conditions and Maintenance of Certification requirements, including specifically attesting to not taking any action that constitutes information blocking or any of the other previously discussed requirements.

    ONC is also planning to implement an additional future condition and maintenance of certification requirement that is focused on an electronic health record (EHR) reporting criteria submission. In the fall of 2018, ONC released a Request for Information for the EHR Reporting Program, and is waiting to take further regulatory action until it evaluates all the public comments that it received.

    United States Core Data for Interoperability is Adopted as a Standard

    In order to advance interoperability by ensuring compliance with new structured data and code sets that support the data, ONC is proposing to remove the Common Clinical Data Set (CCDS) definition and its references from the 2015 Edition and replacing it with the United States Core Data for Interoperability (USCDI) standard. USCDI v1 establishes a minimum set of data classes (including structured data) that are required for health IT to be interoperable nationwide and is designed to be expanded in an iterative and predictable way over time. USCDI v1 adds two new data classes, Clinical Notes and Provenance that were not defined in CCDS, which will require updates to the Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture (C-CDA) standard.

    Overall, USCDI v1 is a modest expansion of CCDS, which ONC believes most health IT developers already support, were already working toward, or should be capable of updating their health IT to support in a timely manner.

    Removal of the ONC-Approved Accreditor from the ONC Health IT Certification Program

    The ONC-Approved Accreditor's (ONC-AA's) role is to accredit certification bodies for the Program and to oversee the ONC-Authorized Certification Bodies (ONC-ACBs). ONC is proposing to remove the ONC-AA from the Program. Years of experience and changes with the Program have led ONC to conclude that, in many respects, the role of the ONC-AA to oversee ONC-ACBs is now duplicative of ONC's oversight. More specifically, ONC's experience with administering the Principles of Proper Conduct for ONC-ACBs as well as issuing necessary regulatory changes (e.g., ONC-ACB surveillance and reporting requirements in the 2015 Edition final rule) has demonstrated that ONC on its own has the capacity to provide the appropriate oversight of ONC-ACBs.

    Definitions Matter

    ONC is introducing several new terms in this proposed rule and it is critical that the community understands and conveys these labels appropriately. These terms include:

    * API Technology Supplier refers to a health IT developer that creates the API technology that is presented for testing and certification to any of the certification criteria adopted or proposed for adoption.

    * API Data Provider refers to the organization that deploys the API technology created by the API Technology Supplier and provides access via the API technology to data it produces and electronically manages. In some cases, the API Data Provider may contract with the API Technology Supplier to perform the API deployment service on its behalf. However, in such circumstances, the API Data Provider retains control of what and how information is disclosed and so for the purposes of this definition is considered to be the entity that deploys the API technology.

    * API User refers to persons and entities that use or create software applications that interact with the APIs developed by the API Technology Supplier and deployed by the API Data Provider. An API User includes, but is not limited to, third-party software developers, developers of software applications used by API Data Providers, and patients and health care providers that use apps that connect to API technology on their behalf.

    * Electronic Health Information (EHI) is defined as electronic protected health information that identifies the individual, or there is a reasonable basis to believe the information can be used to identify the individual and is transmitted by or maintained in electronic media, that relates to the past, present, or future health or condition of an individual.

    ONC Proposes Seven Exceptions to the Information Blocking Definition

    ONC identifies proposals for several reasonable and necessary activities as exceptions to the information blocking definition, each of which would be considered to not constitute information blocking. The exceptions would extend to certain activities that interfere with the access, exchange, or use of EHI but that may be reasonable and necessary if certain conditions are met. To qualify for any of these exceptions, ONC is proposing that an individual or entity would, for each relevant practice and at all relevant times, have to satisfy all of the applicable conditions of that specific exception.

    In developing the proposed exceptions, ONC was guided by overarching policy considerations focused on ensuring that the exceptions would be limited to certain activities that clearly advance the aims of the information blocking provision, such as promoting public confidence in health IT infrastructure by supporting the privacy and security of EHI, protecting patient safety, and promoting competition and innovation in health IT and its use to provide health care services to consumers.

    In addition, each exception is intended to address a significant risk that regulated individuals and entities (i.e., the actors defined in this part of the regulation, specifically health care providers, health IT developers of certified health IT, health information networks, and health information exchanges) will not engage in these reasonable and necessary activities because of potential uncertainty regarding whether they would be considered information blocking. Moreover, each exception is intended to be tailored, through appropriate conditions, so that it is limited to the reasonable and necessary activities that it is designed to exempt.

    Of the seven proposed exceptions, the first three address activities that are reasonable and necessary to promote public confidence in the use of health IT and the exchange of EHI. These exceptions are intended to protect patient safety; promote the privacy of EHI; and promote the security of EHI. The next three exceptions address activities that are reasonable and necessary to promote competition and consumer welfare. These exceptions would allow for the recovery of costs reasonably incurred; excuse an actor from responding to requests that are infeasible; and permit the licensing of interoperability elements on reasonable and non-discriminatory terms. The final exception addresses activities that are reasonable and necessary to promote the performance of health IT. This proposed exception recognizes that actors may make health IT temporarily unavailable for maintenance or improvements that benefit the overall performance and usability of health IT.

