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050-895 - Novell eDirectory Design and Implementation : eDirectory 8.8 - BrainDump Information

Vendor Name : Novell
Exam Code : 050-895
Exam Name : Novell eDirectory Design and Implementation : eDirectory 8.8
Questions and Answers : 70 Q & A
Updated On : April 25, 2019
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050-895 Novell eDirectory Design and Implementation : eDirectory 8.8

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050-895 exam Dumps Source : Novell eDirectory Design and Implementation : eDirectory 8.8

Test Code : 050-895
Test Name : Novell eDirectory Design and Implementation : eDirectory 8.8
Vendor Name : Novell
Q&A : 70 Real Questions

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Novell Novell eDirectory Design and

CNA examine ebook: Novell eDirectory

David Clarke covers eDirectory trying out pursuits for Novell course 3001: Foundations of Novell Networking.

This chapter is from the publication 

This chapter covers the following testing ambitions for Novell course 3001: Foundations of Novell Networking:

  • identify simple directory service initiatives.

  • identify usual directory carrier uses.

  • Describe how a listing is structured.

  • determine the position and advantages of eDirectory.

  • determine how eDirectory 8.6 works.

  • determine and describe the composition of eDirectory.

  • establish and describe eDirectory object courses.

  • establish the circulate and design of the eDirectory tree.

  • NetWare 6 introduces eDirectory eight.6, the ideal version up to now of Novell's world-classification directory service.

    eDirectory is the world's main listing service. It provides a unifying, go-platform infrastructure for managing, securing, having access to, and constructing all important components of your network. eDirectory scales to the greatest network environments, including the web. because it is according to the X.500 regular, eDirectory supports light-weight directory entry Protocol (LDAP), Hypertext switch Protocol (HTTP), and the Java programming environment.

    eDirectory can shop and manipulate tens of millions of objects in a seamless ballet of communications. It additionally offers the groundwork network provider for all NetWare servers and community supplies. basically, after community communications, it is the most fundamental community service provided by way of NetWare 6.

    With all this in mind, i am sure you could agree that eDirectory administration is certainly one of your key duties as a Novell CNA (licensed community Administrator). during this chapter, you will explore 4 vital lessons regarding eDirectory management:

  • Introduction to listing features—you are going to start with a brief introduction to the fundamentals of directory capabilities, including some common makes use of and the way a directory is structured.

  • realizing eDirectory eight.6—then you definitely'll explore the architecture of Novell eDirectory version 8.6 and compare it to its predecessor, Novell listing capabilities (NDS).

  • using eDirectory Objects—you will dig into the fundamentals at the back of eDirectory's three forms of objects: the Tree object, container objects, and leaf objects.

  • enforcing eDirectory 8.6 Naming—ultimately, you are going to study naming conventions utilized in eDirectory, including naming context rules and inheritance.

  • As that you may see, there is lots to be taught in this chapter and when or not it's all carried out, you'll be an achieved eDirectory administrator. So, let's get started!

    test aims coated:

  • identify basic directory provider tasks.

  • identify commonplace directory carrier makes use of.

  • Describe how a listing is structured.

  • determine the position and merits of eDirectory.

  • The listing provider is likely one of the most fundamental network functions provided by means of all NetWare 6 servers. truly, it represents the communications hub for administrative connectivity between all servers in a large NetWare 6 network. As such, directory service management is certainly one of your key responsibilities because the community administrator.

    As its identify implies, the directory service provides access to a database, referred to as eDirectory, that contains all supplies for the entire network. This object-oriented database is prepared right into a hierarchical structure referred to as the tree. eDirectory offers the fundamental foundation for the listing provider, together with capabilities for replication and distribution. directory is capitalized during this case to distinguish it from the directory (or folder) within the file system. truly, these two "directories" outline both essential roles of a NetWare 6 CNA: File equipment Administrator (directories and information) and eDirectory Administrator (The listing).

    The directory service is your buddy. it may well seem to be a bit intimidating firstly, but if you get to understand the directory provider (and eDirectory, for that rely), or not it's really fun. truly.

    How directory services Work

    A directory service classifies all network materials right into a finite variety of objects. These objects may also be organized via function, vicinity, measurement, type, or color—it does not remember. The factor is, a listing provider organizes network supplies independently from their actual locations. as an example, servers are equipped in accordance with feature. Then clients are placed within the acceptable containers to simplify connectivity. This increases productiveness because clients are near the elements they want. When a consumer logs in to the network, the user can access any object within the Tree, even with its location. This provides a slick ability for managing now not only clients, but additionally all their hardware and purposes. Of direction, within the eDirectory tree (as in lifestyles), it is most efficient to area consumer objects and their supplies (Printers, Servers, and Volumes) in close proximity to each and every different.

    A listing carrier performs a couple of simple initiatives, together with here:

  • Connecting disparate methods—A listing provider integrates and organizes heterogeneous systems to permit them to share average administration. In modern day company world, such programs are required not handiest to communicate with each other, however also to share information and use average services to fulfill the ambitions of the organization.

  • fulfilling the needs of the person, corporation, and company—The network should be bendy satisfactory to deliver a group of interesting features based on particular person wants.

  • Emulating all enterprise relationships—The community must be capable of ensuring that relied on relationships are constructed and maintained between individuals, company, the company's intranet, and the all over the world internet.

  • Coordinating advice stream—tips may emanate both from the enterprise (procedural) or from the community (technical). A directory provider coordinates information movement, no remember what the supply or type of suggestions.

  • guaranteeing counsel availability—A listing service provides a way for making all network tips purchasable to users, instruments, applications, or different materials.

  • TIP

    A listing and a Relational Database management gadget (RDBMS) are two separate entities with diverse services. besides the fact that a directory is a collection of information, it does not substitute the normal RDBMS. Directories and databases complement one a further, despite the fact that they serve distinctive applications.

    customarily, a listing carrier may well be utilized in right here methods:

  • Organizing facts—A listing service organizes information or information for the community. In NetWare 6, eDirectory stores all person, server, printer, and different network gadget information.

  • gaining access to information without problems—akin to the file-and-folder equipment used on a laptop, a directory carrier makes tips about community resources obtainable to clients, instruments, and functions. A directory carrier provides employees with international access to network materials. groups and agencies also use listing features to supply user authentication and authorization for the usage of these community components and services. For businesses with huge numbers of cell clients, eDirectory gives a means for storing person guidance required by means of some purposes. (Such purposes are described as directory-enabled.) From the person's element of view, a directory service offers a world view of all network materials, reminiscent of clients, purposes, services, system resources, and devices.

