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1Z0-880 - Oracle Solaris 10 Network Administrator(R) Certified Expert - BrainDump Information

Vendor Name : Oracle
Exam Code : 1Z0-880
Exam Name : Oracle Solaris 10 Network Administrator(R) Certified Expert
Questions and Answers : 317 Q & A
Updated On : November 20, 2018
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1Z0-880 exam Dumps Source : Oracle Solaris 10 Network Administrator(R) Certified Expert

Test Code : 1Z0-880
Test Name : Oracle Solaris 10 Network Administrator(R) Certified Expert
Vendor Name : Oracle
Q&A : 317 Real Questions

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When Oracle consumed sun Microsystems in January 2010, founder Larry Ellison promised new hiring and new funding in the hardware line, plus a plan to offer completely built-in, turnkey systems.

by using and big, he saved that promise. Oracle disbursed with the commodity server market in want of excessive-end, decked-out servers akin to Exadata and Exalogic absolutely loaded with Oracle software, which blanketed Java.

previous this 12 months, note leaked that the enterprise had gutted its Solaris Unix and Sparc processor development, however after eight years of spinning its wheels, no person may say Oracle had been impatient. It had invested fairly closely in Sparc for a very long time, however the writing changed into on the wall.

So, one would feel there could be some sort of server news coming out of the just-accomplished OpenWorld convention, nevertheless it was all cloud information. amongst Ellison’s announcement in his keynote become the availability of naked-metal cloud internet hosting on AMD Epyc processors, which is infrequently a shock.

bare-metallic internet hosting is in Oracle’s best pastimes because it is top-rated for elevate and shift migrations from on-premises installations to the cloud. just move your Linux ambiance operating Oracle software to their statistics facilities, and also you don’t should fret about managing the hardware any longer.

however for Exadata and Exalogic, the on-premises options, there was no longer a peep. not even information of servers with Epyc, which would make sense given it’s a cloud choice. It gave the impression ordinary to look Ellison praising Epyc as a cloud solution, but no longer say a word about being capable of purchase one in your information middle.

For its half, Oracle said the focal point of the reveal turned into on cloud and “that doesn’t imply we’re moving faraway from on prem,” spoke of a spokesperson for the enterprise. The enterprise continues to be dedicated to on-premises hardware and frequently times bulletins round Intel Xeon processor releases. New Xeons are due next year, so reside tuned, i used to be told.

So, should Oracle hardware clients be concerned? now not just yet, spoke of Ashish Nadkarni, application director for computing platforms at IDC.

“As an organization, they appear to be concentrated less and fewer on hardware. It’s one aspect to be a hardware issuer with your own metal. they are pivoting towards Linux as a cloud OS, but you might argue Linux runs on anything else,” he instructed me.

“they have a substantial chunk of built-in converged appliances market, so it might be foolish to walk far from it and i don’t believe they're planning to, either,” he brought.

What Oracle must do is come out and articulate what they need to do long run as a result of presently they are not doing it, and on the way to most effective hurt the revenue pitch for on-premises hardware.

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New Names for solar Certifications below Oracle | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Written through GoCertify team of workers published: 01 September 2010

With the merger of solar certifications into the Oracle certification software, disease all sun certifications for Java, Solaris, MySQL, and Open office have been renamed under the Oracle brand.

On September 1, 2010, Oracle built-in the present certifications from sun Microsystems' certification program into the Oracle Certifed expert application as part of the acquisition of solar via Oracle. each sun certification became renamed to replicate the brand new Oracle branding, as mapped out under. The content material of the connected assessments and scoring had been no longer changed.