    The exceptions for reasonable and necessary activities that do not constitute information blocking include:

    * Preventing Harm

    * The actor must have a reasonable belief that the practice of not sharing EHI will directly and substantially reduce the likelihood of harm to a patient or another person arising from corrupt or inaccurate data being recorded or incorporated in a patient's EHR or misidentification of a patient or patient's electronic health information.

    * Promoting the Privacy of Electronic Health Information

    * An actor may engage in practices that protect the privacy of EHI. To meet this standard, the actor must satisfy at least one of four discrete sub-exceptions that address scenarios that recognize existing privacy laws and privacy-protective practices: practices that satisfy preconditions prescribed by privacy laws; certain practices not regulated by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) but which implement documented and transparent privacy policies; denial of access practices that are specifically permitted under HIPAA; or, practices that give effect to an individual's privacy preferences.

    * Promoting the Security of Electronic Health Information

    * The practice must be directly related to safeguarding the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of EHI.

    * Recovering Costs Reasonably Incurred

    * An actor may recover costs that it reasonably incurs, in providing access, exchange, or use of EHI. Fees must be: charged on the basis of objective and verifiable criteria uniformly applied to all similarly situated persons and requests; related to the costs of providing access, exchange, or use; and, reasonably allocated among all customers that use the product/service. Fees must not be based on anti-competitive or other impermissible criteria.

    * Responding to Requests that are Infeasible

    * An actor may decline to provide access, exchange, or use of EHI in a manner that is infeasible. Complying with the request must impose a substantial burden on the actor that is unreasonable under the circumstances (accounting for cost as well as available resources, etc.). The actor must respond in a timely manner to infeasible requests and work with requestors to provide a reasonable alternative means of accessing the EHI.

    * Licensing of Interoperability Elements on Reasonable and Non-discriminatory Terms

    * An actor that controls technologies or other interoperability elements that are necessary to enable access to EHI will not be information blocking so long as it licenses such elements on reasonable and non-discriminatory terms. Such a license can impose a reasonable royalty but must include appropriate rights so that the licensee can develop, market, and/or enable the use of interoperable products and services.

    * Maintaining and Improving Health IT Performance

    * An actor may make health IT under its control temporarily unavailable in order to perform maintenance or improvements to the health IT. In such instances, an actor must ensure that the health IT is unavailable for no longer than necessary to achieve the maintenance or improvements.

    ONC Includes Significant Detail on the API Conditions and Maintenance of Certification Requirements and Applicable Fees

    The proposed regulation states that an API Technology Supplier must publish APIs and allow health information from such technology to be accessed, exchanged, and used without special effort through the use of APIs or successor technology or standards, including providing access to all data elements of a patient's electronic health record to the extent permissible under applicable privacy laws. ONC wants this process to be very transparent and is only permitting certain types of fees to apply here, where an API Technology Supplier must have objective and verifiable criteria and keep detailed records of fees.

    Ultimately, ONC wants to ensure that all terms and conditions for a Technology Supplier's API technology, including any fees, restrictions, limitations, obligations, registration process requirements, or other similar requirements is published in a public manner and are uniformly applied for all substantially similar or similarly situated classes of persons and requests.

    Any and all fees charged by an API Technology Supplier for the use of its API technology must be described in detailed as well as plain language. The description of the fees must include all material information, including but not limited to: the persons or classes of persons to whom the fee applies; the circumstances in which the fee applies; and, the amount of the fee, which for variable fees must include the specific variable(s) and methodology(ies) that will be used to calculate the fee.

    Several Requests for Information are Embedded in the ONC Regulation

    ONC is asking for comments around several additional issues in this proposed regulation, and each provides an opportunity to help guide the agency forward on crucial policy topics. ONC is seeking comment in this proposed rule on a series of questions related to health IT functionalities and standards to support the effective prevention and treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD) across patient populations and care settings.

    The proposed rule also raises the idea of whether ONC should consider whether certain health IT developers should be required to participate in the Trusted Exchange Framework and adhere to the Common Agreement that the agency is still working to finalize. Such an exception may support adoption of the Common Agreement and encourage other entities to participate in trusted exchange through health information networks that enter into the Common Agreement. It could potentially provide protection if there are practices that are expressly required by the Common Agreement, or that are necessary to implement such requirements, that might implicate the information blocking provision and would not qualify for another exception.

    An additional RFI is focused on whether ONC should establish new regulatory processes tailored towards recognizing the unique characteristics of health IT (e.g., EHR software) by looking first at the health IT developer, rather than primarily at the health IT presented for certification, as is currently done under the Program. Such an effort could be modeled after the Food and Drug Administration Digital Health Software Pre-Certification Program. For example, ONC could possibly establish Conditions and Maintenance of Certification requirements, through rulemaking, that facilitate the deeming of all of a health IT developer's health IT as "certified" under the Program for certification criteria identified by ONC as solely "functionally-based" criteria.

