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000-834 - Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design) - BrainDump Information

Vendor Name : IBM
Exam Code : 000-834
Exam Name : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)
Questions and Answers : 180 Q & A
Updated On : November 9, 2018
PDF Download Mirror : 000-834 Braindumps
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000-834 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)

Test Code : 000-834
Test Name : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 180 Real Questions

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IBM IBM Object Oriented Analysis

Analyst firm Positions IBM in Leaders Quadrant of Magic Quadrant record | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

source: IBM

July 12, 2006 08:00 ET

SOMERS, ny -- (MARKET WIRE) -- July 12, 2006 -- IBM these days introduced that Gartner, Inc. has located IBM in the leaders quadrant in its Magic Quadrant file of the thing Oriented evaluation and Design equipment area. in response to the record*, Gartner estimates that IBM has more than 50 % of the market share versus its two nearest competitors who mixed grasp 30 % or greater of the market.

mannequin-pushed building helps software construction groups keep in mind, document and speak the business process of software and methods construction to exhibit architecture resilience ahead of making full scale building investments, and to define a service oriented architecture roadmap leading to company transformation.

IBM's leadership within the Object Oriented analysis and Design (OOA&D) tools marketplace for 2H06-2H07 is the outcomes of a finished portfolio of offerings which support organizations use models or patterns to drive their software development, including:

-- IBM Rational software Modeler, IBM Rational utility Architect, and IBM Rational techniques Developer -- IBM's award-successful model-pushed development tools, in accordance with Eclipse, to help building teams create effective applications; -- persisted guide of Microsoft environments via IBM Rational Rose demonstrates IBM's dedication to presenting a software development platform that ambitions a big range of implementation applied sciences; -- IBM WebSphere company Modeler -- the influence of IBM's acquisition of Holosofx -- helps business system analysis to shut the gap between an company's traces of company and their building organization's knowing of the enterprise drivers; -- IBM Rational records Architect -- an commercial enterprise records modeling and database design tool that additionally helps clients map statistics assets to each and every different to greater easily create database and integration schemas. "Gartner's evaluation of the OOA&D positions IBM in the leaders quadrant which we agree with confirms our approach round mannequin-pushed development," talked about Danny Sabbah, conventional supervisor, Rational application, IBM. "IBM's mannequin-pushed equipment aid geographically disbursed software building teams to communicate their designs and requirements visually, doing away with the risk of project failures because of mis-conversation due to language and cultural obstacles."

Gartner's Magic Quadrant positions carriers alongside two dimensions: completeness of vision, and capacity to execute on that imaginative and prescient. For 2006, Object Oriented evaluation and Design equipment are well into mainstream use reaching 20 p.c to 50 percent of the target viewers: counsel architects, analysts and developers. in keeping with the report, most companies have converted to OOA&D methods and tools in live performance with implementing provider oriented architectures (SOAs), leading to a speedy explosion of this market from 2000-2004.

contemporary news builds on IBM's leadership in assisting valued clientele govern their software and techniques construction. IBM turned into recently named the international market share leader in the utility construction and assignment and portfolio management utility market in keeping with total software income for 2005 for the fifth consecutive 12 months, in line with independent analyst firm Gartner Inc. in accordance with the unbiased file**, IBM become the main market share supplier in total software salary with 25.four p.c market share, more than double the percentage of its nearest competitor.

For extra assistance, talk over with http://www.ibm.com/application/rational.

in regards to the Gartner Magic Quadrant

The Magic Quadrant is copyrighted June 1, 2006 by way of Gartner, Inc. and is reused with permission. The Magic Quadrant is a graphical illustration of a market at and for a specific time length. It depicts Gartner's analysis of how certain vendors measure in opposition t criteria for that industry, as described by means of Gartner. Gartner doesn't advise any dealer, product or carrier depicted within the Magic Quadrant, and does not suggest know-how clients to select handiest these vendors placed within the "Leaders" quadrant. The Magic Quadrant is meant completely as a analysis tool, and is not supposed to be a specific e book to action. Gartner disclaims all warranties, express or implied, with appreciate to this research, together with any warranties of merchantability or health for a selected purpose.

* The Gartner Magic Quadrant for Object Oriented evaluation and Design (OOA&D) tools, 2H06-2H07 file changed into authored through Michael J. Blechar.

** The Gartner market records file is entitled "Market Share: utility building and challenge and Portfolio management, global, 2005" authored through Laurie Wurster and Fabrizio Biscotti.


internet service market analysis for 2018 purchasable in new record | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

 international net functions Market is expected to grow at a Compound Annual growth price (CAGR) of +7.46%. the base yr regarded for the study is 2018 and the forecast duration regarded is 2018 To 2025.

 web technologies, akin to HTTP, at the beginning designed for human-laptop verbal exchange, are used to transport laptop-to-computer communications, in particular computing device-readable file formats corresponding to XML and JSON. really, net capabilities usually give an object-oriented net-based interface to the database server.

for instance, it can also be used via other web servers, or mobile users can provide the end consumer with a user interface. Many companies that supply facts with formatted HTML pages provide this statistics in XML or JSON on the server, and are usually offered via net services that allow syndication, reminiscent of Wikipedia's export.

an extra utility supplied to conclusion users can also be a mashup where the net server makes use of distinct net features on diverse computers and compiles the content material right into a single consumer interface.

