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000-834 - Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design) - BrainDump Information

Vendor Name : IBM
Exam Code : 000-834
Exam Name : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)
Questions and Answers : 180 Q & A
Updated On : January 16, 2019
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000-834 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)

Test Code : 000-834
Test Name : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 180 Real Questions

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IBM IBM Object Oriented Analysis

record: IBM Outpaces rivals in software construction utility market for Seventh Straight 12 months | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

source: IBM

June 13, 2008 08:00 ET

ARMONK, big apple--(Marketwire - June 13, 2008) - IBM (NYSE: IBM) today announced that analyst firm Gartner, Inc.* and market analysis company Evans data Corp. have ranked IBM because the chief within the software development utility market. These rankings come just as IBM is projecting greater than 12,000 americans will attend its 2008 IBM Rational software construction Conferences in 13 countries all over.

Gartner named IBM the worldwide market share leader in utility development in keeping with complete application profits in 2007 and Evans information Corp. survey respondents who were clients of IBM Rational application Developer ranked it the number one built-in Developer environment (IDE) for person delight. here's the seventh consecutive year that Gartner has ranked IBM the leader and second consecutive yr that IBM Rational utility Developer changed into selected as the Developer's choice precise IDE by the 1,200 developers global taking part within the survey.

in line with the impartial Gartner record, IBM is the leading market share supplier in complete application income, with 37.eight % market share -- more desirable market share than its three closest opponents combined. The global software construction utility market grew more than 10% % in 2007 to virtually $6.9 billion, according to Gartner.

IBM become additionally referred to for its average leadership based on total application earnings for 2007 throughout utility building market sub-classes, including SCCM disbursed, Object Oriented analysis & Design and Java Platform advert device. Telelogic, recently got by using IBM, had a 2007 marketshare of 40.6 p.c in the requirements Elicitation and management class in response to complete software earnings.

"With the upward push of worldwide disbursed utility construction teams, valued clientele are searching for experienced carriers to aid them collaborate in an open and transparent method," said Dr. Daniel Sabbah, well-known manager, IBM Rational application. "We trust the strong response from the Evans statistics and Gartner experiences coincides with the remarks we have obtained from consumers about IBM's approach round effective software birth."

IBM Kicks off the realm's Most Attended Developer convention collection

This marketshare information coincides with IBM's announcement that over 12,000 members are expected to attend the 15 IBM Rational utility construction Conferences deliberate all over the world. Following the adventure held ultimate week in Orlando, FL, IBM will take the exhibit on the highway to 17 cities together with Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt; San Paulo, Brazil; Bangalore, India; Shanghai, China; Rome and Milan, Italy.

For convention attendees using an iPhone, IBM is releasing a convention scheduler written in enterprise technology Language (EGL) to permit iPhone users to dynamically experience the IBM Rational utility building conference through an interface that they consider at ease with. the use of internet 2.0 and social engineering concepts, users can provide feedback on and chat about classes, navigate the convention searching for tracks and movements, and use creative know-how that implies which talks the consumer should attend next in line with preferences.

on the annual IBM Rational application development convention in Orlando, Florida, greater than 3,500 attendees realized about new utility and courses that assist valued clientele transform how they are birth utility on a worldwide scale. The announcement of new items, services and company accomplice initiatives are designed to transform how IBM Rational software can aid customers pressure improved price and efficiency from their globally distributed utility investments.

valued clientele unable to attend the convention in the community can view the keynote shows on IBM tv.

IBM helps builders stay competitive in cutting-edge quickly-paced building atmosphere. inventive programs equivalent to IBM developerWorks, the premier technical useful resource for utility builders, and IBM alphaWorks, IBM's rising technologies outlet, provide an online community for the builders of today and day after today. builders who are unbiased software carriers can take potential of revenue and advertising equipment, ability-building lessons and technical guide through joining the international IBM PartnerWorld program. IBM's academic Initiative and IBM Rational application building conference are examples of the continuing gaining knowledge of and group-building courses essential by college students, educators and builders international.

For greater tips, seek advice from http://www.ibm.com/utility/rational.

*"Market Share: software construction utility, international, 2007" by Laurie Wurster, Teresa Jones and Asheesh Raina, might also 2008.

12 months in evaluation: five topics that epitomized Java in 2018 | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

in case you wish to predict the future of Java, it helps to understand where we had been with Java in 2018. here is a subject we explored at TheServerSide all yr to satisfy readers' curiosity about how Java suits with other programming languages, no matter if they could age efficaciously within the technology profession, if Java nonetheless matters in an more and more Agile and DevOps panorama, and what the IBM-crimson Hat merger means for the future of Java programming. These had been one of the most preferred themes for Java in 2018.

How a combined IBM and crimson Hat affects enterprise Java

IBM's $34 billion dollar acquisition of pink Hat introduced two of business Java's precept forces collectively. In 2018, Oracle relinquished its manage of Java EE and the Java community process to the Eclipse basis. each IBM and pink Hat performed key roles in the advent of Jakarta EE, and each had a spot on its steerage Committee.

The fact that two of the six strategic organizations on the steering Committee have merged raised some considerations. Critics have lengthy taken Oracle to project for the hegemonic route of Java EE. With two of business Java's main forces now merged, IBM-purple Hat will have appreciable pull over the way forward for Java programming.

or not it's unclear whether IBM and crimson Hat will direct the future of Java as Oracle as soon as did. more than possible, the IBM-pink Hat merger will speed up enterprise Java's evolution into cloud-native and microservices so it will probably compete with environments akin to JavaScript and Go.

may still we nevertheless train Java in 2018 as a first programming language?

about a decade ago, Java become nonetheless the go-to programming language in introductory computer science classes. Java in 2018, even though, can no longer boast that big difference. Many departments have flipped to Python or C++ as their introductory language of alternative.

It makes some feel that Java is no longer the first programming language students gain knowledge of. Java is a verbose, compiled language with a bunch of distinct Java building Kits to opt for and judge from. For programmers simply starting out, it may also be more convenient to reduce your enamel on an easier, object-oriented programming language or even an open source scripting language.

Does this spell the conclusion of Java? Of path no longer. Java nevertheless boasts an astonishing ecosystem of tools and a robust aid group. Java may additionally no longer be the first programming language college students be trained beyond 2018, but there may be a fine chance they will use it daily of their first job.

Is programming a career to develop ancient in?

Code, as contributor Bob Reselman explains, is a youngster's online game. younger programmers can pull the all-nighters and work the startup scene. it truly is why many experienced programmers at last make the exodus to administration roles. however it really is not the course that each programmer wants to stroll. Some programmers are looking to proceed to create code and resolve complications.