    The idea of disincentives for health care providers is the subject of another RFI. Any health care provider determined by the Office of Inspector General (OIG) to have committed information blocking shall be referred to the appropriate agency to be subject to appropriate disincentives using authorities under applicable federal law, although these disincentives may not cover the full range of applicable conduct. ONC is requesting information on disincentives or if modifying disincentives already available under existing HHS programs and regulations would provide for more effective deterrents.

    ONC is also exploring multiple approaches to advancing health IT interoperability for bidirectional exchange with registries in order to mitigate risks based on factors like feasibility and readiness, potential unintended burden on health care providers, and the need to focus on priority clinical use cases. As ONC is in the process of conducting research and analysis to determine what evidence-based use cases should be supported and what standards are available to support such use cases, comments on opportunities for bidirectional exchange with registries will be timely.

    In addition, ONC is looking for comment on additional opportunities that may exist in the patient matching space and ways that the agency can lead and contribute to coordination efforts with respect to patient matching.

    More information about the ONC Proposed Rule is available online. Look to HIMSS for further details about the regulatory process and how members can get involved in helping to devise our public comment response letter.


    Back to Microservices with Istio (Part 1) | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Istio is an Open Source project developed in partnership between teams from Google, IBM, and Lyft and it provides a solution to the complexities of microservice based application, to name a few:

  • Traffic management: Timeouts, retries, load balancing,
  • Security: End-user Authentication and Authorization,
  • Observability: Tracing, monitoring, and logging.
  • All of these can be solved in the application layer, but your services don’t end up being so ‘Micro’ anymore, all the additional effort for implementing these is a strain in the company’s resources, resources that can be used to deliver business value. Let’s take an example:

    PM: How long will it take to add a feedback feature?

    Dev: Two sprints.

    PM: What…? That’s just a CRUD!

    Dev: Creating the CRUD is the easy part but then we need to authenticate and authorize users and services. And because the network is not reliable we need to implement retries, and circuit breakers in the clients, and to make sure that we do not take the whole system down we need Timeouts and Bulkheads, additionally to detect issues we need monitoring, tracing […]

    PM: Let’s just stick it in the Product Service then. Jeez!

    You get the idea, all the ceremony, and effort that must go in, for us to add one service is enormous. In this article, we’ll showcase how Istio removes all the above-mentioned cross-cutting concerns from our services.

    Figure 1. The Ceremony of a Microservice

    Note: This article assumes that you have a working knowledge of Kubernetes. If it’s not the case I recommend you to read my introduction to Kubernetes, and then continue with this article.

    The Idea of Istio

    In a world without Istio one service makes direct requests to another and in cases of failure, the service needs to handle it by retrying, timeouting, opening the circuit breaker etc.

    Figure 2. Network traffic in Kubernetes

    To resolve this, Istio provides an ingenious solution by being completely separated from the services and act only by intercepting all network communication. And doing so it can implement:

  • Fault Tolerance — Using response status codes it understands when a request failed and retries.
  • Canary Rollouts — Forward only the specified percentage of requests to a new version of the service.
  • Monitoring and Metrics — The time it took for a service to respond.
  • Tracing and Observability — It adds special headers in every request and traces them in the cluster.
  • Security — Extracts the JWT Token and Authenticates and Authorizes users.
  • To name a few (for real just a few) and get you intrigued! Let’s get to the Technical details!

    Istio’s Architecture

    Istio intercepts all network traffic and applies a set of rules by injecting an intelligent proxy as a sidecar in every pod. The proxies that enable all the features comprise The Data Plane and those are dynamically configurable by The Control Plane.

    The Data Plane

    The injected proxies enable Istio to easily achieve our requirements. For an example let’s check out the retrying and Circuit breaking functionalities.

    Figure 3. How envoys implement Retries & CircuitBreaking

    To summarize:

  • Envoy sends the request to the first instance of service B and it fails.
  • The Envoy Sidecar retries. (1)
  • Returns a failed request to the calling proxy.
  • Which opens the Circuit Breaker and calls the next Service on subsequent requests. (2)
  • This means that you don’t have to use another Retry library, you don’t have to develop your own implementation of Circuit Breaking and Service Discovery in Programming Language X, Y or Z. All of those and more are provided out of the box by Istio and NO code changes are required.

    Great! Now you want to join the voyage with Istio, but you still have some doubts, some open questions. Is this a One-Size-Fits-All-Solution, which you’re suspicious about, as it always ends up being One-Size-Fits None solution!

    You finally mutter the question: “Is this configurable?”

    Welcome to the cruise my friend and let’s get introduced to the Control Plane.

    The Control Plane

    Is composed of three components: The Pilot, the Mixer, and the Citadel that in combination configure Envoys to route traffic, enforce policies and collect telemetry data. Visually presented in the image below.