leap to: Java | Solaris | MySQL | OpenOffice

Java Certifications

common sun nameNew Oracle callSun licensed Java affiliate Oracle certified associate, Java SE 5/SE 6 solar licensed Java Programmer (SCJP) SE 5Oracle licensed professional, Java SE 5 Programmer solar licensed Java Programmer (SCJP) SE 6 Oracle licensed professional, Java SE 6 Programmer sun licensed Java Developer (SCJD) Oracle certified master, Java SE6 Developer solar licensed internet element Developer (SCWCD) EE5 Oracle certified knowledgeable, Java EE 5 internet component Developer solar certified enterprise element Developer (SCBCD) EE5 Oracle certified professional, Java EE 5 business component Developer solar certified Developer for Java internet functions 5 (SCDJWS) Oracle licensed expert, Java EE 5 net functions Developer sun certified business Architect (SCEA) EE5 Oracle certified master, Java EE 5 enterprise Architect solar certified cell utility Developer (SCMAD) Oracle licensed knowledgeable, Java ME 1 cell application Developer sun certified JSP and Servlet Developer for the Java EE6 Platform Oracle licensed professional, Java Platform, commercial enterprise edition 6 JavaServer Pages and Servlet Developer sun licensed EJB Developer for the Java EE6 Platform Oracle licensed knowledgeable, Java Platform, commercial enterprise version 6 business JavaBeans Developer solar certified JPA Developer for the Java EE6 Platform Oracle certified expert, Java Platform, business version 6 Java Persistence API Developer sun certified Developer for the Java internet functions for the Java EE6 Oracle certified skilled, Java Platform, enterprise edition 6 net services Developer solar licensed Developer for the JSF for the Java EE6 Platform Oracle certified expert, Java Platform, enterprise edition 6 JavaServer Faces Developer sun certified specialist for NetBeans IDE Oracle licensed knowledgeable, NetBeans built-in building atmosphere 6.1 Programmer sun certified Integrator for identity supervisor 7.1 This certification become retired via Oracle solar certified Java CAPS Integrator This certification changed into retired by using Oracle  

Solaris Certifications

long-established solar nameNew Oracle nameSun licensed Solaris associate (SCSAS) Oracle licensed affiliate, Oracle Solaris 10 working system solar licensed equipment Administrator (SCSA) for Solaris OS 10 Oracle certified professional, Oracle Solaris 10 system Administrator sun certified community Administrator (SCNA) for Solaris OS 10 Oracle licensed knowledgeable, Oracle Solaris 10 network Administrator sun licensed safety Administrator (SCSECA) for Solaris OS 10 Oracle licensed skilled, Oracle Solaris 10 safety Administrator

MySQL Certifications

normal sun callNew Oracle callSun licensed MySQL 5.0 Database Administrator (SCMDBA) Oracle licensed knowledgeable, MySQL 5.0 Database Administrator sun certified MySQL 5.0 Developer (SCMDEV) Oracle licensed professional, MySQL 5.0 Developer solar licensed MySQL associate (SCMA) Oracle licensed affiliate, MySQL 5.0/5.1/5.fiveSun licensed MySQL 5.1 Cluster Database Administrator (SCMCDBA) Oracle licensed knowledgeable, MySQL 5.1 Cluster Database Administrator

OpenOffice Certifications

original sun nameNew Oracle nameSun certified OpenOffice.org Calc expertOracle certified skilled, OpenOffice.org Calc solar certified OpenOffice.org provoke specialistOracle licensed professional, OpenOffice.org provoke solar certified OpenOffice.org author specialistOracle certified professional, OpenOffice.org writer

The particular person exams had been renamed as well, following the equal naming scheme. A pdf version of this list that contains the exam names is accessible on Oracle's blog.


Solaris eleven.2 proves to be a cloud-helpful Oracle OS | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

When Oracle launched Solaris eleven, the company hawked its working system as the first OS developed for the cloud. Oracle continued its cloud-centric pitch with the unlock of Solaris 11.2. Yet such pronouncements inform us little about what makes Solaris so cloud valuable. fortunately, we do not have to look a long way. Solaris 11.2 comprises four crucial applied sciences that may also be instrumental in a very good cloud implementation: OpenStack, kernel zones, Unified Archives (UA) and Elastic digital switch (EVS).

Solaris 11.2 and OpenStack distribution

OpenStack is a collection of open supply application equipment for building and managing cloud computing structures, both public and personal. Rackspace and NASA launched the OpenStack assignment in 2010, and due to the fact then the utility has received frequent trade help.