Reselman asked technologists Charles Petzold, Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols, Dave McCarter and Derek Zott why they selected the route nearer to the code than to the C-suite. All discovered palms-on coding a plausible profession, but some found that administration positions don't give the freedom or creativity that lured them into the know-how industry.

sooner or later, there is yet another route programmers can take in the event that they eschew the invoice Gates path to CEO glory. they could take the equally challenging and moneymaking path of the wizened technologist -- like Steve Wozniak, Martin Fowler and Grady Booch.

a way to turn into a superb application architect in 13 steps

The function of the software architect includes greater than just development and design. whereas not each architect must claim the mantle of full stack developer, she or he should possess capabilities and event in expertise, as smartly because the smooth skills to be an excellent chief and communicator.

contemporary utility architects deserve to design the tools, architecture and procedures that the building crew will use. software architects are liable for developing a venture's coding requirements.

they may also need to act as mediators between the business and development groups. This ability architects need to be aware of building -- as well as builders and enterprise goals -- and enterprise leaders. Contributor Mark Spritzler shares 13 steps that you can take to turn into a successful software architect.

a way to integrate DevOps practices with a dojo

Some agencies believe a DevOps transformation is as effortless as adopting a number of new equipment and handing them off to their developers. Verizon found a distinct method of doing issues. It appealed to developer delight and keenness rather than assigning a preordained agenda. here's the dojo method -- an opportunity for hands-on practice devoid of the pressures of the ordinary application beginning cycle.

The precise DevOps problem is never organising a toolchain. organizations the size of Verizon have common sufficient toolchains. but Verizon is also so gigantic that getting 20,000 developers on the identical page is essentially impossible.

it's these collaborative DevOps expertise -- a way to determine the kinks in a more Agile workflow -- to be able to liberate the potential to bring nice utility sooner. The a method to get respectable at it's to observe in an immersive discovering environment.

What Apple, Inc. gets from its new iOS partnership with IBM | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps



Apple's newly introduced cellular partnership with IBM has been greeted through a number of analysts and pundits as being both "no longer that large a deal," or conversely, the dramatic reversal of a protracted standing contention. each are incorrect, here's why. No huge deal?

Piper Jaffray analyst Gene Munster offered one of the crucial least enthusiastic views on the announcement, noting that Apple already has enormous business penetration while postulating that even "if half of the Fortune 500 were to each buy an incremental 2,000 iPhones and 1,000 iPads above what they were planning to buy because of the IBM deal, it could imply a few half a p.c to CY15 profits."

Munster additionally offered a broad interpretation of the "exclusive partnership" the two companies special, writing, "we are expecting IBM to at last offer identical solutions on Android over time."

"Robert X. Cringely" in a similar fashion provided a dim view of IBM's business apps and flatly expected that "iOS cloud functions from IBM might not happen," concluding that "neither enterprise could be severely suffering from the other. it's just not that massive a deal."

IBM's existing cell company apps and cloud functions definitely don't appear in a position to dramatically boosting Apple's iOS earnings on their own. but it is now not what the businesses introduced. as an alternative, both described "unique" plans to work together to "radically change business mobility via a new class of enterprise apps."

As mentioned in improved detail below, the language each agencies use in describing their partnership indicates that it is not merely an effort to promote a couple of groups an additional thousand iPads. Apple and IBM have big dreams in mind.

Apple and IBM have loads of historical past as close allies

on the equal time, Apple and IBM don't seem to be unexpectedly working together for the primary time. We're a extremely long approaches from 1982, when IBM entered the new microcomputer market that Apple had ignited with the Apple II. Apple at the beginning "welcomed" IBM to the computer market (under), as a a lot larger competitor.

It because of this portrayed huge Blue as a 1984 huge Brother in 1984 with its iconic usual advert for the Macintosh. It then insulted IBM and its valued clientele much more explicitly in "Lemmings," a 2nd and much more provocative SuperBowl ad that portrayed blindfolded computer users marching themselves off a cliff.

by means of the late 80s, IBM had lost manage of the laptop to Microsoft on its own, and failed to win it back with its proprietary design for new PS/2 systems. while IBM bought notebooks and drugs that competed against Apple's PowerBooks and Newton MessagePads in the Nineteen Nineties, right through that decade Apple and IBM actually aligned to work together in a couple of major tasks.

The intention Alliance between Apple, IBM and Motorola scaled down IBM's energy RISC server chipset into the PowerPC processor that become utilized in Macs beginning in 1994 and continuing into 2006.

Apple also collaborated with IBM to develop "Macintosh application features" to host PowerPC Mac application on IBM's AIX Unix workstations, and in parallel shipped IBM's AIX by itself excessive conclusion Apple community Server in 1996.

In parallel with PowerPC, the Taligent project teamed Apple's future plans for "pink," a new OS intended to change system 7, with IBM's parallel efforts for workplace OS. It meant to enhance a brand new OS microkernel in a position to aiding Macs, OS/2 and Unix, and developed object oriented frameworks pattered after Steve Jobs' next. Taligent essentially aimed to copy subsequent and steal away Jobs' early supporters (together with IBM, and later HP).

After the Taligent partnership collapsed, Apple determined to acquire subsequent as the foundation for its advanced new Mac OS X in its place.

Kaleida Labs became a 3rd high profile partnership between Apple in IBM in the early Nineties, aimed toward creating a move platform, scriptable multimedia development platform. The collaboration without difficulty raided Apple's QuickTime team of ability and spent tens of thousands and thousands of greenbacks earlier than collapsing in failure in 1996. Its position changed into supplanted by way of Macromedia Director, and then with the aid of the internet, notably via plugins like Java and Flash.

Apple & IBM partnerships in the 2000s

Apple's acquisition of Jobs' subsequent in 1996 further helped to align the enterprise with IBM as a co-competitor to Microsoft and an ally to Unix and open source software. In 2005 IBM bought its computer company to Lenovo. It more and more threw its guide behind Linux, and in 2007 created a fork of OpenOffice that it bought as a Microsoft workplace competitor named IBM Lotus Symphony.

In 2007, IBM's analysis assistance capabilities carried out a look at that offered employees with MacBook pros instead of home windows machines. worker remarks noted comments together with, "this may free us from the home windows stranglehold," and "I have been a real notebook stalwart for 2+ many years, however after making an attempt Vista, i'm able for a metamorphosis."

The next year, IBM ported its Informix records Server to OS X Server and announced plans to carry Lotus Notes (IBM's competitor to Microsoft's exchange) and the Symphony workplace app suite to Apple's Mac and iOS structures.