For pattern copy of this document: www.researchnreports.com/request_sample.php?identification=224901

important Key avid gamers in this record

Microsoft

Amazon

IBM

Salesforce

SAP

The global net provider Market analysis record is a beneficial supply of insightful facts for business strategists. It provides the web carrier business overview with increase evaluation and ancient & futuristic cost, profits, demand and provide facts (as relevant).

The research analysts supply an tricky description of the cost chain and its distributor analysis. This web carrier n market analyze provides complete information which reinforces the realizing, scope and utility of this record.

For greater enquiry: bit.ly/2OnrVHb 

net capabilities are all software that can also be used on their personal over the internet and that use a standardized XML messaging gadget. XML is used to encode all communications to an internet provider.

for example, the client sends an XML message to invoke the net carrier after which waits for the corresponding XML response. as a result of all communique is carried out in XML, internet functions aren't tied to a single working device or programming language.

Java can discuss with Perl. home windows functions can speak with Unix applications.

internet capabilities are self-contained, modular, disbursed, dynamic applications that can be described, posted, located, or invoked over the community to create products, tactics, and provide chains. These applications will also be native, distributed, or internet-primarily based.

net services are built on top of open requirements comparable to TCP/IP, HTTP, Java, HTML, and XML.  

 table of Contents:

international web service Market research file 2018-2023

Chapter 1: internet carrier Market Overview 

Chapter 2: international financial have an impact on on industry 

Chapter three: web provider Market competition by means of manufacturers 

Chapter 4: world production, income (price) by area 

Chapter 5: global provide (production), Consumption, Export, Import through areas 

Chapter 6: global creation, salary (value), price fashion by way of type 

Chapter 7: international Market analysis through application 

Chapter 8: Manufacturing charge analysis 

Chapter 9: Industrial Chain, Sourcing strategy and Downstream consumers 

Chapter 10: advertising approach analysis, Distributors/traders 

Chapter eleven: net provider Market impact components analysis 

Chapter 12: global web carrier Market Forecast

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Innovation: A software That Works | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Mary Jo Frederich and Peter Andrews describe IBM's First-of-a-variety (FOAK) application, which promotes innovation that offers precise, profitable company cost.

This chapter is from the ebook 

in case you were tripping over uncut jewels and precious metal ores, you would probably locate a means to take abilities of it. IBM analysis can consider like that some days. within the hallways, you hear conversations about computers that take note herbal language, superior analysis of streaming information, or "eco-friendly" concepts for cutting back power and waste. around you are individuals who consider for a dwelling, difficult at work—taking up intractable complications of securing financial institution information all through disasters, optimizing deliver chains, or building techniques that may simulate drug interactions. decent things are occurring. pleasing things.

but for years, achieving out to the actual world for innovation partnerships become not an obtrusive choice for IBM research. IBM has always had good, artistic minds at work, helping valued clientele and creating the subsequent era of essential equipment for enterprise and the public sector. however IBM stored the jewels to itself. Researchers (that specialized function emerged in 1945) labored in what appeared to be fantastic isolation. They managed to invent the disk power, random-access memory, FORTRAN, RISC computing, and dozens of alternative technologies that helped create present day digital world.

now not by the way, IBM made some huge cash all over this period. IBM had first-class questions it mandatory to reply, and it did not should seem to be outdoor for capabilities. almost everything changed into proprietary, and everything that turned into necessary for a complete answer happened within the company. besides, IBM research become modeled after Bell Labs, and the notion changed into that suitable isolation was each acceptable and quintessential. The precise world, with its budgets, closing dates, and messy complications, would only distract the gold standard and the brightest. Naturally, there were ideas, problems, and relationships that saved IBM research important. It wasn't a very closed device, however that turned into the fundamental standpoint.

IBM research had few formal ties past corporate headquarters except the Nineteen Seventies. at that time, different IBM divisions had been facing huge challenges, and they became restive about making contributions to IBM research when they weren't getting any immediate advantages. in line with this, so-referred to as "Joint programs" have been based. For the primary time, other divisions of IBM, people that built and sold and struggled with customer complications, all started to at once impact the IBM research agenda and its funding.

instead of securing one hundred% of its finances throughout the employer, now IBM analysis changed into allocated handiest a portion of its annual funding. IBM research needed to cozy the remainder of its funding directly from the IBM manufacturers. This changed into supposed to align a element of the research work with IBM brand techniques, whereas still featuring IBM analysis with the liberty to pursue pure, unconstrained exploration.

This funding mannequin still exists nowadays. each year, each and every of the IBM brands allocates a element of its finances to fund its Joint program with IBM analysis. For each dollar that a brand invests in its Joint software, IBM research fits it. This matching-of-dollars method has ensured that IBM research focuses a few of its work on areas strategic to the IBM manufacturers. It also has offered a superior incentive for the manufacturers to invest of their Joint programs, since it is a mechanism for the manufacturers to raise the variety of individuals working on their products, while providing simplest half of the funding. virtually, they get further assist at a reduction cost.