With OpenStack, organizations can enforce cloud know-how that incorporates big pools of compute, storage and networking services. a complete OpenStack distribution comprises the following 9 core accessories:

  • Nova: basic computing engine for deploying and managing virtual machines (VMs) and their linked add-ons.
  • Swift: Storage equipment for objects and information in accordance with entertaining identifiers, as opposed to the ordinary folder hierarchy.
  • Cinder: Block storage that offers access to data comparable to a laptop's disk drive.
  • Neutron: Networking features that facilitate communications between OpenStack add-ons.
  • Horizon: Administration dashboard (and simplest graphical interface) that offers entry to the a variety of OpenStack add-ons.
  • Keystone: OpenStack id functions, which map clients and their permissions to the particular person cloud capabilities.
  • look: picture capabilities for managing digital copies of hard disks.
  • Ceilometer: Telemetry services that support billing approaches for customer usage.
  • heat: Orchestration part for storing a cloud answer's resource definitions.
  • Solaris 11.2 includes a complete OpenStack distribution it's built-in into its core technologies, including Solaris zones, EVS and the Solaris ZFS file device. The OpenStack integration enables Solaris to leverage the platform's capabilities along with Oracle's personal advances in such areas as safety, excessive availability and virtual computing device provisioning. despite the fact OpenStack can require additional CPU, reminiscence and disk supplies, it has no particular device necessities backyard of those distinctive for Solaris as a whole.

    Kernel zones greater remoted and impartial

    introduced in Solaris 10, Solaris zones deliver a means to create virtual OS environments inside a single Solaris instance. Solaris 10 supports two kinds of zones: international and non-world. The global zone is the gadget's default OS and exists although no other zones have been created. The global zone controls all processes on the host device. Non-international zones exist within the global one. A digital platform isolates them from the physical hardware and from different zones.

    Solaris eleven.2 added kernel zones, which are greater remoted and independent than the past non-international zones. A kernel zone doesn't share the host kernel and is tightly integrated with the ZFS file gadget. each and every kernel zone helps its personal digital community interface card and keeps its personal TCP/IP stack, making it viable to manage the zone's network configuration from within the zone itself.

    A kernel zone's structural and administrative content material is impartial from the world zone. as a result, the kernel zone illustration can be upgraded and patched independently of the global zone. each kernel zone continues state suggestions within its own bootable machine. The tips contains host information reminiscent of zone utilization and droop operations. Kernel zones also aid dedicated private storage and direct gadget driver installation.

    Unified Archives gives native file archive type

    Oracle brought the UA expertise in Solaris 11.2, presenting a native archive file type to replace Flash Archives, the default archive system in Solaris 10. The UA know-how makes it feasible to clone utility environments throughout virtualized and bare-metallic servers.

    An administrator can create a UA archive from a deployed Solaris instance. The archive can include any cases on the Solaris equipment, together with global, non-world and kernel zones. If a gadget consists of diverse zones, the zones may also be bundled right into a single archive or each and every separated into its own archive.

    The UA technology may also be used to clone Solaris instances across a cloud atmosphere or to create backups for disaster restoration. A restoration archive contains the whole boot environments for all included circumstances. A clone archive is based on a system's active boot environments and does not consist of system configuration counsel or facts reminiscent of passwords or cozy Shell keys.

    To set up a UA archive, which you could use the Solaris automated Installer, UA bootable media or utilities purchasable to Solaris zones. moreover, that you could deploy an archived example across virtual boundaries. as an example, you could deploy a zone archive on a naked-metal server, or deploy a bare-metallic archive in a zone. If an archive includes diverse instances, which you could install them independently of one another.

    Elastic virtual change extends virtualization capabilities

    The network virtualization capabilities built into Solaris make it feasible for directors to manage virtual switches across the actual servers in an information core. The virtual switches facilitate communique between the VMs. before Solaris 11.2, directors could control virtual switches simplest not directly via records hyperlinks.