IBM now has a portfolio of dozens of business apps for iOS, and became truly one of the first App save builders to embrace the platform in 2008 before Apple had even launched its iPhone SDK and App shop.

IBM pursuits huge information on the massive platform

The large news of the brand new partnership between Apple and IBM therefore is neither that they at the moment are working collectively for the primary time, nor that IBM offers some apps for iOS gadgets. What's new is the naturally emphasized exclusivity of the relationship, and the long run course for brand spanking new iOS apps, administration equipment and cloud features.

IBM already gives Android mobile help roughly on par with iPhone, and Android pill help this is nearly the identical as its iPad's. It additionally offers help for BlackBerry, PlayBook, BB10, windows telephone, home windows RT and even Symbian. IBM's new apps will completely target iOS although.

That makes sense as a result of IBM should be promoting and leasing iOS devices, however additionally as a result of IBM can now focus on developing native apps for the only platform that is already being largely used in the commercial enterprise, with out spending loads of resources trying out and holding guide for a vast array of OS versions and APIs and a bewildering range of hardware contraptions.

In parallel with the building of Apple's iOS platform over the remaining seven years, IBM has moved faraway from promoting workplace apps (leaving behind its OpenOffice / Symphony suite) to as an alternative focus on presenting managed cloud infrastructure, consulting and administration features, as well as "big data" evaluation.

IBM's SmartCloud hosts public cloud features for shoppers (corresponding to Amazon web functions) and also presents private cloud features, the place IBM sells the customer servers they then own and operate. gadget can on the other hand be leased from and/or managed onsite by using IBM.

The partnership chiefly outlined, "IBM's large facts and analytics capabilities, with the energy of greater than a hundred,000 IBM business and domain consultants and utility builders at the back of it," can be used to "create apps that can seriously change specific points of how agencies and employees work using iPhone and iPad."

One taste of IBM's large records analytics has appeared over the final two holiday searching seasons. In 2012, the IBM Digital Analytics Benchmark highlighted (below) that the majority searching become being finished on iOS gadgets--even before the media turned into manipulated to report that Apple had run out of "innovation" and that Android and Samsung were "taking on" mobile devices.

the following 12 months, IBM's analytics published that the divide had grown even better, with Apple's iOS clients now accounting for five instances the orders of Android clients. The media's handwringing about Apple throughout in 2013 had temporality affected the enterprise's inventory rate, however wasn't affecting the consequences that depend in the machine market.

The capability to accurately determine those sorts of tendencies--with out the records being contaminated by using lack of knowledge or wishful considering--is seriously vital to business users. That explains why the partnership's announcement described new apps powered via such analytics as "allowing agencies to obtain new degrees of effectivity, effectiveness and consumer pride."

As Apple noted, IBM has "based the world's deepest portfolio in large information and Analytics consulting and expertise knowledge in response to experiences drawn from more than forty,000 statistics and analytics customer engagements. This analytics portfolio spans analysis and building, solutions, software and hardware, and contains more than 15,000 analytics consultants, four,000 analytics patents, 6,000 trade solution enterprise companions, and four hundred IBM mathematicians who are helping purchasers use big information to transform their organizations."

iWork enterprise

Apple has its own iWork apps for small company and education clients, it lately received Microsoft's workplace cell apps (currently completely) on iPad, and is now working with IBM to develop "a new category of 'made-for-enterprise apps' concentrated on selected industry issues or opportunities in retail, healthcare, banking, trip and transportation, telecommunications and coverage, among others, with the intention to become purchasable beginning q4 and into 2015."

in place of simply being some new App keep titles listed with the aid of IBM, the organizations have outlined that IBM will be selling Apple's iOS as part of its own MobileFirst platform, to be able to "carry the capabilities required for an end-to-end commercial enterprise ability, from analytics, workflow and cloud storage, to fleet-scale machine administration, protection and integration."

additionally, "greater cellular administration contains a private app catalog, statistics and transaction safety functions, and productiveness suite for all IBM MobileFirst for iOS options. moreover on-premise application options, all these functions will be available on Bluemix--IBM's construction platform on the IBM Cloud industry."IBM is presenting all of the issues Apple has never been very good at or proven plenty hobby in doing itself

That potential IBM is presenting all the things Apple has never been very first rate at or proven a lot hobby in doing itself, from selling consultation and aid capabilities, to building and protecting server infrastructure and custom apps for purchasers. That comprises bettering AppleCare for business users with "on-web site provider delivered by IBM."

IBM is also featuring "device provide, activation and administration capabilities for iPhone and iPad, with leasing alternate options." these again are the sorts of features that HP and Dell were historically an awful lot stronger than Apple at presenting for the computer trade.

With BYOD, Apple bought its foot within the door and iOS devices grew to be largely adopted by business and govt clients. Partnering with IBM, Apple can work on turning its mobile contraptions into an business extent play.

Apple, IBM are thinking large

to date, the market seems to have considered Apple and IBM as an obtrusive probability to BlackBerry, which certainly does have plenty left to lose: seventy two million subscribers as of the primary quarter of 2014. iPhones have taken a painful chew out of BlackBerry's commercial enterprise revenue, but iPads goal some thing distinct: common PCs.

This makes Munster's estimates of Apple doubtlessly promoting handiest an extra '2,000 iPhones and 1,000 iPads' to half of the Fortune 500 by way of some new IBM apps above all puzzling. Apple somewhat obviously plans to aggressively goal business workstation income--a substantial market--with its post-computer cellular contraptions. Tim cook addresses the iPad's greatly mentioned knowledge to eclipse workstation revenue at each opportunity.

"We continue to agree with that the tablet market will surpass the notebook market in size inside the following couple of years and we trust that Apple can be a huge beneficiary of this vogue," cook dinner brought up within the company's April profits name."We continue to consider that the tablet market will surpass the pc market in measurement within the following few years and we agree with that Apple could be a tremendous beneficiary of this style " - Tim prepare dinner

Apple already has no issue selling fleets of tens of heaps of iPhones and iPads to company, govt and education buyers. it would simplest want IBM's aid to target the regularly occurring workstation for mass eradication all the way through the business, pushed the usage of ingenious, exclusive native apps capable of radically altering how agencies use expertise. Apple's description of IBM makes it very clear it is exactly what both corporations plan to obtain.