With the creation of Joint classes, a substantial and growing to be variety of IBMers all started to work shoulder to shoulder with colleagues from throughout IBM. The collaboration was deep, with manufacturer division personnel working at, and even directing, projects within the analysis labs. The responsibilities of researchers prolonged to the items themselves, and it changed into now not bizarre for the researchers to move their places of work to a producing or building web site. And if a product did not come off the road with satisfactory first-class, or a client had an issue with an offering that a researcher had a hand in, that researcher may be known as in. Firefighting and issue resolution grew to be a part of the job, and a lot of researchers became typical with the motels in Burlington, Poughkeepsie, Endicott, Hursley, and Markham.

In 1993, IBM analysis took one more step towards fitting greater externally focused with the introduction of the capabilities, functions, and options (SAS) program. SAS aimed to bring IBM analysis talents and technologies to a plenty bigger variety of purchasers who have been fighting business challenges that had no off-the-shelf solutions.

SAS identified that researchers lived in the state of the paintings in many areas of science and know-how. in the event that they could practice the best possible of what IBM research had to actual-world issues, they might power gigantic cost for customers and the IBM enterprise.

beyond generating new income for IBM, SAS led researchers to confront many problematic enterprise challenges. It also forced the researchers to believe greater deeply and creatively in regards to the expertise have an impact on of their work past the laboratory. searching returned, one can see how SAS and the Joint programs drove IBM analysis to be more a must have to IBM by way of guiding the researchers into areas that they might no longer have otherwise explored. determine 1.1 indicates the evolution of IBM analysis from being internally focused to externally focused.

Figure 1.1

figure 1.1 IBM research goes from isolation to ever deeper partnering with other IBM companies and purchasers.

youngsters IBM research failed to welcome these alterations enthusiastically, the cloud had a silver lining. past management questions and economic pressures, it grew to be clear that further and further of the action became happening the place americans from different businesses worked together. Synergies, new perspectives, and sparkling concepts drove advances similar to parallel computing, object-oriented application, and everything that got here with the creation of the web. And with few exceptions, success in the marketplace depended on a fancy array of partnerships. modern-day competitor is at all times, probably, the next day's collaborator.




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Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)

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Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (Part 3) | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Introduction

Welcome to part three of a four-part series. Okay, enough of learning principles and theory in part one and part two. Let's apply them here using a very simple example.

Example of Object-Oriented Analysis and Design

Here is an example which depicts a simple process for object-oriented analysis and design.

First, I will share a user story that we will tackle in this example:

user requirements

User Story
  • A customer arrives at checkout with items to purchase.
  • The shopkeeper at the counter greets them and starts a new sale.
  • The shopkeeper enters all the items.
  • The system calculates the order total and taxes.
  • The customer pays.
  • The system printed the receipt and updates the inventory.
  • Steps for Object-Oriented Analysis

    There are three steps in the following order:

  • Identify class names.
  • Identify attributes.
  • Identify associations.
  • Now I suggest that you underline all the nouns in the text of the user story which you think will be good candidates for class names in our code.

    Here are all the names of the classes that I can think of by reading the user story above:

    Domain Model

    UML Domain Model

    You can see in the diagram that it is not developed using any UML tool. I just used a pen and a rough sheet of paper. More than 60 percent of my designing is done on either paper or a whiteboard.

    Next steps: identifying attributes and associations. An attribute is what defines a class or object. An attribute can be an Id, amount, or anything that can be measured. The association defines a relationship between classes and objects about how a class is connected to another class.

    The following diagram shows the attributes and associations for the class diagram that I have shown above:

    UML Domain Model with attributes and associations

    Steps in Object-Oriented Design

    After the analysis, we moved to object-oriented design. Here are the steps:

  • Draw sequence diagram(s) for each scenario.
  • Draw a design class diagram.
  • Apply design principles and software design patterns.
  • A sequence diagram is used to show the message passing between objects of classes. It is the most important tool in object oriented design since it helps in designing the behavior of objects involved in a software.

    Here is the sequence diagram that I drew to address the user story:

    UML Seqence Diagram

    This sequence diagram shows the messages and the ordering in which they are sent among the objects to complete the objective of a user story.

    From the sequence diagram, we can easily come up with a design class diagram. A design class diagram is the last artifact that I usually create before diving into code.

    It is very easy to draw a design class diagram from the sequence diagram. Just write down the method names in the classes where the arrow is pointing. For example, the GetItem() message is going from the Sale Class to the Item Class. Therefore, the item class will contain the GetItem() method.

    UML Design Class Diagram

    After creating the design class diagram, we can apply the principles of object-oriented design and design patterns, but I will put up another post for applying design patterns and principles.

    From here, we can move to coding and start coding.

    This is a very simple example to depict the process. For a real-life and real-world example of object-oriented analysis and design, you can check out this link.

    Summary Up to Now

    Up to now, you have learned about the software development process, the software development methodology, the differences between them, and why object-oriented analysis and design are more important than object oriented programming. You learned steps, techniques, and the purpose for object-oriented analysis and object-oriented design.

    You also learned from a simple example how you can start properly designing the software using basic but important principles and techniques.

    What Next?

    You have learned the technical part. Is that enough?

    Will you convince your less-technical (or non-technical) boss to give you time and other resources to apply these activities? This is because these principles will not produce lines of code. And do not produce any functionality for an end-customer demo.