  • providing security—A listing provider uniquely identifies community resources, locates community objects when required, supports amazing protection aspects, and controls the user access to network substances.

  • proposing capabilities to shoppers—For companies taking advantage of the features of digital company transactions, listing services can help organize numerous databases whereas helping to mesh disparate community programs. This gives more advantageous administration of methods between purchasers, employees, and provide-chain companions. The ensuing advantages are as follows: reduced charges for administration and hardware, quicker entry to records and counsel, and secure community entry with advanced fault tolerance.

  • From a popular standpoint, directory services can additionally deliver digital provisioning, greater safety, consumer profiling, digital wallets, automated notification programs, personalized web interfaces, and virtual private networks (VPNs).


    A digital private community (VPN) commonly is used to switch sensitive enterprise suggestions across an untrusted network (such because the web) in a comfortable vogue (typically by way of encapsulating and encrypting records).

    So, what do you suppose? Is a directory service for you? Who is aware of—you might even like it.

    listing structure

    As you don't forget, the directory provider gives access to the eDirectory database, which incorporates all substances for the entire community. What exactly does eDirectory look like? From the outdoor, it feels like a huge cloud hovering over your network. On the inside, besides the fact that children, it follows a hierarchical tree structure akin to the web domain gadget. it truly is, starting at the WWW Root and increasing to ".com" domains and eventually to servers. In NetWare 6, this design is talked about as the directory tips Tree, which is shortened to the "tree" for functions of our discussion.

    feel of the tree as definitely being inverted. As in nature, the eDirectory tree begins with the Tree object (referred to as the Tree Root) and builds from there. subsequent, it sprouts container objects, which might be branches achieving towards the sky. eventually, leaf objects provide network functionality to clients, servers, and the file equipment. As that you can see in determine 3.1, the tree analogy is alive and well.

    Figure 3.1determine 3.1 The figurative directory features tree.

    The real eDirectory tree is made of logical community objects. eDirectory objects define logical or actual entities that provide organizational or technical characteristic to the network. As you will see later during this chapter, they are available three flavors:

  • Tree Root

  • Container objects

  • Leaf objects

  • The Tree Root is the very excellent of the eDirectory tree. because it represents the opening porthole to the eDirectory world, its icon is accurately an image of a tree. Container objects outline the organizational boundaries of the eDirectory tree and condo other container objects and/or leaf objects. When a container object incorporates other objects, it's known as a mother or father object.

    ultimately, leaf objects are the physical or logical community elements that give technical services and community performance. Leaf objects outline the bottom level of the eDirectory constitution. you'll be taught about the most pleasing leaf objects later in this chapter.

    The constitution of the directory is ruled by a collection of suggestions jointly popular as the directory schema. These guidelines define the type of records, the syntax of that data, and the objects the listing can contain. Schema guidelines fall into two wide categories:

  • Object type definitions—These outline the type of objects and the attributes of these objects.

  • Attribute definitions—These define the constitution (syntax and constraints) of an attribute. with no trouble stated, the attribute price is the exact content material or information.

  • bear in mind after I instructed you that eDirectory turned into in accordance with the X.500 ordinary? earlier than you go tree hiking and discover the dynamics of eDirectory, take a quick look at that commonplace to peer what that all capacity. I consider you are going to spot some spectacular similarities between X.500 and what you may have simply realized about listing capabilities.

    figuring out X.500

    X.500 is a global standard for naming functions. plenty of business standards, comparable to DNA (Digital network architecture), use X.500 with their personal naming functions to give tackle-to-name resolution and listing services. This allows these distributed machines to exist in a big hierarchical administration gadget.

    X.500 organizes community components (corresponding to users and servers) right into a globally attainable listing. The X.500 specification establishes guidelines for representing, having access to, and the use of assistance kept in a listing database. definitely, eDirectory is Novell's implementation of here X.500 points:

  • Scalability—colossal databases may also be subdivided into smaller directory equipment agents (DSAs). A DSA can characterize either a single company or numerous corporations, and its contents may well be distributed across numerous directory servers. eDirectory calls them partitions.

  • Replication—This function allows the directory database, or portions thereof, to be replicated on backup listing servers determined all the way through the network.

  • Synchronization—as a result of X.500 have to manage a loosely coupled, distributed database, each and every server ought to be in a position to synchronize its database contents with different servers. listing database updates may well be made both at the normal master database (master-shadow arrangement) or at any writable replica (peer-to-peer mechanism). In either case, X.500 propagates listing database exchange information to all servers conserving replicas of the database or a DSA.

  • The X.500 directory is represented via a directory advice Tree (DIT) and directory suggestions Base (DIB). at the least a type of should still sound ordinary. The DIB consists of objects (or nodes) and their linked properties and values. Intermediate objects act as containers that help in organizing the DIT. Leaf objects symbolize individual community entities, equivalent to servers, printers, etc. consult with determine three.2 for an illustration of the X.500 directory structure.

    The guidelines that examine the category of suggestions that may be stored within the DIB are held within the listing's schema. (Now this should be sounding really general.) every object in an X.500 DIT has a different name it's known as its uncommon name, or DN, (that's, complete identify). every object may also even be referred to by a relative amazing identify, or RDN, (it really is, partial identify).

    directory database access is managed by a DSA running on a local server. users access the database via a directory consumer Agent (DUA). DUAs can be found in command-line, forms-based, and browser-trend interfaces. DSAs and DUAs communicate with each and every different the use of the listing access Protocol (DAP). moreover, DSAs may additionally communicate with one an additional the use of the directory equipment Protocol (DSP), listing guidance Shadowing Protocol (DISP), or the directory Operational Binding administration Protocol (DOP).

    Figure 3.2figure three.2 X.500 listing architecture.

    Now that you simply be aware of where directory services got here from and generally how they work in NetWare 6, it be time to do some tree hiking! appears like that fun I promised you, doesn't it?

    Novell makes key changes to NetWare certifications

    The IT certification merry-go-around has at all times moved at a dizzying tempo, and people who are looking to gain or retain Novell certifications will should start on to meet Novell's new necessities. right here is a detailed appear at the adjustments.

    regular trade has always been part of the IT certification video game, and Novell has these days thrown another curveball by means of asserting new alterations to its usual certifications. when you are pursuing the NetWare 6 certification or need to comprehensive a relentless certification requirement to retain your Novell designation, study on. this article will provide you with an overview of the brand new requirements for Novell’s CNA, CNE, and MCNE certifications, as well as the continuing requirements for presently certified experts.