On its new iPad business website, the business states "Apple and IBM are working together to carry iPhone, iPad, and IBM MobileFirst for iOS apps to organisations worldwide. Our unique global partnership will convey a new classification of apps that connect users to large facts and analytics right on their iOS gadgets with extra ease and effectivity than ever earlier than. Apple and IBM are redefining the cellular commercial enterprise by way of combining the exponential vigour of company facts with the area's best cellular know-how."

In its common press unlock Apple brought up, "IBM's 5,000 cell consultants have been at the forefront of cell business innovation. IBM has secured more than 4,300 patents in cellular, social and safety, which have been incorporated into IBM MobileFirst solutions that allow business purchasers to radically streamline and speed up cell adoption, support businesses engage extra individuals and capture new markets."

moreover, "IBM has made a dozen acquisitions in protection during the past decade, has more than 6,000 safety researchers and builders in its 25 protection labs worldwide that work on establishing business-type solutions."

Apple's personal strategy in acquisitions (as well as in patents) has frequently focused the fast implementation of differentiating features and applied sciences (akin to contact identification, the custom silicon within the A7 chip, and lines ranging from Siri to face cognizance to iTunes Radio to App shop enhancements).

by way of partnering with IBM, Apple can leverage backyard talents in protection, social and cell deployment without distracting itself from its core competency in building hardware, utility and systems.

And now, a warning

on reflection, the old partnerships between Apple and IBM failed to have a very good tune checklist. Taligent and Kaleida were total failures, whereas PowerPC failed to keep up with the tempo of the more advantageous market. IBM Lotus Notes and Symphony did not precisely transform the business on any platform.

however modern-day Apple and IBM share little in normal with their previous incarnations in the 1990s. Apple is now not simplest very successful and ecocnomic, but has a virtual lock on cell business items, and in particular gadgets with a sophisticated native app construction platform (as adversarial to BlackBerry's messaging-centric platform constructed as a simple Java VM).

where Microsoft as soon as ruled the commercial enterprise and partnered with a series of companies that shut Apple out, it's now frantically attempting to hold the status quo for windows (at the same time as its consumers reject Microsoft's latest course) as it flip flops between strategic instructions in other markets.

From closing yr's "gadgets and services" plan, which primarily didn't sell contraptions, to its latest nebulous cloud strategy that failed to in reality articulate a particular approach at all, Microsoft is at present presiding over a stagnant marketplace for ordinary PCs that just about each market research company sees as being overtaken by way of drugs, and specially Apple's iPad.

That truth highlights a different reality: for the reason that the iPad's debut in 2010, advertising agencies have deliberately framed it as a niche equipment without a feasible influence on workstation market, the use of chosen information teased into conclusions that continuously flattered Microsoft regardless of the statistics worried.

With a massive ally in IBM assisting to sell its items, Apple will possible face less openly deceptive media coverage denying the now clear and obtrusive shift taking place as regular PCs are changed and augmented by more cellular--and plenty less demanding to control--publish computer devices.

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000-834 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)

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Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)

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Object-Oriented Analysis & DesignJune 2, 3, 9, 10Worcester State CollegeTaught by Jan Bergandy, Computer Science, UMass, Dartmouth

Seminar Objectives:

  • To develop an in-depth understanding of object-oriented paradigm
  • To obtain a working knowledge of object-oriented analysis & design techniques
  • To learn object-oriented modeling using Unified Modeling Language (UML)
  • To learn about basic design patterns and the role of patterns is software development
  • To understand the impact of object paradigm on software development activities
  • To explore synergy between object-oriented design and object-oriented programming
  • To learn about key object technologies
  • Who should attend:This workshop is addressed to faculty involved in teaching programming, software design, and other courses related to software development. It is addressed to those who face a transition to object technology and want to learn about challenges and benefits of this transition. The workshop does not require any prior knowledge of object-oriented programming or knowledge of object paradigm. General computer fluency and general knowledge of issues associated with software and software development are expected.

    Seminar Organization:The course will be conducted as a project with instructor giving short presentations pertaining to a specific stage of the analysis and design process. During this course the participants will construct an analysis model for a selected problem. This model will be refined in to the detailed design level providing an opportunity for discussion about the relationship between object-oriented design and object-oriented programming. Each student will receive a copy of the course materials and the textbook.

    Tools & Platforms:Rational-Rose CASE toolThe CASE tool is used exclusively to expedite the process of model construction. The students spend no more than half an hour of their time during the entire class on learning how to use the tool. Not using the CASE toll will make it almost impossible to experience hands-on all the elements of the object-oriented analysis and design process.

    Textbooks:M. Fowler, ÒUML DistilledÓ, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-32563-2 (additional/optional )

    E. Gamma, R. Helm, R. Johnson, J. Vlissides, ÒDesign PatternÓ, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-63361-2


    June 2, 2001, 9:00 - 5:00Topics to be addressed:Object paradigm top-down - analysis & design perspectiveObject paradigm bottom-up - programming perspectiveBasic concepts: abstraction, encapsulation, information hiding, modularityResponsibility view of the requirementsClasses and objects emerging from responsibilitiesComparison of procedural and object-oriented paradigmsClasses and relationships as the building blocks of software architectureCriteria of class qualityIntroduction to Unified Modeling Language (UML)Static & dynamic modelActors and use casesTransitioning from functional requirements to objects - introduction

    Project:Analysis of the requirements for the selected projectIdentifying actors and use casesConstructing use case diagrams

    June 3, 2001, 9:00 - 2:00Topics to be addressed:Transitioning from functional requirements to objectsIdentifying the first group of classesClass specificationClass as an encapsulation of a responsibilityClass, Utility Class, Parameterized Class and its instantiationClass diagram - introductionIdentifying relationships between classesAssociation relationshipsAssociation classesRepresenting relationships with cardinalityAggregation versus compositionRepresenting aggregation and composition relationshipsRepresenting generalization/ specialization (inheritance)PolymorphismAbstract classes and interfacesSpecification of relationshipsImplementing classes & relationships (bottom-up view of relationships)Class diagram

    Project:Identifying first group of classes based on responsibilitiesPreliminary class diagramIdentifying relationships between classesDefining cardinalitiesClass diagram

    June 10, 2001, 9:00 - 5:00 (part I)Topics to be addressed:Static versus dynamic modelIdentifying scenarios through refinement of use casesModeling scenarios using object-interaction and sequence diagrams

    Project:Refining use casesDeveloping and modeling scenariosIdentifying methodsRefining class specifications

    June 10, 2001 (part II)Topics to be addressed:Events, states and actionsState diagramCriteria for using state diagramsConcurrency, active objectsMutual exclusion problemSequential, guarded, and synchronous objectsModeling concurrencyConcurrent state diagramsActivity diagrams