    Figure 4. Control Plane in relation to Data Plane

    The envoys (i.e. the data plane) are configured using Kubernetes Custom Resource Definitions defined by Istio and specialized for this purpose. Which means that for you it’s just another Kubernetes Resource with a familiar syntax. Which after being created will be picked up by the control plane that applies it to the envoys.

    Relation of Services to Istio

    We described the relation of Istio to our Services, but not the other way around, what’s the relation of our Services to Istio?

    Frankly, our services have as much knowledge of Istio’s presence, as fish do of water, they will ask themselves “What the hell is water?”.

    Drawing by Victoria Dimitrakopoulos

    This means that you can pick a working cluster and after deploying the components of Istio, the services within will continue to work and in the same manner, you can remove the components and everything will be just fine. Understandably, you would lose the capabilities provided by Istio.

    We had enough of theory, let’s put this knowledge into practice!

    Istio in Practice

    Istio requires a Kubernetes Cluster with at least 4 vCPU and 8 GB of RAM. To quickly set up a cluster and follow up with this article, I recommend using the Google Cloud Platform, which provides new users with a $300 free trial.

    After creating the cluster and configuring access with the Kubernetes command line tool we’re ready to install Istio using the Helm Package manager.

    Installing Helm

    Install the Helm client on your computer as explained in the official docs. Which we will use to generate the Istio installation templates in the next section.

    Installing Istio

    Download Istio’s resources from the latest release, extract the contents into one directory that we will refer to as [istio-resources].

    To easily identify the Istio resources create a namespace istio-system in your Kubernetes Cluster:

    $ kubectl create namespace istio-system

    Complete the installation by navigating to [istio-resources] directory and executing the command below:

    $ helm template install/kubernetes/helm/istio \--set global.mtls.enabled=false \--set tracing.enabled=true \--set kiali.enabled=true \--set grafana.enabled=true \--namespace istio-system > istio.yaml

    The above command prints out the core components of Istio into the file istio.yaml. We customized the template using the following parameters:

  • global.mtls.enabled is set to false to keep the introduction focused.
  • tracing.enabled enables tracing of requests using jaeger.
  • kiali.enabled installs Kiali in our cluster for Visualizing Services and Traffic
  • grafana.enabled installs Grafana to visualize the collected metrics.
  • Apply the generated resources by executing the command:

    $ kubectl apply -f istio.yaml

    This marks the completion of the Istio installation in our cluster! Wait until all pods in the istio-system namespace are in Running or Completed state by executing the command below:

    $ kubectl get pods -n istio-system

    Now we’re ready to continue with the next section, where we will get the sample application up and running.

    Sentiment Analysis Application Architecture

    We will use the same microservice application used in the Kubernetes Introduction article, it’s complex enough to showcase Istio’s features in practice.

    The App is composed of four microservice:

  • SA-Frontend service: Serves the frontend Reactjs application.
  • SA-WebApp service: Handles requests for Sentiment Analysis.
  • SA-Logic service: Performs sentiment analysis.
  • SA-Feedback service: Receives feedbacks from the users about the accuracy of the analysis.
  • Figure 6 Sentiment Analysis microservices

    In figure 6, besides the services we see the Ingress Controller which in Kubernetes routes incoming requests to the appropriate services, Istio uses a similar concept called Ingress Gateway, which will be introduced in continuation of the article.

    Running the Application with Istio Proxies

    To follow up with this article clone the repository istio-mastery, containing the application and the manifests for Kubernetes and Istio.

    Sidecar Injection

    The injection is done Automatically or Manually. To enable automatic sidecar injection, we need to label the namespace with istio-injection=enabled, by executing the command below:

    $ kubectl label namespace default istio-injection=enablednamespace/default labeled

    From now every pod that gets deployed into the default namespace will get the sidecar injected. To verify this let’s deploy the sample application by navigating to the root folder of the [istio-mastery] repository and executing the following command:

    $ kubectl apply -f resource-manifests/kubepersistentvolumeclaim/sqlite-pvc createddeployment.extensions/sa-feedback createdservice/sa-feedback createddeployment.extensions/sa-frontend createdservice/sa-frontend createddeployment.extensions/sa-logic createdservice/sa-logic createddeployment.extensions/sa-web-app createdservice/sa-web-app created

    With the services deployed verify that the pods have two containers (the service and the sidecar) by executing the command kubectl get pods and ensuring that under the column ready, we see the value “2/2” indicating that both containers are running. As seen below:

    $ kubectl get podsNAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGEsa-feedback-55f5dc4d9c-c9wfv 2/2 Running 0 12msa-frontend-558f8986-hhkj9 2/2 Running 0 12msa-logic-568498cb4d-2sjwj 2/2 Running 0 12msa-logic-568498cb4d-p4f8c 2/2 Running 0 12msa-web-app-599cf47c7c-s7cvd 2/2 Running 0 12m

    Visually presented in figure 7.

    Figure 7. Envoy proxy in one of the Pods

    With the application up and running now we need to allow incoming traffic to reach our application.

    Ingress Gateway

    A best practice for allowing traffic into the cluster is through Istio’s Ingress Gateway which positions itself at the edge of the cluster and on incoming traffic enables Istio’s features like routing, load balancing, security, and monitoring.