    New CNA requirementsThe first step in Novell certification is becoming a licensed Novell Administrator (CNA). To obtain this certification for NetWare 6, you must flow Novell exam 050-677, Foundations of Novell Networking. This examination covers issues such as directory features, safety, net capabilities, LAN/WAN technologies, and client/server management. To prepare for this examination, which you could attend Novell route 3001.

    although passing a single verify to earn CNA certification has not modified, the suggestions it truly is coated within the exam has. as an instance, LAN/WAN know-how is now protected in the CNA examination, whereas earlier than it was covered in a separate Networking technologies exam. These changes are being made to provide certified gurus with a greater generalized background in its place of trying out best on particular Novell guidance for the CNA exam.

    To provide you with the requisite heritage and event, Novell recommends that you simply grasp both the CompTIA A+ and network+ certifications before making an attempt examination 050-677.

    alterations to the CNE programThe biggest change in Novell certification is within the licensed Novell Engineer (CNE) music. first of all, the Networking technologies examination has been eliminated. Novell has partnered with CompTIA and now requires that you simply pass the community+ examination as a part of the CNE certification. The advice in each tests become in fact the same anyway, so this makes lots of experience.

    yet another exchange to the CNE certification program is that there aren't any extra electives. All tests at the moment are regarded to be core exams, making the software the identical for all CNE candidates. I think that this additionally makes experience, on the grounds that all CNEs will now have the equal standard physique of competencies. if you wish to specialize in a subject matter that prior to now became considered an optionally available, such as BorderManager or GroupWise, that you could take individual lessons and tests and earn "specialist Certificates" for distinctive items and applied sciences.

    if you are pursuing the CNE certification, be organized as a result of becoming a CNE nevertheless takes a lot of complicated work. You should first grasp the CNA and community+ certifications. Then, you have to move four core tests:

  • exam 050-681, Novell network administration: NetWare 6, covers the identical themes because the CNA examination but at a extra advanced degree. To put together for this exam, you can attend Novell direction 3004.
  • superior Novell community management: NetWare 6 (this path doesn't have a number yet) is presently being designed and should be launched later this 12 months. it will test your knowledge of advanced NetWare and network administration topics. To prepare for this examination, you can attend Novell route 3005.
  • exam 050-664, Novell eDirectory Design and Implementation, assessments your knowledge of eDirectory Design and Implementation subject matters. To put together for this exam, that you can attend Novell direction 575.
  • examination 050-662, desktop management with ZENworks for desktops three, will examine your capabilities of ZENworks for computers three. To prepare for this examination, that you could attend Novell route 781.
  • incomes your CNE certification is not convenient, but the alterations which have been made to this tune may still make the CNE certification greater positive.

    necessities for MCNE certificationAfter obtaining their CNE certification, many specialists decide to attain the grasp CNE (MCNE) certification. here is the premiere degree of Novell certification and suggests that you are an expert in Novell networking.

    prior to now, you could achieve MCNE certification by way of focusing on a few areas of skills, such as ZENworks, BorderManager, or GroupWise. Novell has scrapped those specialization areas and now requires all MCNE candidates to circulate the same three exams. To reap this certification, you have to first be a CNE. you are then confronted with the challenge of passing three greater assessments:

  • the first required examination, superior TCP/IP, will examine your capabilities of troubleshooting and superior TCP/IP issues.
  • The Novell secure access exam will test your competencies of products similar to BorderManager, iChain, Single sign-On, and Authentication capabilities.
  • continuing its new affiliation with CompTIA, Novell will also require MCNE candidates to move the CompTIA IT undertaking+ exam. This exam will look at various your knowledge of a number of business and project management capabilities.
  • These three exams are at the moment being developed and will be available later in 2002. once again, we suppose that trying out all MCNE candidates on the equal body of knowledge makes feel because employers will be aware of exactly what class of skills an MCNE has.

    carrying on with certification requirementsLike most carriers, Novell requires its certified professionals to update their certifications every time a brand new edition of its working system is released. This ensures that you've got capabilities of Novell’s latest products and continues the certification valuable to employers.

    in case you at present hang the CNE certification, you can take Novell exam 50-676, Upgrading to NetWare 6, to meet the carrying on with certification requirement. To prepare for this exam, which you can take Novell classification 3000. Novell has now not set a mandatory date for recertification, but it surely should be introduced soon.

    CNEs are not the best ones required to replace their certifications. The MCNE continuing certification requirement states that MCNEs need to move the NetWare 6 carrying on with certification requirement and circulate the IT undertaking+ exam. You may have unless Jan. three, 2003, to meet these necessities.

    Wrap upNovell turned into the first supplier to soar-start the IT certification craze and has at all times taken satisfaction in holding its courses and assessments up to this point and principal to the business. The alterations outlined listed here are a continuation of its efforts to give a fantastic certification software to trade experts and employers. I trust that these alterations are effective and will supply IT experts licensed through Novell with a strong overview of crucial IT issues, in addition to Novell items, making the certification extra applicable to what IT pros see in the place of work day by day.

    Go In-Depth With LDAP and Novell's eDirectory


    EUC with HCI: Why It matters

    you are responsible for managing 15,000 user money owed and 20,000 computer systems in your enterprise. it's 9 a.m. on Monday. did you know the place your clients' computer systems are? if you're working for a standard enterprise, well-nigh actually you don't. "British Telecom lately audited their IT property and located that they had 20,000 extra computer systems than they concept," says Dave Bingham, Consulting Director, Fujitsu Consulting UK. Now that's a major programs management problem!

    Many organizations are sinking beneath the weight of their current legacy network identification, access handle, and provisioning methods. one of the most warning signs that you could have a problem:

  • users can not be aware all their passwords as a result of every utility requires its personal authentication
  • directory counsel is out of date, or incomplete
  • Ex-personnel still have entry to local/far flung community features
  • It takes on usual, 22 steps to create a brand new worker e-mail address
  • Little or no auditing of debts and privileges, together with go utility comparisons to get a true sense of person actions
  • Redundant administration points and no pre-centered delegation policies
  • Proprietary access, authentication, and provisioning APIs for each application
  • As large and small groups alike battle to manage IT assets and costs, international community id administration techniques are looking increasingly eye-catching. The Forrester group predicts most Fortune 100 businesses can be implementing these programs to reduce TCO (complete can charge of ownership), get rid of guide/legacy systems, and streamline enterprise procedures.

    What do Novell, identity administration and LDAP (lightweight directory entry Protocol) need to do with any of this? is that this the same moribund business common for the mature NetWare, NDS (Novell listing carrier), and GroupWise product strains? sure, a revitalized Novell is aggressively pursuing the community identity administration and directory features market with a brand new technology of LDAP-primarily based items and technologies. via building on Novell's typical strengths in directory administration and de-coupling these items from their flagship NDS NOS product, it is hoping to compete at once with iPlanet, Oblix, vital course, Microsoft, and different identity management carriers. The next few years will be a battleground for network identification providers and consultants as they battle to set up themselves during this new marketplace. let us take a greater extensive look at Novell's LDAP implementation and directory provider products to peer why be sure to be severely on account that them if you'd like an business scale LDAP gadget.