    Project:Evaluating classes for the need of state diagramsConstructing state diagrams for selected classes(Constructing activity diagrams)Refining class specifications

    June 10, 2001, 9:00 - 2:00Topics to be addressed:Introduction to design patterns: Creational patterns, Abstract Factory, Builder, Prototype, Singleton, Virtual Constructor

    Structural Patterns: Adapter, Bridge, Composite, Decorator, Façade, Proxy

    Behavioral Patterns: Chain of Responsibility, Command, Iterator, Mediator, Memento

    Other important topics to be covered in this course:What to expect from an object-oriented languageDynamic nature of object-oriented systems and the issues of garbage collectionEffective use of inheritance and polymorphism and their impact on software qualitySingle versus multiple inheritancePolymorphism versus genericsClass design and data normalization (attribute dependence issues)

    Object-Oriented Analysis And Design — Introduction (Part 1) | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The Concept Of Object-Orientation

    Object-orientation is what’s referred to as a programming paradigm. It’s not a language itself but a set of concepts that is supported by many languages.

    If you aren’t familiar with the concepts of object-orientation, you may take a look at The Story of Object-Oriented Programming.

    If everything we do in these languages is object-oriented, it means, we are oriented or focused around objects.

    Now in an object-oriented language, this one large program will instead be split apart into self contained objects, almost like having several mini-programs, each object representing a different part of the application.

    And each object contains its own data and its own logic, and they communicate between themselves.

    These objects aren’t random. They represent the way you talk and think about the problem you are trying to solve in your real life.

    They represent things like employees, images, bank accounts, spaceships, asteroids, video segment, audio files, or whatever exists in your program.

    Object-Oriented Analysis And Design (OOAD)

    It’s a structured method for analyzing, designing a system by applying the object-orientated concepts, and develop a set of graphical system models during the development life cycle of the software.

    OOAD In The SDLC

    The software life cycle is typically divided up into stages going from abstract descriptions of the problem to designs then to code and testing and finally to deployment.

    The earliest stages of this process are analysis (requirements) and design.

    The distinction between analysis and design is often described as “what Vs how”.

    In analysis developers work with users and domain experts to define what the system is supposed to do. Implementation details are supposed to be mostly or totally ignored at this phase.

    The goal of the analysis phase is to create a model of the system regardless of constraints such as appropriate technology. This is typically done via use cases and abstract definition of the most important objects using conceptual model.

    The design phase refines the analysis model and applies the needed technology and other implementation constrains.

    It focuses on describing the objects, their attributes, behavior, and interactions. The design model should have all the details required so that programmers can implement the design in code.

    They’re best conducted in an iterative and incremental software methodologies. So, the activities of OOAD and the developed models aren’t done once, we will revisit and refine these steps continually.

    Object-Oriented Analysis

    In the object-oriented analysis, we …

  • Elicit requirements: Define what does the software need to do, and what’s the problem the software trying to solve.
  • Specify requirements: Describe the requirements, usually, using use cases (and scenarios) or user stories.
  • Conceptual model: Identify the important objects, refine them, and define their relationships and behavior and draw them in a simple diagram.
  • We’re not going to cover the first two activities, just the last one. These are already explained in detail in Requirements Engineering.

    Object-Oriented Design

    The analysis phase identifies the objects, their relationship, and behavior using the conceptual model (an abstract definition for the objects).

    While in design phase, we describe these objects (by creating class diagram from conceptual diagram — usually mapping conceptual model to class diagram), their attributes, behavior, and interactions.

    In addition to applying the software design principles and patterns which will be covered in later tutorials.

    The input for object-oriented design is provided by the output of object-oriented analysis. But, analysis and design may occur in parallel, and the results of one activity can be used by the other.

    In the object-oriented design, we …

  • Describe the classes and their relationships using class diagram.
  • Describe the interaction between the objects using sequence diagram.
  • Apply software design principles and design patterns.
  • A class diagram gives a visual representation of the classes you need. And here is where you get to be really specific about object-oriented principles like inheritance and polymorphism.

    Describing the interactions between those objects lets you better understand the responsibilities of the different objects, the behaviors they need to have.

    — Other diagrams

    There are many other diagrams we can use to model the system from different perspectives; interactions between objects, structure of the system, or the behavior of the system and how it responds to events.

    It’s always about selecting the right diagram for the right need. You should realize which diagrams will be useful when thinking about or discussing a situation that isn’t clear.

    System modeling and the different models we can use will be discussed next.

    System Modeling

    System modeling is the process of developing models of the system, with each model representing a different perspectives of that system.

    The most important aspect about a system model is that it leaves out detail; It’s an abstract representation of the system.

    The models are usually based on graphical notation, which is almost always based on the notations in the Unified Modeling Language (UML). Other models of the system like mathematical model; a detailed system description.

    Models are used during the analysis process to help to elicit the requirements, during the design process to describe the system to engineers, and after implementation to document the system structure and operation.

    Different Perspectives

    We may develop a model to represent the system from different perspectives.

  • External, where you model the context or the environment of the system.
  • Interaction, where you model the interaction between components of a system, or between a system and other systems.
  • Structural, where you model the organization of the system, or the structure of the data being processed by the system.
  • Behavioral, where you model the dynamic behavior of the system and how it respond to events.
  • Unified Modeling Language (UML)

    The unified modeling language become the standard modeling language for object-oriented modeling. It has many diagrams, however, the most diagrams that are commonly used are:

  • Use case diagram: It shows the interaction between a system and it’s environment (users or systems) within a particular situation.
  • Class diagram: It shows the different objects, their relationship, their behaviors, and attributes.
  • Sequence diagram: It shows the interactions between the different objects in the system, and between actors and the objects in a system.
  • State machine diagram: It shows how the system respond to external and internal events.
  • Activity diagram: It shows the flow of the data between the processes in the system.
  • You can do diagramming work on paper or on a whiteboard, at least in the initial stages of a project. But there are some diagramming tools that will help you to draw these UML diagrams.

    Object-oriented design patterns in the kernel, part 2 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

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    June 7, 2011

    This article was contributed by Neil Brown

    In the first part of this analysis we looked at how the polymorphic side of object-oriented programming was implemented in the Linux kernel using regular C constructs. In particular we examined method dispatch, looked at the different forms that vtables could take, and the circumstances where separate vtables were eschewed in preference for storing function pointers directly in objects. In this conclusion we will explore a second important aspect of object-oriented programming - inheritance, and in particular data inheritance.