    Solaris eleven.2 introduced Elastic virtual change, a framework for extending these virtualization capabilities so administrators can manipulate the digital switches as a single swap that spans numerous compute nodes. EVS brings the virtual switches beneath one umbrella, helping to ease the ache of managing VMs across a huge cloud environment. EVS additionally provides an integration factor into the OpenStack Neutron networking capabilities, making it simpler to function projects such as provisioning networks or maintaining service-stage agreements.

    on the heart of EVS is the controller, a centralized set of equipment for configuring and administering the digital switches and their linked supplies. A single physical desktop can function a controller for the complete data center, offering a single aspect of control for VMs throughout the cloud ambiance.

    OpenStack, kernel zones, UA and EVS deliver a number of causes for taking Solaris eleven.2 seriously as a cloud platform. Plus, the OS helps points similar to utility-described networking, integrated compliance monitoring and reporting, and delegated entry control administration. additionally, Solaris eleven.2 provides developed-in encryption technologies that can use hardware-assisted encryption automatically when available. indeed, Solaris 11.2 offers quite a lot of facets to make it a cloud-necessary platform.




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    Oracle Solaris 10 Network Administrator(R) Certified Expert

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    Oracle Certified Expert (OCE) - Oracle Solaris Network Administrator | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This vendor-specific Certification is Offered By:Oracle CorporationRedwood Shores, CA USAPhone: 800-672-2531

    Skill Level: Advanced                          Status: Unknown

    Low Cost: $300 (shortest track)               

    Summary:For individuals who are responsible for administering systems in a networked environment that includes LANs and the Oracle Solaris Operating System (Oracle Solaris OS). This certification was formerly known as Sun Certified Network Administrator (SCNA).

    Initial Requirements:You must hold an Oracle Certified Professional, Oracle Solaris 10 System Administrator certification or a Sun Certified System Administrator For Solaris OS certification. You must then pass the Oracle Solaris Network Administrator Certified Expert exam ($300). The exam has a 120 minute time limit and consists of 64 questions. A passing score of 66% is required. Training is available but not required.

    Continuing Requirements:None specified

    Online Resources:Practice exams are available on the Sun website.

    See all Oracle Certifications

    Vendor's page for this certification


    Guide to vendor-specific IT security certifications | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Despite the wide selection of vendor-specific information technology security certifications, identifying which...

    ones best suit your educational or career needs is fairly straightforward.

    This guide to vendor-specific IT security certifications includes an alphabetized table of security certification programs from various vendors, a brief description of each certification and advice for further details.

    Introduction: Choosing vendor-specific information technology security certifications

    The process of choosing the right vendor-specific information technology security certifications is much simpler than choosing vendor-neutral ones. In the vendor-neutral landscape, you must evaluate the pros and cons of various programs to select the best option. On the vendor-specific side, it's only necessary to follow these three steps:

  • Inventory your organization's security infrastructure and identify which vendors' products or services are present.
  • Check this guide (or vendor websites, for products not covered here) to determine whether a certification applies to the products or services in your organization.
  • Decide if spending the time and money to obtain such credentials (or to fund them for your employees) is worth the resulting benefits.
  • In an environment where qualified IT security professionals can choose from numerous job openings, the benefits of individual training and certifications can be hard to appraise.

    Many employers pay certification costs to develop and retain their employees, as well as to boost the organization's in-house expertise. Most see this as a win-win for employers and employees alike, though employers often require full or partial reimbursement for the related costs incurred if employees leave their jobs sooner than some specified payback period after certification.

    There have been quite a few changes since the last survey update in 2015. The Basic category saw a substantial jump in the number of available IT security certifications due to the addition of several Brainbench certifications, in addition to the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) Cyber Ops certification, the Fortinet Network Security Expert Program and new IBM certifications. 

    2017 IT security certification changes

    Certifications from AccessData, Check Point, IBM and Oracle were added to the Intermediate category, increasing the total number of certifications in that category, as well. However, the number of certifications in the Advanced category decreased, due to several IBM certifications being retired. 

    Vendor IT security certifications Basic information technology security certifications 

    Brainbench basic security certificationsBrainbench offers several basic-level information technology security certifications, each requiring the candidate to pass one exam. Brainbench security-related certifications include:

  • Backup Exec 11d (Symantec)
  • Check Point FireWall-1 Administration
  • Check Point Firewall-1 NG Administration
  • Cisco Security
  • Microsoft Security
  • NetBackup 6.5 (Symantec)
  • Source: Brainbench Information Security Administrator certifications

    CCNA Cyber OpsPrerequisites: None required; training is recommended.