    In last part (part 4), I will discuss how can you persuade your boss to let you perform these activities. In addition to this, I will also bust some other myths about object-oriented design.

    Topics:

    object-oriented programming ,object-oriented-design ,agile 2018 ,agile application delivery


    Object-Oriented Analysis And Design — Introduction (Part 1) | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The Concept Of Object-Orientation

    Object-orientation is what’s referred to as a programming paradigm. It’s not a language itself but a set of concepts that is supported by many languages.

    If you aren’t familiar with the concepts of object-orientation, you may take a look at The Story of Object-Oriented Programming.

    If everything we do in these languages is object-oriented, it means, we are oriented or focused around objects.

    Now in an object-oriented language, this one large program will instead be split apart into self contained objects, almost like having several mini-programs, each object representing a different part of the application.

    And each object contains its own data and its own logic, and they communicate between themselves.

    These objects aren’t random. They represent the way you talk and think about the problem you are trying to solve in your real life.

    They represent things like employees, images, bank accounts, spaceships, asteroids, video segment, audio files, or whatever exists in your program.

    Object-Oriented Analysis And Design (OOAD)

    It’s a structured method for analyzing, designing a system by applying the object-orientated concepts, and develop a set of graphical system models during the development life cycle of the software.

    OOAD In The SDLC

    The software life cycle is typically divided up into stages going from abstract descriptions of the problem to designs then to code and testing and finally to deployment.

    The earliest stages of this process are analysis (requirements) and design.

    The distinction between analysis and design is often described as “what Vs how”.

    In analysis developers work with users and domain experts to define what the system is supposed to do. Implementation details are supposed to be mostly or totally ignored at this phase.

    The goal of the analysis phase is to create a model of the system regardless of constraints such as appropriate technology. This is typically done via use cases and abstract definition of the most important objects using conceptual model.

    The design phase refines the analysis model and applies the needed technology and other implementation constrains.

    It focuses on describing the objects, their attributes, behavior, and interactions. The design model should have all the details required so that programmers can implement the design in code.

    They’re best conducted in an iterative and incremental software methodologies. So, the activities of OOAD and the developed models aren’t done once, we will revisit and refine these steps continually.

    Object-Oriented Analysis

    In the object-oriented analysis, we …

  • Elicit requirements: Define what does the software need to do, and what’s the problem the software trying to solve.
  • Specify requirements: Describe the requirements, usually, using use cases (and scenarios) or user stories.
  • Conceptual model: Identify the important objects, refine them, and define their relationships and behavior and draw them in a simple diagram.
  • We’re not going to cover the first two activities, just the last one. These are already explained in detail in Requirements Engineering.

    Object-Oriented Design

    The analysis phase identifies the objects, their relationship, and behavior using the conceptual model (an abstract definition for the objects).

    While in design phase, we describe these objects (by creating class diagram from conceptual diagram — usually mapping conceptual model to class diagram), their attributes, behavior, and interactions.

    In addition to applying the software design principles and patterns which will be covered in later tutorials.

    The input for object-oriented design is provided by the output of object-oriented analysis. But, analysis and design may occur in parallel, and the results of one activity can be used by the other.

    In the object-oriented design, we …

  • Describe the classes and their relationships using class diagram.
  • Describe the interaction between the objects using sequence diagram.
  • Apply software design principles and design patterns.
  • A class diagram gives a visual representation of the classes you need. And here is where you get to be really specific about object-oriented principles like inheritance and polymorphism.

    Describing the interactions between those objects lets you better understand the responsibilities of the different objects, the behaviors they need to have.

    — Other diagrams

    There are many other diagrams we can use to model the system from different perspectives; interactions between objects, structure of the system, or the behavior of the system and how it responds to events.

    It’s always about selecting the right diagram for the right need. You should realize which diagrams will be useful when thinking about or discussing a situation that isn’t clear.

    System modeling and the different models we can use will be discussed next.

    System Modeling

    System modeling is the process of developing models of the system, with each model representing a different perspectives of that system.

    The most important aspect about a system model is that it leaves out detail; It’s an abstract representation of the system.

    The models are usually based on graphical notation, which is almost always based on the notations in the Unified Modeling Language (UML). Other models of the system like mathematical model; a detailed system description.

    Models are used during the analysis process to help to elicit the requirements, during the design process to describe the system to engineers, and after implementation to document the system structure and operation.

    Different Perspectives

    We may develop a model to represent the system from different perspectives.

  • External, where you model the context or the environment of the system.
  • Interaction, where you model the interaction between components of a system, or between a system and other systems.
  • Structural, where you model the organization of the system, or the structure of the data being processed by the system.
  • Behavioral, where you model the dynamic behavior of the system and how it respond to events.
  • Unified Modeling Language (UML)

    The unified modeling language become the standard modeling language for object-oriented modeling. It has many diagrams, however, the most diagrams that are commonly used are:

  • Use case diagram: It shows the interaction between a system and it’s environment (users or systems) within a particular situation.
  • Class diagram: It shows the different objects, their relationship, their behaviors, and attributes.
  • Sequence diagram: It shows the interactions between the different objects in the system, and between actors and the objects in a system.
  • State machine diagram: It shows how the system respond to external and internal events.
  • Activity diagram: It shows the flow of the data between the processes in the system.
  • You can do diagramming work on paper or on a whiteboard, at least in the initial stages of a project. But there are some diagramming tools that will help you to draw these UML diagrams.