    Data inheritance

    Inheritance is a core concept of object-oriented programming, though it comes in many forms, whether prototype inheritance, mixin inheritance, subtype inheritance, interface inheritance etc., some of which overlap. The form that is of interest when exploring the Linux kernel is most like subtype inheritance, where a concrete or "final" type inherits some data fields from a "virtual" parent type. We will call this "data inheritance" to emphasize the fact that it is the data rather than the behavior that is being inherited.

    Put another way, a number of different implementations of a particular interface share, and separately extend, a common data structure. They can be said to inherit from that data structure. There are three different approaches to this sharing and extending that can be found in the Linux kernel, and all can be seen by exploring the struct inode structure and its history, though they are widely used elsewhere.

    Extension through unions

    The first approach, which is probably the most obvious but also the least flexible, is to declare a union as one element of the common structure and, for each implementation, to declare an entry in that union with extra fields that the particular implementation needs. This approach was introduced to struct inode in Linux-0.97.2 (August 1992) when

    union { struct minix_inode_info minix_i; struct ext_inode_info ext_i; struct msdos_inode_info msdos_i; } u;

    was added to struct inode. Each of these structures remained empty until 0.97.5 when i_data was moved from struct inode to struct ext_inode_info. Over the years several more "inode_info" fields were added for different filesystems, peaking at 28 different "inode_info" structures in when ext3 was added.

    This approach to data inheritance is simple and straightforward, but is also somewhat clumsy. There are two obvious problems. Firstly, every new filesystem implementation needs to add an extra field to the union "u". With 3 fields this may not seem like a problem, with 28 it was well past "ugly". Requiring every filesystem to update this one structure is a barrier to adding filesystems that is unnecessary. Secondly, every inode allocated will be the same size and will be large enough to store the data for any filesystem. So a filesystem that wants lots of space in its "inode_info" structure will impose that space cost on every other filesystem.

    The first of these issues is not an impenetrable barrier as we will see shortly. The second is a real problem and the general ugliness of the design encouraged change. Early in the 2.5 development series this change began; it was completed by 2.5.7 when there were no "inode_info" structures left in union u (though the union itself remained until 2.6.19).

    Embedded structures

    The change that happened to inodes in early 2.5 was effectively an inversion. The change which removed ext3_i from struct inode.u also added a struct inode, called vfs_inode, to struct ext3_inode_info. So instead of the private structure being embedded in the common data structure, the common data structure is now embedded in the private one. This neatly avoids the two problems with unions; now each filesystem needs to only allocate memory to store its own structure without any need to know anything about what other filesystems might need. Of course nothing ever comes for free and this change brought with it other issues that needed to be solved, but the solutions were not costly.

    The first difficulty is the fact that when the common filesystem code - the VFS layer - calls into a specific filesystem it passes a pointer to the common data structure, the struct inode. Using this pointer, the filesystem needs to find a pointer to its own private data structure. An obvious approach is to always place the struct inode at the top of the private inode structure and simply cast a pointer to one into a pointer to the other. While this can work, it lacks any semblance of type safety and makes it harder to arrange fields in the inode to get optimal performance - as some kernel developers are wont to do.

    The solution was to use the list_entry() macro to perform the necessary pointer arithmetic, subtracting from the address of the struct inode its offset in the private data structure and then casting this appropriately. The macro for this was called list_entry() simply because the "list.h lists" implementation was the first to use this pattern of data structure embedding. The list_entry() macro did exactly what was needed and so it was used despite the strange name. This practice lasted until 2.5.28 when a new container_of() macro was added which implemented the same functionality as list_entry(), though with slightly more type safety and a more meaningful name. With container_of() it is a simple matter to map from an embedded data structure to the structure in which it is embedded.

    The second difficulty was that the filesystem had to be responsible for allocating the inode - it could no longer be allocated by common code as the common code did not have enough information to allocate the correct amount of space. This simply involved adding alloc_inode() and destroy_inode() methods to the super_operations structure and calling them as appropriate.

    Void pointers

    As noted earlier, the union pattern was not an impenetrable barrier to adding new filesystems independently. This is because the union u had one more field that was not an "inode_info" structure. A generic pointer field called generic_ip was added in Linux-1.0.5, but it was not used until 1.3.7. Any file system that does not own a structure in struct inode itself could define and allocate a separate structure and link it to the inode through u.generic_ip. This approach addressed both of the problems with unions as no changes are needed to shared declarations and each filesystem only uses the space that it needs. However it again introduced new problems of its own.

    Using generic_ip, each filesystem required two allocations for each inode instead of one and this could lead to more wastage depending on how the structure size was rounded up for allocation; it also required writing more error-handling code. Also there was memory used for the generic_ip pointer and often for a back pointer from the private structure to the common struct inode. Both of these are wasted space compared with the union approach or the embedding approach.

    Worse than this though, an extra memory dereference was needed to access the private structure from the common structure; such dereferences are best avoided. Filesystem code will often need to access both the common and the private structures. This either requires lots of extra memory dereferences, or it requires holding the address of the private structure in a register which increases register pressure. It was largely these concerns that stopped struct inode from ever migrating to broad use of the generic_ip pointer. It was certainly used, but not by the major, high-performance filesystems.

    Though this pattern has problems it is still in wide use. struct super_block has an s_fs_info pointer which serves the same purpose as u.generic_ip (which has since been renamed to i_private when the u union was finally removed - why it was not completely removed is left as an exercise for the reader). This is the only way to store filesystem-private data in a super_block. A simple search in the Linux include files shows quite a collection of fields which are void pointers named "private" or something similar. Many of these are examples of the pattern of extending a data type by using a pointer to a private extension, and most of these could be converted to using the embedded-structure pattern.

    Beyond inodes

    While inodes serve as an effective vehicle to introduce these three patterns they do not display the full scope of any of them so it is useful to look further afield and see what else we can learn.

    A survey of the use of unions elsewhere in the kernel shows that they are widely used though in very different circumstances than in struct inode. The particular aspect of inodes that is missing elsewhere is that a wide range of different modules (different filesystems) each wanted to extend an inode in different ways. In most places where unions are used there are a small fixed number of subtypes of the base type and there is little expectation of more being added. A simple example of this is struct nfs_fattr which stores file attribute information decoded out of an NFS reply. The details of these attributes are slightly different for NFSv2 and NFSv3 so there are effectively two subtypes of this structure with the difference encoded in a union. As NFSv4 uses the same information as NFSv3 this is very unlikely to ever be extended further.