    Why Novell and LDAP?Novell realized it crucial an open ordinary for its front-conclusion software software. LDAP become the glaring option as a result of Novell had traditionally based mostly both the NetWare and NDS systems on the X.500 protocol and LDAP changed into firstly designed because the X.500 entrance conclusion. In March 1999, Novell released a copy of open source LDAP as a part of its SDK (software developer's equipment) indicating its full support for the LDAP regular. at the time Kurt Zeilenga, chief architect of the OpenLDAP project, referred to, "global adoption of technologies requires that developers have access to open and reusable code. we're comfortable that Novell has chosen to make use of OpenLDAP utility and has made its changes attainable to the group so all may additionally advantage. We seem to be ahead to working with Novell in furthering open supply LDAP software." It clearly had the full assist of the developer neighborhood.

    besides the fact that children LDAP has been round as a standard protocol given that 1995 unless these days it has been a strictly returned-office commercial enterprise network service. up to now, the simplest open ordinary for directories turned into X.500, introduced in 1988. due to the fact X.500 turned into OSI model based mostly, LDAP turned into designed to function a translation protocol between the TCP/IP and OSI models. because it is the most open and versatile of the entire network capabilities protocols, the network identification administration group has embraced it as the core expertise to join user and computing device id guidance together into one seamless entire. it is now the de facto usual for many fundamental id administration services functions. Openwave and iPlanet each use LDAP because the underlying address listing know-how for commercial enterprise electronic mail features items. LDAP is an established, potent, scalable open listing typical -- an exceedingly beautiful solution.

    Novell NDS and LDAPHow has that modified Novell's items? First, let us seem to be on the details of how the NDS system has thoroughly integrated LDAP. NDS eight provides effective LDAP help by means of allowing entry at once to a NDS information shop. This affords the best of both worlds -- open specifications for listing entry whereas leveraging Novell's protection strengths corresponding to powerful authentication and server-server replication. This improved assist includes:

  • LDAP services are put in with the aid of default, which means that LDAP customers can transparently access NDS objects using SSL devoid of requiring any extra client application.
  • capability to jot down at once to LDAP schema. To exchange an LDAP-NDS mapping, go to the ConsoleOne (Novell's Java-primarily based server/computing device management application) screen and select LDAP neighborhood Object. appropriate click this object and select houses. which you could then go to the Attribute map or category Map tab to add/adjust/delete the applicable object.
  • Full auxiliary category help, which skill if an NDS or LDAP object is a member of numerous object classes, it inherits the attributes of all these object courses. observe there are three default auxiliary courses in NDS.
  • eDirectory - Novell's listing service ProducteDirectory, which developed from NDS, is a listing provider this is scalable, extensible, and excessive efficiency. in reality, Novell has publicly established that eDirectory can control greater than a thousand million objects in a single tree. This skill a long way exceeds what most enterprise networks or e-corporations will ever require. a few of eDirectory's major add-ons like international printing features are incorporated into NetWare 6.

    FeaturesSome of eDirectory's new or more advantageous points protected in version 8.7 - codenamed "Falcon" are:

  • Full assist on dissimilar systems, Netware, home windows NT/2000, and UNIX flavors (Linux, AIX, and Solaris). this is remarkable information for multi-platform firms.
  • eDirectory has full aid for replication (varied dispensed copies of the listing in case of failover) and portioning (splitting listing logically to guide decentralized administration and superior network efficiency). here's primarily crucial in a 7x24, 5 9s, mission critical deployments.
  • Full assist of LDAP over SSL/TLS (cozy Socket Layer & Transport Layer safety protocols). This feature is very crucial within the net-primarily based features enviornment.
  • helps SNMP monitoring. each directory monitoring and administration consoles can be found. ConsoleOne is a Java-based for servers/workstations, and iMonitor is an internet-based monitoring and diagnostics for all business eDirectories.
  • IManager is an internet-based directory manager that performs operations on directory objects, together with access, creation, listing portioning, and replication.
  • It includes an import/export utility using LDAP listing Interchange layout (LDIF) for simplified ports and integration with legacy techniques. It may also be completed from both the command line or the ConsoleOne or iManager items.
  • listing StructureHere is a quick overview of the Novell directory constitution from appropriate to backside. Novell calls its directories "container objects."

  • TREE (as soon as called [ROOT]) is the right of the directory hierarchy and includes all objects within the directory. basically used to supply or deny world rights.
  • organization carries all objects for a company or business. This comprises the Administrator user. a country object can also be created at this degree for more refinement.
  • ORGANIZATIONAL UNIT (OU) - is an extra subdivision of a firm constitution (akin to divisions, geographical, and many others). users are created at this level.
  • domain (DNS Domains) - allows for eDirectory interaction with DNS for location of functions.
  • DirXMLDir XML gives bi-directional and Meta-listing capabilities between e-directory and other enterprise and legacy programs. The programs speak by using without delay processing XML documents. DirXML runs on quite a lot of platforms -- Linux, NetWare, Solaris, and home windows NT/2000, but requires eDirectory 8.5 or later. presently purchasable DirXML drivers consist of:

  • LDAP Directories - IPlanet/Netscape directory Server, crucial route InJoin listing, IBM SecureWay
  • digital Messaging - Groupwise, Lotus Notes, Microsoft exchange
  • enterprise functions - Peoplesoft, IBM WebSphere MQ, Oracle, IBM DB2, and Sybase
  • working gadget Domains - NT, energetic directory, NIS
  • Delimited textual content - Miscellaneous
  • DirXML ComponentsBetween eDirectory/DirXML there are two various kinds of records flows.