    During Istio’s installation, the Ingress Gateway component and a service that exposes it externally were installed into the cluster. To get the services External IP execute the command below:

    $ kubectl get svc -n istio-system -l istio=ingressgatewayNAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IPistio-ingressgateway LoadBalancer 10.0.132.127 13.93.30.120

    In the continuation of this article we will access the application on this IP (referred to as the EXTERNAL-IP), for convenience, save it in a variable by executing the command below:

    $ EXTERNAL_IP=$(kubectl get svc -n istio-system \-l app=istio-ingressgateway \-o jsonpath='{.items[0].status.loadBalancer.ingress[0].ip}')

    If you reach this IP in your browser and you will get a Service Unavailable error, as by default Istio blocks any incoming traffic until we define a Gateway.

    The Gateway Resource

    A Gateway is a Kubernetes Custom Resource Definition defined upon Istio’s installation in our cluster that enables us to specify the Ports, Protocol and Hosts for which we want to allow incoming traffic.

    In our scenario, we want to allow HTTP traffic on port 80, for all hosts. Achieved with the following definition:

    All the configuration is self-explanatory besides the selector istio: ingressgateway. Using this selector, we can specify to which Ingress Gateway to apply the configuration, and in our case, it’s the default ingress gateway controller installed on Istio setup.

    Apply the configuration by executing the command below:

    $ kubectl apply -f resource-manifests/istio/http-gateway.yaml gateway.networking.istio.io/http-gateway created

    The gateway now allows access in port 80 but it has no concept where to route the requests. That is achieved using Virtual Services.

    The VirtualService resource

    The VirtualService instructs the Ingress Gateway how to route the requests that were allowed into the cluster.

    For our application requests coming through the http-gateway must be routed to the sa-frontend, sa-web-app and sa-feedback services (show in figure 8).

    Figure 8. Routes to be configured with VirtualServices

    Let’s break down the requests that should be routed to SA-Frontend:

  • Exact path /should be routed to SA-Frontend to get the Index.html
  • Prefix path /static/* should be routed to SA-Frontend to get any static files needed by the frontend, like Cascading Style Sheets and JavaScript files.
  • Paths matching the regex '^.*\.(ico|png|jpg)$' should be routed to SA-Frontend as it is an image, that the page needs to show.
  • This is achieved with the following configuration:

    The important points here are:

  • This VirtualService applies to requests coming through the http-gateway.
  • Destination defines the service where the requests are routed to.
  • Note: The configuration above is in the file sa-virtualservice-external.yaml, it also contains the configuration to route to SA-WebApp and SA-Feedback but was shortened for brevity.

    Apply the VirtualService by executing:

    $ kubectl apply -f resource-manifests/istio/sa-virtualservice-external.yamlvirtualservice.networking.istio.io/sa-external-services created

    Note: When we apply Istio resources the Kubernetes API Server creates an event received by Istio’s Control Plane which then applies the new configuration to the envoy proxies of every pod. And the Ingress Gateway controller is another Envoy which is configured by the Control Plane, visually presented in figure 9.

    Figure 9. Configuring Istio-IngressGateway to route requests

    The Sentiment Analysis app is now accessible on http://{EXTERNAL-IP}/. If you get a Not Found status, do not worry sometimes it takes a bit for the configuration to go in effect and update the envoy caches.

    Before moving to the next section use the app to generate some traffic.

    Kiali — Observability

    To access Kiali’s Admin UI execute the command below:

    $ kubectl port-forward \$(kubectl get pod -n istio-system -l app=kiali \-o jsonpath='{.items[0].metadata.name}') \-n istio-system 20001

    And open http://localhost:20001/ login using “admin” (without quotes) for user and password. There is a ton of useful features, for example checking the configurations of Istio Components, visualizing services according to the information collected by intercepting network requests and answering, “who is calling who?”, “which version of a service has failures?” etc. Take some time to checkout Kiali before moving on to the next goodie, visualizing metrics with Grafana!

    Figure 10. Kiali — Service Observability Grafana — Metrics Visualization

    The metrics collected by Istio are scraped into Prometheus and Visualized using Grafana. To access the Admin UI of Grafana execute the command below and open http://localhost:3000.

    $ kubectl -n istio-system port-forward \$(kubectl -n istio-system get pod -l app=grafana \-o jsonpath={.items[0].metadata.name}) 3000

    On the top left click the menu Home and select Istio Service Dashboard and on the top left corner select the service starting with sa-web-app, you will be presented with the collected metrics, as seen on the image below:

    Holly molly that’s an empty and totally non-exciting view, management would never approve of this. Let’s cause some load by executing the command below:

    $ while true; do \curl -i http://$EXTERNAL_IP/sentiment \-H “Content-type: application/json” \-d ‘{“sentence”: “I love yogobella”}’; \sleep .8; done

    Now we have prettier graphs 😊, and additionally, we have the amazing tools of Prometheus for monitoring and Grafana for visualizing the metrics that enable us to know the performance, health, improvement or degradation of our services throughout time!