    Object-oriented design patterns in the kernel, part 2 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This article brought to you by LWN subscribers

    Subscribers to LWN.net made this article — and everything that surrounds it — possible. If you appreciate our content, please buy a subscription and make the next set of articles possible.

    June 7, 2011

    This article was contributed by Neil Brown

    In the first part of this analysis we looked at how the polymorphic side of object-oriented programming was implemented in the Linux kernel using regular C constructs. In particular we examined method dispatch, looked at the different forms that vtables could take, and the circumstances where separate vtables were eschewed in preference for storing function pointers directly in objects. In this conclusion we will explore a second important aspect of object-oriented programming - inheritance, and in particular data inheritance.

    Data inheritance

    Inheritance is a core concept of object-oriented programming, though it comes in many forms, whether prototype inheritance, mixin inheritance, subtype inheritance, interface inheritance etc., some of which overlap. The form that is of interest when exploring the Linux kernel is most like subtype inheritance, where a concrete or "final" type inherits some data fields from a "virtual" parent type. We will call this "data inheritance" to emphasize the fact that it is the data rather than the behavior that is being inherited.

    Put another way, a number of different implementations of a particular interface share, and separately extend, a common data structure. They can be said to inherit from that data structure. There are three different approaches to this sharing and extending that can be found in the Linux kernel, and all can be seen by exploring the struct inode structure and its history, though they are widely used elsewhere.

    Extension through unions

    The first approach, which is probably the most obvious but also the least flexible, is to declare a union as one element of the common structure and, for each implementation, to declare an entry in that union with extra fields that the particular implementation needs. This approach was introduced to struct inode in Linux-0.97.2 (August 1992) when

    union { struct minix_inode_info minix_i; struct ext_inode_info ext_i; struct msdos_inode_info msdos_i; } u;

    was added to struct inode. Each of these structures remained empty until 0.97.5 when i_data was moved from struct inode to struct ext_inode_info. Over the years several more "inode_info" fields were added for different filesystems, peaking at 28 different "inode_info" structures in 2.4.14.2 when ext3 was added.

    This approach to data inheritance is simple and straightforward, but is also somewhat clumsy. There are two obvious problems. Firstly, every new filesystem implementation needs to add an extra field to the union "u". With 3 fields this may not seem like a problem, with 28 it was well past "ugly". Requiring every filesystem to update this one structure is a barrier to adding filesystems that is unnecessary. Secondly, every inode allocated will be the same size and will be large enough to store the data for any filesystem. So a filesystem that wants lots of space in its "inode_info" structure will impose that space cost on every other filesystem.

    The first of these issues is not an impenetrable barrier as we will see shortly. The second is a real problem and the general ugliness of the design encouraged change. Early in the 2.5 development series this change began; it was completed by 2.5.7 when there were no "inode_info" structures left in union u (though the union itself remained until 2.6.19).

    Embedded structures

    The change that happened to inodes in early 2.5 was effectively an inversion. The change which removed ext3_i from struct inode.u also added a struct inode, called vfs_inode, to struct ext3_inode_info. So instead of the private structure being embedded in the common data structure, the common data structure is now embedded in the private one. This neatly avoids the two problems with unions; now each filesystem needs to only allocate memory to store its own structure without any need to know anything about what other filesystems might need. Of course nothing ever comes for free and this change brought with it other issues that needed to be solved, but the solutions were not costly.

    The first difficulty is the fact that when the common filesystem code - the VFS layer - calls into a specific filesystem it passes a pointer to the common data structure, the struct inode. Using this pointer, the filesystem needs to find a pointer to its own private data structure. An obvious approach is to always place the struct inode at the top of the private inode structure and simply cast a pointer to one into a pointer to the other. While this can work, it lacks any semblance of type safety and makes it harder to arrange fields in the inode to get optimal performance - as some kernel developers are wont to do.

    The solution was to use the list_entry() macro to perform the necessary pointer arithmetic, subtracting from the address of the struct inode its offset in the private data structure and then casting this appropriately. The macro for this was called list_entry() simply because the "list.h lists" implementation was the first to use this pattern of data structure embedding. The list_entry() macro did exactly what was needed and so it was used despite the strange name. This practice lasted until 2.5.28 when a new container_of() macro was added which implemented the same functionality as list_entry(), though with slightly more type safety and a more meaningful name. With container_of() it is a simple matter to map from an embedded data structure to the structure in which it is embedded.

    The second difficulty was that the filesystem had to be responsible for allocating the inode - it could no longer be allocated by common code as the common code did not have enough information to allocate the correct amount of space. This simply involved adding alloc_inode() and destroy_inode() methods to the super_operations structure and calling them as appropriate.