  • writer Channel - Sends records from a variety of methods to eDirectory.
  • Subscriber Channel.- Sends records from eDirectory to quite a few programs.
  • DirXML Driver - Handles the conversation between DirXML engine and the application but now not the rule processing. This contains receiving the XML doc and translating it into a group of instructions, which can be then sent to the acceptable facts shop. observe that DirXML 1.1 now not requires eDirectory and DirXML running on the server enabling far off drivers to be dynamically loaded.
  • DirXML Engine - translates directory routine corresponding to add, adjust, or delete to an XML document. Translation comprises processing a lot of filters, suggestions, and grace sheets to achieve the favored outcomes.
  • Objects - eDirectory operations involve certain key objects, DirXML-DriverSet, DirXML-Driver, DirXML-writer, and DirXML-Subscriber.
  • Filters -- assess which attributes akin to name or tackle could be affected for this selected channel session.
  • guidelines units
  • Object mapping -- acquaintances an object within the eDirectory schema with an object within the external utility.
  • Matching -- Determines the attributes and values in eDirectory and the corresponding application that should fit before developing an association attribute.
  • Create Object -- Specifies the attribute and values that need to be in region before a brand new object or list is created.
  • Placement -- Specifies the place in the utility the objects are stored. distinct suggestions are typically used.
  • XSLT trend sheets - outline the XLST transformation rules that transforms instructions or directory routine found in the XML documents.
  • Developer ServicesAdditional features and products Novell offers specially designed to aid developers consist of:

  • customized DirXML Drivers -- Written in either C++ or Java. The Java drivers requires JDK 1.1.7b or later. builders can use DSTrace facility and DirXML trace log for debugging.
  • XML Interfaces for C++ - allows for the developer to write messages to DSTrace facility and DirXML trace log.
  • LDAP Extensions and control for JNDI (Java Naming and directory Interface).
  • look at various Server for LDAP
  • eDirectory category Libraries for C and Java - Used to perform operations reminiscent of query or add on a LDAP listing. part of the Novell Developer package (NDK), it uses open source code from the OpenLDAP task.
  • Some CautionsNovell is moving the right direction by porting the kit to distinctive platforms, but when you definitely want to have a fully integrated gadget, you should definitely nonetheless be the use of the other Novell items together with eDirectory. however eDirectory has some super aspects that make it easier to increase business scaled directory services primarily based purposes, it is still at heart an NDS based product. it is going to likely work most beneficial for you if you have already got a NetWare setting up and a few familiarity with the Novell strategy to network based mostly commercial enterprise services. Tony Neal, IT manager at Marriott overseas Inc. views Novell LDAP support as "a further piece of the protocol puzzle that will tie every little thing together, with NDS as the true engine underneath". It isn't clear when talking to Novell how many of their eDirectory installations are truly new purchasers and never simply extra earnings to the existing Novell customer base.

    a few years returned Novell took a significant misstep after they proposed a brand new top-stage .dir area for the information superhighway. The proposed .dir domain changed into a so-known as chartered domain and would have required .dir applicants to be absolutely compliant with LDAP 2000, an LDAP conformance verify sponsored via DIF. Novell claimed that organising the .dir area become crucial because it would guarantee the classification of sites that could use it. The proposed domain automatically met with group resistance and become promptly withdrawn. "Why is all and sundry looking to ICANN to rubber-stamp their company models?" spoke of Rick Wesson, CEO of Alice's Registry, in Santa Cruz, Calif., a consultancy for ICANN-permitted registrars. "Novell desires to create a LDAP (lightweight listing entry Protocol) root, however would not want a TLD to do this. it could possibly construct the identical infrastructure under the latest DNS domains."

    Is Novell excited about LDAP?Novell has been active with two emerging IETF standards groups. These efforts will little doubt end up in future Novell internet, operating gadget, and directory items.

  • SAML (protection fact Markup Language) 1.0 allows for applications to share authentication assistance. In July, Novell participated in a SAML Interoperability discussion board as a part of the Burton group. despite the fact, the single sign-on solution is still a work-in-development.
  • The equal group OASIS (organization for the advancement of Structured suggestions requirements) that oversees SAML also is growing the UDDI (typical Description, Discovery and Integration) specification. UDDI contains a protocol for describing net features and queries about companies/products. Novell sponsored engineers authored a draft schema to area UDDI information in an LDAP listing.
  • Liberty Alliance is creating a "federated" identity authentication protocol, called "a circle of trust", that enables clients to transparently navigate between affiliated companies. There are various security access issues nonetheless to be decided before this turns into truth. It is not clear what capabilities this schema has over present certification techniques, like PKI.
  • Novell builders are working on the next unencumber of Netware code named "Nakoma." it is going to include improved DirXML assist for tighter integration between NetWare, Novell Portal capabilities, and legacy company directories that require directory-based mostly identification and access capabilities. present projected availability is summer time 2003.

    Some enhancements that are part of "venture fate" the overall Novell eDirectory and directory enhancement effort consist of:

  • UDDI server due through yr-conclusion.
  • the longer term version of eDirectory may be extra dynamic with more advantageous suggestions-primarily based "decision-making" about people, and directory records.
  • "Saturn" is a Novell effort to make eDirectory and iChain (identity-pushed net entry) compatible with the freedom Alliance specification. "Saturn" reportedly could be completed by way of year-end.
  • Dynamic identity capabilities and entry should be granted in line with the utility.
  • In conclusion, Novell has been working tough to position itself within the forefront of the LDAP development neighborhood. Novell has leveraged its potential with X.500 and NDS to create a powerful set of equipment the use of LDAP and the NDS structure. if you are keen on huge-scale identification administration applications and also you have already got some familiarity with the Novell environment, eDirectory may be simply the toolkit you deserve to construct your software.

    extra supplies

    Beth Cohen is president of Luth laptop experts, Inc., a consulting follow that specialize in IT infrastructure for smaller corporations. She has been within the trenches supporting company IT infrastructure for over two decades in a number of distinct fields including structure, building, engineering, utility, telecommunications, and analysis. She is at present writing a ebook about IT for the small business and pursuing an assistance Age MBA from Bentley college.

    Hallett German is an IT consultant who is skilled in implementing solid IT infrastructures with an emphasis on electronic messaging and directories. he is the founder of the Northeast SAS users group and former President of the REXX Language association. he's the creator of three books on scripting languages.

    » See All Articles with the aid of Columnist Beth Cohen

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    Novell eDirectory Design and Implementation : eDirectory 8.8

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    Novell eDirectory

    This chapter is from the book 

    This chapter covers the following testing objectives for Novell Course 3001: Foundations of Novell Networking:

  • Identify basic Directory Service tasks.

  • Identify common Directory Service uses.

  • Describe how a Directory is structured.

  • Identify the role and benefits of eDirectory.

  • Identify how eDirectory 8.6 works.

  • Identify and describe the composition of eDirectory.

  • Identify and describe eDirectory object classes.

  • Identify the flow and design of the eDirectory tree.

  • NetWare 6 introduces eDirectory 8.6, the greatest version to date of Novell's world-class directory service.

    eDirectory is the world's leading Directory service. It provides a unifying, cross-platform infrastructure for managing, securing, accessing, and developing all major components of your network. eDirectory scales to the largest network environments, including the Internet. Because it is based on the X.500 standard, eDirectory supports Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), and the Java programming environment.

    eDirectory can store and manage millions of objects in a seamless ballet of communications. It also provides the foundation network service for all NetWare servers and network resources. In fact, after network communications, it is the most fundamental network service offered by NetWare 6.