    Lastly, we will investigate Tracing requests throughout services.

    Jaeger — Tracing

    We need tracing because the more services we have the harder it gets to pinpoint the cause of failure. Let’s take the simple case in the image below:

    Figure 12. A commonly random failed request

    The request goes in, failure goes out, what was the cause? The first service? Or the second? Exceptions are in both, Let’s get down to the logs of each. How many times do you find yourself doing this? Our job feels more like Software Detectives than Developers.

    This is a prevalent problem in Microservices and it’s solved using Distributed Tracing Systems where the services pass a unique header to each other and then this information is forwarded to the Distributed Tracing System where the request trace is put together. An example is shown in figure 13.

    Figure 13. TraceId used to identify the span of a request

    Istio uses Jaeger Tracer that implements the OpenTracing API, a vendor-neutral framework. To get access the Jaegers UI execute the command below:

    $ kubectl port-forward -n istio-system \$(kubectl get pod -n istio-system -l app=jaeger \-o jsonpath='{.items[0].metadata.name}') 16686

    Then open the UI in http://localhost:16686, select the sa-web-app service, if the service is not shown on the dropdown generate some activity on the page and hit refresh. Afterward click the button Find Traces, which displays the most recent traces, select any and a detailed breakdown of all the traces will be shown, as seen in figure 14.

    Figure 14. Jaeger — a request trace

    The trace shows:

  • The request comes to the istio-ingressgateway (it’s the first contact with one of the services so for the request the Trace ID is generated) then the gateway forwards the request to the sa-web-app service.
  • In the sa-web-app service, the request is picked up by the Envoy sidecar and a span child is created (that’s why we see it in the traces) and forwarded to the sa-web-app container instance.
  • Here the method sentimentAnalysis handles the request. These traces are generated by the application, meaning that code changes were required).
  • From where a POST request is started to sa-logic. Trace ID needs to be propagated by sa-web-app.
  • 5. …

    Note: At the 4th point our application needs to pick up the headers generated by Istio and pass them down on the next requests, as shown in the image below.

    Figure 15. (A) Istio propagating headers, (B) Services propagating headers

    Istio does the main heavy lifting as it generates the headers on incoming requests, creates new spans on every sidecar, propagates them, but without our services propagating the headers as well, we will lose the full trace of the request.

    The headers to propagate are:

    x-request-idx-b3-traceidx-b3-spanidx-b3-parentspanidx-b3-sampledx-b3-flagsx-ot-span-context

    Despite it being a simple task, there are already many libraries that simplify the process, for example in the sa-web-app service, the RestTemplate client is instrumented to propagate the headers by simply adding the Jaeger and OpenTracing libraries in the dependencies.

    Note: The Sentiment Analysis app showcases implementations for Flask, Spring and ASP.NET Core.

    Now after investigating what we get out of the box (or partially out of the box 😜) let’s get to the main topic here, fine-grained routing, managing network traffic, security and more!

    Traffic Management

    Using the Envoy’s Istio provides a host of new capabilities to your cluster enabling:

  • Dynamic request routing: Canary deployments, A/B testing,
  • Load balancing: Simple and Consistent Hash balancing,
  • Failure Recovery: Timeouts, retries, circuit breakers,
  • Fault Injection: Delays, abort requests etc.
  • In the sequence of this article, we’ll showcase these capabilities in our application and get introduced to new concepts along the way. The first concept we will delve into is DestinationRules and using those we’ll enable A/B Testing.

    A/B Testing — Destination Rules in Practice

    A/B Testing is used when we have two versions of an application (usually the versions differ visually) and we aren’t 100% sure which will increase user interaction, so we try both versions at the same time and collect metrics.

    Execute the command below to deploy a second version of the frontend, needed for demonstrating A/B Testing:

    $ kubectl apply -f resource-manifests/kube/ab-testing/sa-frontend-green-deployment.yamldeployment.extensions/sa-frontend-green created

    The deployment manifest for the green version differs in two points:

  • The image is based on a different tag: istio-green and
  • Pods are labeled with version: green.
  • And as both deployments have the label app: sa-frontend requests routed by the virtual service sa-external-services to the service sa-frontend will be forwarded to all of its instances and will be load balanced using the round robin algorithm, which causes the issue presented in figure 16.

    Figure 16. Requested files are not found

    The files are not found because they are named differently in the different versions of the app. Let’s verify that:

    $ curl --silent http://$EXTERNAL_IP/ | tr '"' '\n' | grep main/static/css/main.c7071b22.css/static/js/main.059f8e9c.js$ curl --silent http://$EXTERNAL_IP/ | tr '"' '\n' | grep main/static/css/main.f87cd8c9.css/static/js/main.f7659dbb.js

    This means that the index.html that requests one version of the static files might be load balanced to the pods delivering the other version, where understandably the other files do not exist.

    This means that for our app to work we need to introduce the restriction that “the version of the app that served the index.html, must serve subsequent requests”.