    A very common pattern in other uses of unions in Linux is for encoding messages that are passed around, typically between the kernel and user-space. struct siginfo is used to convey extra information with a signal delivery. Each signal type has a different type of ancillary information, so struct siginfo has a union to encode six different subtypes. union inputArgs appears to be the largest current union with 22 different subtypes. It is used by the "coda" network file system to pass requests between the kernel module and a user-space daemon which handles the network communication.

    It is not clear whether these examples should be considered as the same pattern as the original struct inode. Do they really represent different subtypes of a base type, or is it just one type with internal variants? The Eiffel object-oriented programming language does not support variant types at all except through subtype inheritance so there is clearly a school of thought that would want to treat all usages of union as a form of subtyping. Many other languages, such as C++, provide both inheritance and unions allowing the programmer to make a choice. So the answer is not clear.

    For our purposes it doesn't really matter what we call it as long as we know where to use each pattern. The examples in the kernel fairly clearly show that when all of the variants are understood by a single module, then a union is a very appropriate mechanism for variants structures, whether you want to refer to them as using data inheritance or not. When different subtypes are managed by different modules, or at least widely separate pieces of code, then one of the other mechanisms is preferred. The use of unions for this case has almost completely disappeared with only struct cycx_device remaining as an example of a deprecated pattern.

    Problems with void pointers

    Void pointers are not quite so easy to classify. It would probably be fair to say that void pointers are the modern equivalent of "goto" statements. They can be very useful but they can also lead to very convoluted designs. A particular problem is that when you look at a void pointer, like looking at a goto, you don't really know what it is pointing at. A void pointer called private is even worse - it is like a "goto destination" command - almost meaningless without reading lots of context.

    Examining all the different uses that void pointers can be put to would be well beyond the scope of this article. Instead we will restrict our attention to just one new usage which relates to data inheritance and illustrates how the untamed nature of void pointers makes it hard to recognize their use in data inheritance. The example we will use to explain this usage is struct seq_file used by the seq_file library which makes it easy to synthesize simple text files like some of those in /proc. The "seq" part of seq_file simply indicates that the file contains a sequence of lines corresponding to a sequence of items of information in the kernel, so /proc/mounts is a seq_file which walks through the mount table reporting each mount on a single line.

    When seq_open() is used to create a new seq_file it allocates a struct seq_file and assigns it to the private_data field of the struct file which is being opened. This is a straightforward example of void pointer based data inheritance where the struct file is the base type and the struct seq_file is a simple extension to that type. It is a structure that never exists by itself but is always the private_data for some file. struct seq_file itself has a private field which is a void pointer and it can be used by clients of seq_file to add extra state to the file. For example md_seq_open() allocates a struct mdstat_info structure and attaches it via this private field, using it to meet md's internal needs. Again, this is simple data inheritance following the described pattern.

    However the private field of struct seq_file is used by svc_pool_stats_open() in a subtly but importantly different way. In this case the extra data needed is just a single pointer. So rather than allocating a local data structure to refer to from the private field, svc_pool_stats_open simply stores that pointer directly in the private field itself. This certainly seems like a sensible optimization - performing an allocation to store a single pointer would be a waste - but it highlights exactly the source of confusion that was suggested earlier: that when you look at a void pointer you don't really know what is it pointing at, or why.

    To make it a bit clearer what is happening here, it is helpful to imagine "void *private" as being like a union of every different possible pointer type. If the value that needs to be stored is a pointer, it can be stored in this union following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern. If the value is not a single pointer, then it gets stored in allocated space following the "void pointers for data inheritance" pattern. Thus when we see a void pointer being used it may not be obvious whether it is being used to point to an extension structure for data inheritance, or being used as an extension for data inheritance (or being used as something else altogether).

    To highlight this issue from a slightly different perspective it is instructive to examine struct v4l2_subdev which represents a sub-device in a video4linux device, such as a sensor or camera controller within a webcam. According to the (rather helpful) documentation it is expected that this structure will normally be embedded in a larger structure which contains extra state. However this structure still has not just one but two void pointers, both with names suggesting that they are for private use by subtypes:

    /* pointer to private data */ void *dev_priv; void *host_priv;

    It is common that a v4l sub-device (a sensor, usually) will be realized by, for example, an I2C device (much as a block device which stores your filesystem might be realized by an ATA or SCSI device). To allow for this common occurrence, struct v4l2_subdev provides a void pointer (dev_priv), so that the driver itself doesn't need to define a more specific pointer in the larger structure which struct v4l2_subdev would be embedded in. host_priv is intended to point back to a "parent" device such as a controller which acquires video data from the sensor. Of the three drivers which use this field, one appears to follow that intention while the other two use it to point to an allocated extension structure. So both of these pointers are intended to be used following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern, where a void pointer is playing the role of a union of many other pointer types, but they are not always used that way.

    It is not immediately clear that defining this void pointer in case it is useful is actually a valuable service to provide given that the device driver could easily enough define its own (type safe) pointer in its extension structure. What is clear is that an apparently "private" void pointer can be intended for various qualitatively different uses and, as we have seen in two different circumstances, they may not be used exactly as expected.

    In short, recognizing the "data inheritance through void pointers" pattern is not easy. A fairly deep examination of the code is needed to determine the exact purpose and usage of void pointers.

    A diversion into struct page

    Before we leave unions and void pointers behind a look at struct page may be interesting. This structure uses both of these patterns, though they are hidden somewhat due to historical baggage. This example is particularly instructive because it is one case where struct embedding simply is not an option.

    In Linux memory is divided into pages, and these pages are put to a variety of different uses. Some are in the "page cache" used to store the contents of files. Some are "anonymous pages" holding data used by applications. Some are used as "slabs" and divided into pieces to answer kmalloc() requests. Others are simply part of a multi-page allocation or maybe are on a free list waiting to be used. Each of these different use cases could be seen as a subtype of the general class of "page", and in most cases need some dedicated fields in struct page, such as a struct address_space pointer and index when used in the page cache, or struct kmem_cache and freelist pointers when used as a slab.

    Each page always has the same struct page describing it, so if the effective type of the page is to change - as it must as the demands for different uses of memory change over time - the type of the struct page must change within the lifetime of that structure. While many type systems are designed assuming that the type of an object is immutable, we find here that the kernel has a very real need for type mutability. Both unions and void pointers allow types to change and as noted, struct page uses both.

    At the first level of subtyping there are only a small number of different subtypes as listed above; these are all known to the core memory management code, so a union would be ideal here. Unfortunately struct page has three unions with fields for some subtypes spread over all three, thus hiding the real structure somewhat.