    With all this in mind, I'm sure you would agree that eDirectory management is one of your key responsibilities as a Novell CNA (Certified Network Administrator). In this chapter, you will explore four important lessons regarding eDirectory management:

  • Introduction to Directory Services—You'll begin with a brief introduction to the basics of Directory services, including some common uses and how a Directory is structured.

  • Understanding eDirectory 8.6—Then you'll explore the architecture of Novell eDirectory version 8.6 and compare it to its predecessor, Novell Directory Services (NDS).

  • Using eDirectory Objects—You'll dig into the basics behind eDirectory's three types of objects: the Tree object, container objects, and leaf objects.

  • Implementing eDirectory 8.6 Naming—Finally, you'll learn about naming conventions used in eDirectory, including naming context rules and inheritance.

  • As you can see, there's a lot to learn in this chapter and when it's all done, you'll be an accomplished eDirectory administrator. So, let's get started!

    Test Objectives Covered:

  • Identify basic Directory Service tasks.

  • Identify common Directory Service uses.

  • Describe how a Directory is structured.

  • Identify the role and benefits of eDirectory.

  • The Directory Service is one of the most fundamental network services provided by all NetWare 6 servers. In fact, it represents the communications hub for administrative connectivity between all servers in a large NetWare 6 network. As such, Directory Service management is one of your key responsibilities as the network administrator.

    As its name implies, the Directory service provides access to a database, called eDirectory, that contains all resources for the entire network. This object-oriented database is organized into a hierarchical structure called the tree. eDirectory provides the basic foundation for the Directory service, including capabilities for replication and distribution. Directory is capitalized in this case to differentiate it from the directory (or folder) in the file system. In fact, these two "directories" define the two major roles of a NetWare 6 CNA: File System Administrator (directories and files) and eDirectory Administrator (The Directory).

    The Directory service is your friend. It may seem a little intimidating at first, but when you get to know the Directory service (and eDirectory, for that matter), it's actually fun. Really.

    How Directory Services Work

    A Directory service classifies all network resources into a finite number of objects. These objects can be organized by function, location, size, type, or color—it doesn't matter. The point is, a Directory service organizes network resources independently from their physical locations. For example, servers are organized according to function. Then users are placed in the appropriate containers to simplify connectivity. This increases productivity because users are near the resources they need. When a user logs in to the network, the user can access any object in the Tree, regardless of its location. This provides a slick means for managing not only users, but also all their hardware and applications. Of course, in the eDirectory tree (as in life), it is best to place User objects and their resources (Printers, Servers, and Volumes) in close proximity to each other.

    A Directory service performs several basic tasks, including the following:

  • Connecting disparate systems—A Directory service integrates and organizes heterogeneous systems to allow them to share common management. In today's business world, such systems are required not only to communicate with each other, but also to share information and use common services to meet the objectives of the organization.

  • Satisfying the needs of the user, organization, and business—The network must be flexible enough to provide a set of unique services based on individual needs.

  • Emulating all business relationships—The network must be capable of ensuring that trusted relationships are built and maintained between people, business, the company's intranet, and the World Wide Web.

  • Coordinating information flow—Information may emanate either from the business (procedural) or from the network (technical). A Directory service coordinates information flow, no matter what the source or type of information.

  • Ensuring information availability—A Directory service provides a means for making all network information available to users, devices, applications, or other resources.

  • TIP

    A Directory and a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) are two separate entities with different functions. Even though a Directory is a collection of information, it does not replace the traditional RDBMS. Directories and databases complement one another, even though they serve different purposes.

    Typically, a Directory service may be used in the following ways:

  • Organizing data—A Directory service organizes data or information for the network. In NetWare 6, eDirectory stores all user, server, printer, and other network device information.

  • Accessing information easily—Similar to the file-and-folder system used on a computer, a Directory service makes information about network resources available to users, devices, and applications. A Directory service provides employees with global access to network resources. Businesses and organizations also use Directory services to provide user authentication and authorization for using these network resources and services. For organizations with large numbers of mobile users, eDirectory provides a means for storing user information required by some applications. (Such applications are described as Directory-enabled.) From the user's point of view, a Directory service provides a global view of all network resources, such as users, applications, services, system resources, and devices.

  • Providing security—A Directory service uniquely identifies network resources, locates network objects when required, supports robust security features, and controls the user access to network resources.

  • Providing services to customers—For organizations taking advantage of the features of electronic business transactions, Directory services can help organize multiple databases while helping to mesh disparate network systems. This provides better management of processes between customers, employees, and supply-chain partners. The resulting benefits are as follows: reduced costs for administration and hardware, faster access to data and information, and secure network access with superior fault tolerance.

  • From a general perspective, Directory services can also provide electronic provisioning, enhanced security, customer profiling, electronic wallets, automated notification systems, customized Web interfaces, and virtual private networks (VPNs).


    A virtual private network (VPN) often is used to transfer sensitive company information across an untrusted network (such as the Internet) in a secure fashion (typically by encapsulating and encrypting data).

    So, what do you think? Is a Directory service for you? Who knows—you might even like it.

    Directory Architecture

    As you recall, the Directory service provides access to the eDirectory database, which contains all resources for the entire network. What exactly does eDirectory look like? From the outside, it looks like a big cloud hovering over your network. On the inside, however, it follows a hierarchical tree structure similar to the Internet domain system. That is, starting at the WWW Root and expanding to ".com" domains and eventually to servers. In NetWare 6, this design is referred to as the Directory Information Tree, which is shortened to the "tree" for purposes of our discussion.

    Think of the tree as actually being inverted. As in nature, the eDirectory tree starts with the Tree object (called the Tree Root) and builds from there. Next, it sprouts container objects, which are branches reaching toward the sky. Finally, leaf objects provide network functionality to users, servers, and the file system. As you can see in Figure 3.1, the tree analogy is alive and well.

    Figure 3.1Figure 3.1 The figurative Directory services tree.

    The real eDirectory tree is made up of logical network objects. eDirectory objects define logical or physical entities that provide organizational or technical function to the network. As you will see later in this chapter, they come in three flavors:

  • Tree Root

  • Container objects

  • Leaf objects

  • The Tree Root is the very top of the eDirectory tree. Because it represents the opening porthole to the eDirectory world, its icon is appropriately a picture of a tree. Container objects define the organizational boundaries of the eDirectory tree and house other container objects and/or leaf objects. When a container object contains other objects, it is called a parent object.