    Void pointers

    As noted earlier, the union pattern was not an impenetrable barrier to adding new filesystems independently. This is because the union u had one more field that was not an "inode_info" structure. A generic pointer field called generic_ip was added in Linux-1.0.5, but it was not used until 1.3.7. Any file system that does not own a structure in struct inode itself could define and allocate a separate structure and link it to the inode through u.generic_ip. This approach addressed both of the problems with unions as no changes are needed to shared declarations and each filesystem only uses the space that it needs. However it again introduced new problems of its own.

    Using generic_ip, each filesystem required two allocations for each inode instead of one and this could lead to more wastage depending on how the structure size was rounded up for allocation; it also required writing more error-handling code. Also there was memory used for the generic_ip pointer and often for a back pointer from the private structure to the common struct inode. Both of these are wasted space compared with the union approach or the embedding approach.

    Worse than this though, an extra memory dereference was needed to access the private structure from the common structure; such dereferences are best avoided. Filesystem code will often need to access both the common and the private structures. This either requires lots of extra memory dereferences, or it requires holding the address of the private structure in a register which increases register pressure. It was largely these concerns that stopped struct inode from ever migrating to broad use of the generic_ip pointer. It was certainly used, but not by the major, high-performance filesystems.

    Though this pattern has problems it is still in wide use. struct super_block has an s_fs_info pointer which serves the same purpose as u.generic_ip (which has since been renamed to i_private when the u union was finally removed - why it was not completely removed is left as an exercise for the reader). This is the only way to store filesystem-private data in a super_block. A simple search in the Linux include files shows quite a collection of fields which are void pointers named "private" or something similar. Many of these are examples of the pattern of extending a data type by using a pointer to a private extension, and most of these could be converted to using the embedded-structure pattern.

    Beyond inodes

    While inodes serve as an effective vehicle to introduce these three patterns they do not display the full scope of any of them so it is useful to look further afield and see what else we can learn.

    A survey of the use of unions elsewhere in the kernel shows that they are widely used though in very different circumstances than in struct inode. The particular aspect of inodes that is missing elsewhere is that a wide range of different modules (different filesystems) each wanted to extend an inode in different ways. In most places where unions are used there are a small fixed number of subtypes of the base type and there is little expectation of more being added. A simple example of this is struct nfs_fattr which stores file attribute information decoded out of an NFS reply. The details of these attributes are slightly different for NFSv2 and NFSv3 so there are effectively two subtypes of this structure with the difference encoded in a union. As NFSv4 uses the same information as NFSv3 this is very unlikely to ever be extended further.

    A very common pattern in other uses of unions in Linux is for encoding messages that are passed around, typically between the kernel and user-space. struct siginfo is used to convey extra information with a signal delivery. Each signal type has a different type of ancillary information, so struct siginfo has a union to encode six different subtypes. union inputArgs appears to be the largest current union with 22 different subtypes. It is used by the "coda" network file system to pass requests between the kernel module and a user-space daemon which handles the network communication.

    It is not clear whether these examples should be considered as the same pattern as the original struct inode. Do they really represent different subtypes of a base type, or is it just one type with internal variants? The Eiffel object-oriented programming language does not support variant types at all except through subtype inheritance so there is clearly a school of thought that would want to treat all usages of union as a form of subtyping. Many other languages, such as C++, provide both inheritance and unions allowing the programmer to make a choice. So the answer is not clear.

    For our purposes it doesn't really matter what we call it as long as we know where to use each pattern. The examples in the kernel fairly clearly show that when all of the variants are understood by a single module, then a union is a very appropriate mechanism for variants structures, whether you want to refer to them as using data inheritance or not. When different subtypes are managed by different modules, or at least widely separate pieces of code, then one of the other mechanisms is preferred. The use of unions for this case has almost completely disappeared with only struct cycx_device remaining as an example of a deprecated pattern.

    Problems with void pointers

    Void pointers are not quite so easy to classify. It would probably be fair to say that void pointers are the modern equivalent of "goto" statements. They can be very useful but they can also lead to very convoluted designs. A particular problem is that when you look at a void pointer, like looking at a goto, you don't really know what it is pointing at. A void pointer called private is even worse - it is like a "goto destination" command - almost meaningless without reading lots of context.

    Examining all the different uses that void pointers can be put to would be well beyond the scope of this article. Instead we will restrict our attention to just one new usage which relates to data inheritance and illustrates how the untamed nature of void pointers makes it hard to recognize their use in data inheritance. The example we will use to explain this usage is struct seq_file used by the seq_file library which makes it easy to synthesize simple text files like some of those in /proc. The "seq" part of seq_file simply indicates that the file contains a sequence of lines corresponding to a sequence of items of information in the kernel, so /proc/mounts is a seq_file which walks through the mount table reporting each mount on a single line.

    When seq_open() is used to create a new seq_file it allocates a struct seq_file and assigns it to the private_data field of the struct file which is being opened. This is a straightforward example of void pointer based data inheritance where the struct file is the base type and the struct seq_file is a simple extension to that type. It is a structure that never exists by itself but is always the private_data for some file. struct seq_file itself has a private field which is a void pointer and it can be used by clients of seq_file to add extra state to the file. For example md_seq_open() allocates a struct mdstat_info structure and attaches it via this private field, using it to meet md's internal needs. Again, this is simple data inheritance following the described pattern.