    We’ll achieve this using Consistent Hash Loadbalancing, which is the process that forwards requests from the same client to the same backend instance, using a predefined property, like for example an HTTP header. Made possible by DestionatioRules.

    DestinationRules

    After a request gets routed by the VirtualService to the correct service, then using DestinationRules we can specify policies that apply to the traffic intended for the instances of this Service, as seen in figure 17.

    Figure 17. Traffic Management with Istio Resources

    Note: Figure 17, visualizes how Istio resources are affecting the network traffic, in an easily understandable way. But, to be precise the decision to which instance to forward the request to is made in the Ingress Gateway’s Envoy, configured by the CRDs.

    Using Destination Rules we can configure load balancing to have consistent hashing and ensure that the same user is responded by the same instance of the service. Achieved with the following configuration:

  • Generate a consistent hash according to the contents of the “version” header.
  • Apply the configuration by executing the command below and give it a try!

    $ kubectl apply -f resource-manifests/istio/ab-testing/destinationrule-sa-frontend.yamldestinationrule.networking.istio.io/sa-frontend created

    Execute the command below and verify that you get the same files when specifying the version header:

    $ curl --silent -H "version: yogo" http://$EXTERNAL_IP/ | tr '"' '\n' | grep main

    Note: You can use this chrome extension to add different values to the version header, to test in your browser.

    DestinationRules have more LoadBalancing capabilities, for all the details check out the official docs.

    Before moving on to explore VirtualService in more detail, remove the green version of the app and the destination rule by executing the commands below:

    $ kubectl delete -f resource-manifests/kube/ab-testing/sa-frontend-green-deployment.yamldeployment.extensions “sa-frontend-green” deleted$ kubectl delete -f resource-manifests/istio/ab-testing/destinationrule-sa-frontend.yamldestinationrule.networking.istio.io “sa-frontend” deleted Shadowing — Virtual Services in Practice

    Shadowing or Mirroring is used when we want to test a change in production but not affect end-users, so we mirror the requests into a second instance that has the change and evaluate it. To phrase it simpler it’s when one of your colleagues picks the most critical issue and makes a Big ball of mud Pull Request, that nobody can really review.

    To test out this feature lets create a second instance of SA-Logic (which is buggy) by executing the command below:

    $ kubectl apply -f resource-manifests/kube/shadowing/sa-logic-service-buggy.yamldeployment.extensions/sa-logic-buggy created

    Execute the following command and verify that all instances are labeled with the respective versions and additionally with app=sa-logic:

    $ kubectl get pods -l app=sa-logic --show-labelsNAME READY LABELSsa-logic-568498cb4d-2sjwj 2/2 app=sa-logic,version=v1sa-logic-568498cb4d-p4f8c 2/2 app=sa-logic,version=v1sa-logic-buggy-76dff55847-2fl66 2/2 app=sa-logic,version=v2sa-logic-buggy-76dff55847-kx8zz 2/2 app=sa-logic,version=v2

    As the service sa-logic targets pods labeled with app=sa-logic, any incoming requests will be load balanced between all instances, as shown in figure 18.

    Figure 18. Round Robin load balancing

    But we want requests to be routed to the instances with version v1 and mirrored to the instances with version v2, as shown in figure 19.

    Figure 19. Routing to v1 and Mirroring to v2

    This is achieved using a VirtualService in combination with a DestinationRule, where the destination rule specifies the subsets and VirtualService routes to the specific subset.

    Specifying Subsets with Destination Rules

    We define the subsets with the following configuration:

  • Host defines that this rule applies only when routing has occurred towards sa-logic service
  • Subset name used when routing to instances of a subset.
  • Label defines the key-value pairs that need to match for an instance to be part of the subset.
  • Apply the configuration executing the command below:

    $ kubectl apply -f resource-manifests/istio/shadowing/sa-logic-subsets-destinationrule.yamldestinationrule.networking.istio.io/sa-logic created

    With the subsets defined we can move on and configure a VirtualService to apply to requests towards sa-logic where the requests are:

  • Routed to the subset named v1 and,
  • Mirrored to the subset named v2.
  • And this is achieved with the manifest below:

    As everything is self-explanatory let’s just see it in action:

    $ kubectl apply -f resource-manifests/istio/shadowing/sa-logic-subsets-shadowing-vs.yamlvirtualservice.networking.istio.io/sa-logic created

    Add some load by executing the following command:

    $ while true; do curl -v http://$EXTERNAL_IP/sentiment \-H “Content-type: application/json” \-d ‘{“sentence”: “I love yogobella”}’; \sleep .8; done

    Check the results in Grafana, where we can see that the buggy version is failing about 60% of the requests, but none of the failures affected the end-users as they were responded by the currently active service.

    Figure 20. The success rate of sa-logic service versions

    In this section, we saw for the first time a VirtualService that was applied to the envoys of our services, when the sa-web-app makes a request towards sa-logic this goes through the sidecar envoy, which via the VirtualService is configured to route to the subset v1 and mirror to the subset v2 of the sa-logic service.