    Finally, leaf objects are the physical or logical network resources that provide technical services and network functionality. Leaf objects define the lowest level of the eDirectory structure. You'll learn about the most interesting leaf objects later in this chapter.

    The structure of the Directory is governed by a set of rules collectively known as the Directory schema. These rules define the type of data, the syntax of that data, and the objects the Directory can contain. Schema rules fall into two broad categories:

  • Object class definitions—These define the type of objects and the attributes of those objects.

  • Attribute definitions—These define the structure (syntax and constraints) of an attribute. Simply stated, the attribute value is the actual content or data.

  • Remember when I told you that eDirectory was based on the X.500 standard? Before you go tree climbing and explore the dynamics of eDirectory, take a quick look at that standard to see what that all means. I think you'll spot some amazing similarities between X.500 and what you've just learned about Directory services.

    Understanding X.500

    X.500 is an international standard for naming services. A variety of industry standards, such as DNA (Digital Network Architecture), use X.500 with their own naming services to provide address-to-name resolution and directory services. This enables these distributed machines to exist in a large hierarchical management system.

    X.500 organizes network resources (such as users and servers) into a globally accessible Directory. The X.500 specification establishes guidelines for representing, accessing, and using information stored in a directory database. In fact, eDirectory is Novell's implementation of the following X.500 features:

  • Scalability—Large databases can be subdivided into smaller Directory System Agents (DSAs). A DSA can represent either a single organization or multiple organizations, and its contents may be distributed across multiple Directory servers. eDirectory calls them partitions.

  • Replication—This feature allows the Directory database, or portions thereof, to be replicated on backup Directory servers located throughout the network.

  • Synchronization—Because X.500 must manage a loosely coupled, distributed database, each server must be able to synchronize its database contents with other servers. Directory database updates may be made either at the original master database (master-shadow arrangement) or at any writable replica (peer-to-peer mechanism). In either case, X.500 propagates Directory database change information to all servers holding replicas of the database or a DSA.

  • The X.500 Directory is represented by a Directory Information Tree (DIT) and Directory Information Base (DIB). At least one of those should sound familiar. The DIB consists of objects (or nodes) and their associated properties and values. Intermediate objects act as containers that aid in organizing the DIT. Leaf objects represent individual network entities, such as servers, printers, and so on. Refer to Figure 3.2 for an illustration of the X.500 Directory architecture.

    The rules that determine the type of information that may be stored in the DIB are held in the Directory's schema. (Now this should be sounding really familiar.) Each object in an X.500 DIT has a unique name that is referred to as its distinguished name, or DN, (that is, complete name). Each object may also be referred to by a relative distinguished name, or RDN, (that is, partial name).

    Directory database access is managed by a DSA running on a local server. Users access the database through a Directory User Agent (DUA). DUAs are available in command-line, forms-based, and browser-style interfaces. DSAs and DUAs communicate with each other using the Directory Access Protocol (DAP). Furthermore, DSAs may communicate with one another using the Directory System Protocol (DSP), Directory Information Shadowing Protocol (DISP), or the Directory Operational Binding Management Protocol (DOP).

    Figure 3.2Figure 3.2 X.500 Directory architecture.

    Now that you know where Directory services came from and generally how they work in NetWare 6, it's time to do some tree climbing! Sounds like that fun I promised you, doesn't it?

    Identity Management Case Example

    A large food and general merchandise wholesaler in the United States had a strategic vision based on strengthening its relationships with the market’s largest retailers, and increasing its vertical penetration through the acquisition of niche channel wholesalers.

    The company was relying upon the added business flexibility provided by their SAP implementation and extending their existing investment in legacy technology to support this vision. Integration of the legacy technology, however, had become a barrier to their success, due to its security management inefficiencies and administration risk.

    The company was struggling with maintaining a secure IT architecture compliant with government laws and corporate business control objectives. Their existing security architecture was based on the coordination and integration of disparate application-based security systems. Each of the applications was designed with its own user identity, authentication and authorization capabilities that resulted in their security management becoming overly complex, labor-intensive and error-prone.

    The company was seeking to transition to a shared-service identity management architecture, consisting of directory and security services that make identity, security and policy management reusable resources across all applications. At the center of this vision was their desire to extend their investment in their SAP R/3 Human Resources module and use it as the authoritative source for their identity management solution.

    The company had two key objectives.

    The short-term objective was to implement a security solution whereby authorization for access to the warehouse management system would be centrally defined, managed and controlled, based on predefined job roles. The solution had to automatically add, change or delete a user’s access in all warehouse systems within the company’s numerous distribution centers located throughout the United States.

    The long-term goal was to design an identity management solution that would create an efficient and reliable process for ultimately administering all user access needs for all level-one applications (to include TCI, Manugistics, SAP, MS Exchange, and WebSphere MQ) and operating systems (to include OS/390, AS/400, NT and AIX) at the company. The company also was introducing a new internet architecture and looking to increase their web commerce capabilities. The identity management solution had to incorporate a web single sign-on solution (using IBM Tivoli Access Manager) that will establish a common web authentication, identity control and authorization structure.

    Creating the solution

    A four-week strategy session produced requirements and an implementation plan to achieve the short- and long-term objectives. The high level design consisted of utilizing SAP R/3 HR as the authoritative source for the company’s employee identities. Events (hire, change, termination) would be provisioned from SAP to an identity repository consisting of Novell eDirectory.

    A ‘role based access controls (RBAC)’ model would be developed based upon employee attributes available within SAP R/3 HR (job codes and positions), and utilized to provision employee actions (add, change, disable) to downstream applications. The provisioning of employee information from SAP R/3 HR to the identity repository and down to a warehouse management application would be enabled using Novell DirXML software/technology.

    The final component of the solution would be establishing IBM’s Tivoli Access Manager as the single control point for web based authentication to secure all internet and intranet-based traffic/access. Tivoli Access Manager would be configured to use the identity repository as the authentication source for web-based applications and users.

    A 90-day implementation plan was developed that broke the project down into four steps:

  • Establishing SAP as the employee authoritative source
  • Implementing the identity repository
  • Provision to the warehouse management application
  • Implementing web single sign-on for selected applications
  • The first deliverable in this step was an ‘identity model.’ The process used to develop this model consisted of an analysis of the SAP HR environment and business processes, as well as the applications to be provisioned downstream and protected by the web single sign-on solution. This analysis required not only a review of the technical needs of the applications but also of the underlying business processes supporting the technology (HR and downstream applications). This was done to ensure that any data quality demands placed on the model could be supported.