    However the private field of struct seq_file is used by svc_pool_stats_open() in a subtly but importantly different way. In this case the extra data needed is just a single pointer. So rather than allocating a local data structure to refer to from the private field, svc_pool_stats_open simply stores that pointer directly in the private field itself. This certainly seems like a sensible optimization - performing an allocation to store a single pointer would be a waste - but it highlights exactly the source of confusion that was suggested earlier: that when you look at a void pointer you don't really know what is it pointing at, or why.

    To make it a bit clearer what is happening here, it is helpful to imagine "void *private" as being like a union of every different possible pointer type. If the value that needs to be stored is a pointer, it can be stored in this union following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern. If the value is not a single pointer, then it gets stored in allocated space following the "void pointers for data inheritance" pattern. Thus when we see a void pointer being used it may not be obvious whether it is being used to point to an extension structure for data inheritance, or being used as an extension for data inheritance (or being used as something else altogether).

    To highlight this issue from a slightly different perspective it is instructive to examine struct v4l2_subdev which represents a sub-device in a video4linux device, such as a sensor or camera controller within a webcam. According to the (rather helpful) documentation it is expected that this structure will normally be embedded in a larger structure which contains extra state. However this structure still has not just one but two void pointers, both with names suggesting that they are for private use by subtypes:

    /* pointer to private data */ void *dev_priv; void *host_priv;

    It is common that a v4l sub-device (a sensor, usually) will be realized by, for example, an I2C device (much as a block device which stores your filesystem might be realized by an ATA or SCSI device). To allow for this common occurrence, struct v4l2_subdev provides a void pointer (dev_priv), so that the driver itself doesn't need to define a more specific pointer in the larger structure which struct v4l2_subdev would be embedded in. host_priv is intended to point back to a "parent" device such as a controller which acquires video data from the sensor. Of the three drivers which use this field, one appears to follow that intention while the other two use it to point to an allocated extension structure. So both of these pointers are intended to be used following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern, where a void pointer is playing the role of a union of many other pointer types, but they are not always used that way.

    It is not immediately clear that defining this void pointer in case it is useful is actually a valuable service to provide given that the device driver could easily enough define its own (type safe) pointer in its extension structure. What is clear is that an apparently "private" void pointer can be intended for various qualitatively different uses and, as we have seen in two different circumstances, they may not be used exactly as expected.

    In short, recognizing the "data inheritance through void pointers" pattern is not easy. A fairly deep examination of the code is needed to determine the exact purpose and usage of void pointers.

    A diversion into struct page

    Before we leave unions and void pointers behind a look at struct page may be interesting. This structure uses both of these patterns, though they are hidden somewhat due to historical baggage. This example is particularly instructive because it is one case where struct embedding simply is not an option.

    In Linux memory is divided into pages, and these pages are put to a variety of different uses. Some are in the "page cache" used to store the contents of files. Some are "anonymous pages" holding data used by applications. Some are used as "slabs" and divided into pieces to answer kmalloc() requests. Others are simply part of a multi-page allocation or maybe are on a free list waiting to be used. Each of these different use cases could be seen as a subtype of the general class of "page", and in most cases need some dedicated fields in struct page, such as a struct address_space pointer and index when used in the page cache, or struct kmem_cache and freelist pointers when used as a slab.

    Each page always has the same struct page describing it, so if the effective type of the page is to change - as it must as the demands for different uses of memory change over time - the type of the struct page must change within the lifetime of that structure. While many type systems are designed assuming that the type of an object is immutable, we find here that the kernel has a very real need for type mutability. Both unions and void pointers allow types to change and as noted, struct page uses both.

    At the first level of subtyping there are only a small number of different subtypes as listed above; these are all known to the core memory management code, so a union would be ideal here. Unfortunately struct page has three unions with fields for some subtypes spread over all three, thus hiding the real structure somewhat.

    When the primary subtype in use has the page being used in the page cache, the particular address_space that it belongs to may want to extend the data structure further. For this purpose there is a private field that can be used. However it is not a void pointer but is an unsigned long. Many places in the kernel assume an unsigned long and a void * are the same size and this is one of them. Most users of this field actually store a pointer here and have to cast it back and forth. The "buffer_head" library provides macros attach_page_buffers and page_buffers to set and get this field.

    So while struct page is not the most elegant example, it is an informative example of a case where unions and void pointers are the only option for providing data inheritance.

    The details of structure embedding

    Where structure embedding can be used, and where the list of possible subtypes is not known in advance, it seems to be increasingly the preferred choice. To gain a full understanding of it we will again need to explore a little bit further than inodes and contrast data inheritance with other uses of structure embedding.

    There are essentially three uses for structure embedding - three reasons for including a structure within another structure. Sometimes there is nothing particularly interesting going on. Data items are collected together into structures and structures within structures simply to highlight the closeness of the relationships between the different items. In this case the address of the embedded structure is rarely taken, and it is never mapped back to the containing structure using container_of().

    The second use is the data inheritance embedding that we have already discussed. The third is like it but importantly different. This third use is typified by struct list_head and other structs used as an embedded anchor when creating abstract data types.