    When the primary subtype in use has the page being used in the page cache, the particular address_space that it belongs to may want to extend the data structure further. For this purpose there is a private field that can be used. However it is not a void pointer but is an unsigned long. Many places in the kernel assume an unsigned long and a void * are the same size and this is one of them. Most users of this field actually store a pointer here and have to cast it back and forth. The "buffer_head" library provides macros attach_page_buffers and page_buffers to set and get this field.

    So while struct page is not the most elegant example, it is an informative example of a case where unions and void pointers are the only option for providing data inheritance.

    The details of structure embedding

    Where structure embedding can be used, and where the list of possible subtypes is not known in advance, it seems to be increasingly the preferred choice. To gain a full understanding of it we will again need to explore a little bit further than inodes and contrast data inheritance with other uses of structure embedding.

    There are essentially three uses for structure embedding - three reasons for including a structure within another structure. Sometimes there is nothing particularly interesting going on. Data items are collected together into structures and structures within structures simply to highlight the closeness of the relationships between the different items. In this case the address of the embedded structure is rarely taken, and it is never mapped back to the containing structure using container_of().

    The second use is the data inheritance embedding that we have already discussed. The third is like it but importantly different. This third use is typified by struct list_head and other structs used as an embedded anchor when creating abstract data types.

    The use of an embedded anchor like struct list_head can be seen as a style of inheritance as the structure containing it "is-a" member of a list by virtue of inheriting from struct list_head. However it is not a strict subtype as a single object can have several struct list_heads embedded - struct inode has six (if we include the similar hlist_node). So it is probably best to think of this sort of embedding more like a "mixin" style of inheritance. The struct list_head provides a service - that of being included in a list - that can be mixed-in to other objects, an arbitrary number of times.

    A key aspect of data inheritance structure embedding that differentiates it from each of the other two is the existence of a reference counter in the inner-most structure. This is an observation that is tied directly to the fact that the Linux kernel uses reference counting as the primary means of lifetime management and so would not be shared by systems that used, for example, garbage collection to manage lifetimes.

    In Linux, every object with an independent existence will have a reference counter, sometimes a simple atomic_t or even an int, though often a more explicit struct kref. When an object is created using several levels of inheritance the reference counter could be buried quite deeply. For example a struct usb_device embeds a struct device which embeds struct kobject which has a struct kref. So usb_device (which might in turn be embedded in a structure for some specific device) does have a reference counter, but it is contained several levels down in the nest of structure embedding. This contrasts quite nicely with a list_head and similar structures. These have no reference counter, have no independent existence and simply provide a service to other data structures.

    Though it seems obvious when put this way, it is useful to remember that a single object cannot have two reference counters - at least not two lifetime reference counters (It is fine to have two counters like s_active and s_count in struct super_block which count different things). This means that multiple inheritance in the "data inheritance" style is not possible. The only form of multiple inheritance that can work is the mixin style used by list_head as mentioned above.

    It also means that, when designing a data structure, it is important to think about lifetime issues and whether this data structure should have its own reference counter or whether it should depend on something else for its lifetime management. That is, whether it is an object in its own right, or simply a service provided to other objects. These issues are not really new and apply equally to void pointer inheritance. However an important difference with void pointers is that it is relatively easy to change your mind later and switch an extension structure to be a fully independent object. Structure embedding requires the discipline of thinking clearly about the problem up front and making the right decision early - a discipline that is worth encouraging.

    The other key telltale for data inheritance structure embedding is the set of rules for allocating and initializing new instances of a structure, as has already been hinted at. When union or void pointer inheritance is used the main structure is usually allocated and initialized by common code (the mid-layer) and then a device specific open() or create() function is called which can optionally allocate and initialize any extension object. By contrast when structure embedding is used the structure needs to be allocated by the lowest level device driver which then initializes its own fields and calls in to common code to initialize the common fields.

    Continuing the struct inode example from above which has an alloc_inode() method in the super_block to request allocation, we find that initialization is provided for with inode_init_once() and inode_init_always() support functions. The first of these is used when the previous use of a piece of memory is unknown, the second is sufficient by itself when we know that the memory was previously used for some other inode. We see this same pattern of an initializer function separate from allocation in kobject_init(), kref_init(), and device_initialize().

    So apart from the obvious embedding of structures, the pattern of "data inheritance through structure embedding" can be recognized by the presence of a reference counter in the innermost structure, by the delegation of structure allocation to the final user of the structure, and by the provision of initializing functions which initialize a previously allocated structure.


    In exploring the use of method dispatch (last week) and data inheritance (this week) in the Linux kernel we find that while some patterns seem to dominate they are by no means universal. While almost all data inheritance could be implemented using structure embedding, unions provide real value in a few specific cases. Similarly while simple vtables are common, mixin vtables are very important and the ability to delegate methods to a related object can be valuable.

    We also find that there are patterns in use with little to recommend them. Using void pointers for inheritance may have an initial simplicity, but causes longer term wastage, can cause confusion, and could nearly always be replaced by embedded inheritance. Using NULL pointers to indicate default behavior is similarly a poor choice - when the default is important there are better ways to provide for it.

    But maybe the most valuable lesson is that the Linux kernel is not only a useful program to run, it is also a useful document to study. Such study can find elegant practical solutions to real problems, and some less elegant solutions. The willing student can pursue the former to help improve their mind, and pursue the latter to help improve the kernel itself. With that in mind, the following exercises might be of interest to some.

  • As inodes now use structure embedding for inheritance, void pointers should not be necessary. Examine the consequences and wisdom of removing "i_private" from "struct inode".

  • Rearrange the three unions in struct page to just one union so that the enumeration of different subtypes is more explicit.

  • As was noted in the text, struct seq_file can be extended both through "void pointer" and a limited form of "union" data inheritance. Explain how seq_open_private() allows this structure to also be extended through "embedded structure" data inheritance and give an example by converting one usage in the kernel from "void pointer" to "embedded structure". Consider submitting a patch if this appears to be an improvement. Contrast this implementation of embedded structure inheritance with the mechanism used for inodes.

  • Though subtyping is widely used in the kernel, it is not uncommon for a object to contain fields that not all users are interested in. This can indicate that more fine grained subtyping is possible. As very many completely different things can be represented by a "file descriptor", it is likely that struct file could be a candidate for further subtyping.

    Identify the smallest set of fields that could serve as a generic struct file and explore the implications of embedding that in different structures to implement regular files, socket files, event files, and other file types. Exploring more general use of the proposed open() method for inodes might help here.

  • Identify an "object-oriented" language which has an object model that would meet all the needs of the Linux kernel as identified in these two articles.

  • (Log in to post comments)

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