    The next step was to enable the clients SAP R/3 Human Resource module to share information between SAP and Novell eDirectory. SAP requires the use of application link enabling (ALE) functionality and an SAP-validated interface method (IDOC processing) to share information. ALE uses SAP intermediate document (IDOC) capabilities to pass information across systems.

    Synchronizing between systems

    It was determined that the identity repository would require a flat tree structure. The initial scope of the identity management project was to synchronize ’employee identity’ attributes from the SAP R/3 HR module to an identity repository ‘Company_IM tree.’ This was achieved utilizing a technology solution from Novell called DirXML. DirXML is an event-driven utility that provides flexible synchronization between disparate systems so that enterprise data can be kept up to date with minimal maintenance costs. DirXML was used to synchronize employee identity information between SAP R/3 HR, eDirectory and the warehouse management application.

    Since the applications had different ways of representing data elements, DirXML was used to match the ‘object classes’ (accounts or records) and ‘attributes’ (fields) between the different applications. By doing this ‘schema mapping,’ the underlying applications did not need to be modified to match eDirectory. Each application was enabled with a DirXML driver that mapped their object classes and attributes to allow the DirXML configuration to be based on eDirectory attributes.

    Additionally, some applications required fields to be filled in before a user account could be created. By identifying these required attributes, DirXML was used to enforce the business processes by ‘vetoing’ the creation of an account until all required attributes had values. Applications also had existing employee accounts where a method to match objects between the systems had to be created. We achieved this through a process known as ‘object mapping’ that allowed existing objects to be matched to existing or newly created eDirectory objects as long as unique matching criteria could be determined.

    Finally, different applications did not represent data in the same format or method. This was overcome through the use of data transformation techniques that can manipulate data from one system to the next into the proper format. This can be as simple as translating a full name into three attributes (given name, middle initial, last name) or as complex as applying an external process to a series of attributes.

    DirXML was also used to provision the necessary accounts to the warehouse management application. This was achieved by the execution of a data mapping exercise that identified all the necessary fields required by the warehouse management application. Each field was then reviewed to determine if it would be populated directly from an identity repository attribute, derived from an identity repository attribute or created by the DirXML functionality based upon predefined rules.

    Implementing web single sign-on

    The first step of this phase was to analyze the usage patterns. This proved difficult in that all usage was estimated while there was little or no current activity. We developed a number of architectural assumptions for this portion of the project.

  • Estimated number of users would be 35,000
  • Average web single sign-on user LDAP footprint is estimated at 20Kb of storage per user
  • Average size of authenticated authorization request is estimated at 5Kb
  • LDAP replication schedule and propagation queue sizing estimates have concluded that replication will be done in batch and for 35,000 LDAP users the size of the propagation queue and its effect on the master LDAP server performance is of minimal concern.
  • IBM Tivoli Access Manager includes a high performance, multi-threaded web reverse proxy that applies fine-grained security policy to the protected web object space. In this configuration, IBM Tivoli Access Manager delivered single sign-on to the company’s IBM Websphere portal and underlying web applications. Out of the box however, the Tivoli Access Manager did not provide for native integration with eDirectory for user authentication (although the latest version 4.1 does provide out-of-the-box integration for Novell eDirectory).

    To achieve this we utilized the cross domain authentication service (CDAS) functionality of Tivoli Access Manager, a tool for federating authentication requests to directories and user repositories. In this configuration, users were authenticated in Tivoli Access Manager to the Novell eDirectory IM tree. Required attributes are returned from eDirectory to the CDAS API that then returns these attributes to Tivoli Access Manager where access decisions are made.

    Lessons learned

    The project from start to finish lasted eight months and established a new internet-enabled security architecture based upon the existence of identity driven enterprise roles. These roles enabled a consistent definition of a user’s business purpose for access to company resources and more timely and efficient administration. The cost savings goal that is now being targeted is to reduce their helpdesk support calls by completing the standardization of user IDs and passwords across the architecture. The company estimates a 90 percent reduction from their historical 5,000-a-year password reset call population.

    The project itself reinforced to management the need to identify key stakeholders early in the project. Achieving this level of integration across a security architecture is disruptive; frequent and meaningful communication with business process owners was crucial to identifying and resolving process/technology conflicts throughout the project.

    Additionally, management realized that implementing an identity-based security architecture requires extensive enterprise requirement definitions and sufficient full-time resources to ensure sustainability.

    The solution provided the company with key value statements, which focused on corporate goal and initiatives:

  • Unified end-user experience – reduced the number of user IDs and passwords making it easier for the employees to gain access through standardization and centralization
  • Cost reduction – web single sign-on with password management reduced helpdesk calls and improved employee productivity
  • Enterprise standardization – established enterprise security requirements/standards for future e-business application design and integration
  • Creating an identity-based security architecture allowed the company to easily migrate from a decentralized security architecture to a centralized architecture based on business processes. The end result was a robust and flexible security architecture to handle acquisitions and the migration towards a pure web-based application architecture.

    Jim Burns is a principal with Deloitte & Touche (www.deloitte.com).

    Campus Portal Security: Access, Risks, and Rewards

    Campus Portal Security: Access, Risks, and Rewards

    Portals are beginning to deliver on the promise of providing users access to campus information and services. In doing so, what are the security risks for campuses and the information accessible from campus portals? In an environment where privacy lapses receive headlines and many adults in the United States believe online is unsafe, how do colleges and universities create confidence that campus portals protect and safeguard personal information?

    Campus portals can be thought of as a customized and personalized single point for useful and comprehensive access to information, people, and processes. The continued growth of campus portals has seen the field dominated by companies that link portals to their administrative software (PeopleSoft Inc., Jenzabar Inc.), course software (Blackboard Inc.), or provide middleware, providing connections to these products (Campus Pipeline Inc.).

    In doing so, many campus portals have evolved into enterprise portals, providing: personalized access; customized information (access to documents, information, and services); user-friendly interaction (single sign-on, intuitive features, good response time); and community support (students, faculty, and staff can collaborate online).

    In providing access to personal university information, campus portals encounter the same risks as other elements of the campus network. Portals face denial of service attacks, Web alteration, fraud, and identity theft. They must also support network-level security, encryption, session-management, and authentication to safeguard sensitive information and prevent unauthorized access. Beyond that they must provide security for a variety of processes—online database searches, protection for information that can be accessed and updated, personal communication, and online credit-card transactions. As an emerging technology they must also provide the flexibility to accommodate future applications.

    Security RequirementsTo meet privacy and security concerns, only authorized users can gain access to the portal, where they are allowed access to only carefully selected applications and interaction with only portions of the data to which they are entitled. To ensure security, campus portals must successfully address each of the following issues:

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