    The use of an embedded anchor like struct list_head can be seen as a style of inheritance as the structure containing it "is-a" member of a list by virtue of inheriting from struct list_head. However it is not a strict subtype as a single object can have several struct list_heads embedded - struct inode has six (if we include the similar hlist_node). So it is probably best to think of this sort of embedding more like a "mixin" style of inheritance. The struct list_head provides a service - that of being included in a list - that can be mixed-in to other objects, an arbitrary number of times.

    A key aspect of data inheritance structure embedding that differentiates it from each of the other two is the existence of a reference counter in the inner-most structure. This is an observation that is tied directly to the fact that the Linux kernel uses reference counting as the primary means of lifetime management and so would not be shared by systems that used, for example, garbage collection to manage lifetimes.

    In Linux, every object with an independent existence will have a reference counter, sometimes a simple atomic_t or even an int, though often a more explicit struct kref. When an object is created using several levels of inheritance the reference counter could be buried quite deeply. For example a struct usb_device embeds a struct device which embeds struct kobject which has a struct kref. So usb_device (which might in turn be embedded in a structure for some specific device) does have a reference counter, but it is contained several levels down in the nest of structure embedding. This contrasts quite nicely with a list_head and similar structures. These have no reference counter, have no independent existence and simply provide a service to other data structures.

    Though it seems obvious when put this way, it is useful to remember that a single object cannot have two reference counters - at least not two lifetime reference counters (It is fine to have two counters like s_active and s_count in struct super_block which count different things). This means that multiple inheritance in the "data inheritance" style is not possible. The only form of multiple inheritance that can work is the mixin style used by list_head as mentioned above.

    It also means that, when designing a data structure, it is important to think about lifetime issues and whether this data structure should have its own reference counter or whether it should depend on something else for its lifetime management. That is, whether it is an object in its own right, or simply a service provided to other objects. These issues are not really new and apply equally to void pointer inheritance. However an important difference with void pointers is that it is relatively easy to change your mind later and switch an extension structure to be a fully independent object. Structure embedding requires the discipline of thinking clearly about the problem up front and making the right decision early - a discipline that is worth encouraging.

    The other key telltale for data inheritance structure embedding is the set of rules for allocating and initializing new instances of a structure, as has already been hinted at. When union or void pointer inheritance is used the main structure is usually allocated and initialized by common code (the mid-layer) and then a device specific open() or create() function is called which can optionally allocate and initialize any extension object. By contrast when structure embedding is used the structure needs to be allocated by the lowest level device driver which then initializes its own fields and calls in to common code to initialize the common fields.

    Continuing the struct inode example from above which has an alloc_inode() method in the super_block to request allocation, we find that initialization is provided for with inode_init_once() and inode_init_always() support functions. The first of these is used when the previous use of a piece of memory is unknown, the second is sufficient by itself when we know that the memory was previously used for some other inode. We see this same pattern of an initializer function separate from allocation in kobject_init(), kref_init(), and device_initialize().

    So apart from the obvious embedding of structures, the pattern of "data inheritance through structure embedding" can be recognized by the presence of a reference counter in the innermost structure, by the delegation of structure allocation to the final user of the structure, and by the provision of initializing functions which initialize a previously allocated structure.

    Conclusion

    In exploring the use of method dispatch (last week) and data inheritance (this week) in the Linux kernel we find that while some patterns seem to dominate they are by no means universal. While almost all data inheritance could be implemented using structure embedding, unions provide real value in a few specific cases. Similarly while simple vtables are common, mixin vtables are very important and the ability to delegate methods to a related object can be valuable.

    We also find that there are patterns in use with little to recommend them. Using void pointers for inheritance may have an initial simplicity, but causes longer term wastage, can cause confusion, and could nearly always be replaced by embedded inheritance. Using NULL pointers to indicate default behavior is similarly a poor choice - when the default is important there are better ways to provide for it.

    But maybe the most valuable lesson is that the Linux kernel is not only a useful program to run, it is also a useful document to study. Such study can find elegant practical solutions to real problems, and some less elegant solutions. The willing student can pursue the former to help improve their mind, and pursue the latter to help improve the kernel itself. With that in mind, the following exercises might be of interest to some.

    Exercises
  • As inodes now use structure embedding for inheritance, void pointers should not be necessary. Examine the consequences and wisdom of removing "i_private" from "struct inode".

  • Rearrange the three unions in struct page to just one union so that the enumeration of different subtypes is more explicit.

  • As was noted in the text, struct seq_file can be extended both through "void pointer" and a limited form of "union" data inheritance. Explain how seq_open_private() allows this structure to also be extended through "embedded structure" data inheritance and give an example by converting one usage in the kernel from "void pointer" to "embedded structure". Consider submitting a patch if this appears to be an improvement. Contrast this implementation of embedded structure inheritance with the mechanism used for inodes.

  • Though subtyping is widely used in the kernel, it is not uncommon for a object to contain fields that not all users are interested in. This can indicate that more fine grained subtyping is possible. As very many completely different things can be represented by a "file descriptor", it is likely that struct file could be a candidate for further subtyping.

    Identify the smallest set of fields that could serve as a generic struct file and explore the implications of embedding that in different structures to implement regular files, socket files, event files, and other file types. Exploring more general use of the proposed open() method for inodes might help here.

  • Identify an "object-oriented" language which has an object model that would meet all the needs of the Linux kernel as identified in these two articles.

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