    I can see you thinking “Darn man Virtual Services are simple!”, in the next section, we’ll extend the sentence to “Simply Amazing!”.

    Canary Deployments

    Canary Deployment is the process of rolling out a new version of an application to a small set of users, as a step to verify the absence of issues, and then with a higher assurance of quality release to the wider audience.

    We will continue with the same buggy subset of sa-logic to demonstrate canary deployments.

    Let’s start boldly and send 20% of the users to the buggy version (this represents the canary deployment) and 80% to the healthy service by applying the VirtualService below:

  • Weight specifies the percentage of requests to be forwarded to the destination or subset of the destination.
  • Update the previous sa-logic virtual service configuration using the following commands:

    $ kubectl apply -f resource-manifests/istio/canary/sa-logic-subsets-canary-vs.yamlvirtualservice.networking.istio.io/sa-logic configured

    We immediately see that some of our requests are failing:

    $ while true; do \curl -i http://$EXTERNAL_IP/sentiment \-H “Content-type: application/json” \-d ‘{“sentence”: “I love yogobella”}’ \--silent -w “Time: %{time_total}s \t Status: %{http_code}\n” \-o /dev/null; sleep .1; doneTime: 0.153075s Status: 200Time: 0.137581s Status: 200Time: 0.139345s Status: 200Time: 30.291806s Status: 500

    VirtualServices enable Canary Deployments and with this method, we reduced potential damages to 20% of our user base. Beautiful! Now we can use Shadowing and Canary Deployments every time we are insecure about our code, in other words always. 😜

    Timeouts & Retries

    It’s not always that the code is buggy. In the list of “The 8 fallacies of distributed computing” the first fallacy is that “The network is reliable”. The network is NOT reliable, and that’s why we need Timeouts and Retries.

    For demonstration purposes, we will continue to use the buggy version of sa-logic, where the random failures simulate the unreliability of the network.

    The buggy service has a one-third chance of taking too long to respond, one-third chance of ending in an Internal Server Error and the rest complete successfully.

    To alleviate these issues and improve the user experience we can:

  • Timeout if the service takes longer than 8 seconds and
  • Retry on failed requests.
  • This is achieved with the following resource definition:

  • The request has a timeout of 8 seconds,
  • It attempts 3 times,
  • An attempt is marked as failed if it takes longer than 3 seconds.
  • This is an optimization, as the user won’t be waiting for longer than 8 seconds and we retry three times in case of failures, increasing the chance of resulting in a successful response.

    Apply the updated configuration with the command below:

    $ kubectl apply -f resource-manifests/istio/retries/sa-logic-retries-timeouts-vs.yamlvirtualservice.networking.istio.io/sa-logic configured

    And check out the Grafana graphs for the improvement in success rate (shown in figure 21).

    Figure 21. Improvement after using Timeouts & Retries

    Before moving into the next section delete sa-logic-buggy and the VirtualService by executing the command below:

    $ kubectl delete deployment sa-logic-buggydeployment.extensions “sa-logic-buggy” deleted$ kubectl delete virtualservice sa-logicvirtualservice.networking.istio.io “sa-logic” deleted Circuit Breaker and Bulkhead patterns

    Two important patterns in Microservice Architectures that enable self-healing of the services.

    The Circuit Breaker is used to stop requests going to an instance of a service deemed as unhealthy and enable it to recover, and in the meantime client’s requests are forwarded to the healthy instances of that service (increasing success rate).

    The Bulkhead pattern isolates failures from taking the whole system down, to take an example, Service B is in a corrupt state and another service (a client of Service B) makes requests to Service B this will result that the client will use up its own thread pool and won’t be able to serve other requests (even if those are not related to Service B).

    I will skip implementations of these patterns because you can check out implementations in the official docs and I’m way too excited to showcase Authentication and Authorization, which will be the subject of the next article.

    Part I — Summary

    In this article, we deployed Istio in a Kubernetes cluster and using its Custom Resource Definitions like Gateways, VirtualServices, DestinationRules and it’s components it enabled the following features:

  • Observability over our services by answering what services are running, how are they performing and how are they related, using Kiali.
  • Metric collection and visualization, with Prometheus and Grafana.
  • Request tracing with Jaeger (german for Hunter).
  • Full and fine-grained control over the network traffic, enabling Canary Deployments, A/B Testing, and Shadowing.
  • Easy implementation of Retries, Timeouts, and CircuitBreakers.
  • And all were possible without code changes or any additional dependencies, keeping your services small, easy to operate and maintain.

    For your development team removing these cross-cutting concerns and centralizing them into Istio’s Control plane, means that new services are easy to be introduced, they aren’t resource-heavy as developers can focus in solving business problems. And up to now, no developer complained about “having to solve interesting business problems!”.

    I would love to hear your thoughts in the comments below and feel free to reach out to me on Twitter or on my page rinormaloku.com, and stay tuned for the next article where we tackle the final layers of Authentication and Authorization!



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