    This associate-level certification prepares cybersecurity professionals for work as cybersecurity analysts responding to security incidents as part of a security operations center team in a large organization.

    The CCNA Cyber Ops certification requires candidates to pass two written exams.

    Source: Cisco Systems CCNA Cyber Ops

    CCNA SecurityPrerequisites: A valid Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching, Cisco Certified Entry Networking Technician or Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE) certification.

    This credential validates that associate-level professionals are able to install, troubleshoot and monitor Cisco-routed and switched network devices for the purpose of protecting both the devices and networked data.

    A person with a CCNA Security certification can be expected to understand core security concepts, endpoint security, web and email content security, the management of secure access, and more. He should also be able to demonstrate skills for building a security infrastructure, identifying threats and vulnerabilities to networks, and mitigating security threats. CCNA credential holders also possess the technical skills and expertise necessary to manage protection mechanisms such as firewalls and intrusion prevention systems, network access, endpoint security solutions, and web and email security.

    The successful completion of one exam is required to obtain this credential.

    Source: Cisco Systems CCNA Security

    Check Point Certified Security Administrator (CCSA) R80Prerequisites: Basic knowledge of networking; CCSA training and six months to one year of experience with Check Point products are recommended.

    Check Point's foundation-level credential prepares individuals to install, configure and manage Check Point security system products and technologies, such as security gateways, firewalls and virtual private networks (VPNs). Credential holders also possess the skills necessary to secure network and internet communications, upgrade products, troubleshoot network connections, configure security policies, protect email and message content, defend networks from intrusions and other threats, analyze attacks, manage user access in a corporate LAN environment, and configure tunnels for remote access to corporate resources.

    Candidates must pass a single exam to obtain this credential.

    Source: Check Point CCSA Certification

    IBM Certified Associate -- Endpoint Manager V9.0Prerequisites: IBM suggests that candidates be highly familiar with the IBM Endpoint Manager V9.0 console. They should have experience taking actions; activating analyses; and using Fixlets, tasks and baselines in the environment. They should also understand patching, component services, client log files and troubleshooting within IBM Endpoint Manager.

    This credential recognizes professionals who use IBM Endpoint Manager V9.0 daily. Candidates for this certification should know the key concepts of Endpoint Manager, be able to describe the system's components and be able to use the console to perform routine tasks.

    Successful completion of one exam is required.

    Editor's note: IBM is retiring this certification as of May 31, 2017; there will be a follow-on test available as of April 2017 for IBM BigFix Compliance V9.5 Fundamental Administration, Test C2150-627.

    Source: IBM Certified Associate -- Endpoint Manager V9.0

    IBM Certified Associate -- Security Trusteer Fraud ProtectionPrerequisites: IBM recommends that candidates have experience with network data communications, network security, and the Windows and Mac operating systems.

    This credential pertains mainly to sales engineers who support the Trusteer Fraud product portfolio for web fraud management, and who can implement a Trusteer Fraud solution. Candidates must understand Trusteer product functionality, know how to deploy the product, and be able to troubleshoot the product and analyze the results.

    To obtain this certification, candidates must pass one exam.

    Source: IBM Certified Associate -- Security Trusteer Fraud Protection

    McAfee Product SpecialistPrerequisites: None required; completion of an associated training course is highly recommended.

    McAfee information technology security certification holders possess the knowledge and technical skills necessary to install, configure, manage and troubleshoot specific McAfee products, or, in some cases, a suite of products.

    Candidates should possess one to three years of direct experience with one of the specific product areas.

    The current products targeted by this credential include:

  • McAfee Advanced Threat Defense products
  • McAfee ePolicy Orchestrator and VirusScan products
  • McAfee Network Security Platform
  • McAfee Host Intrusion Prevention
  • McAfee Data Loss Prevention Endpoint products
  • McAfee Security Information and Event Management products
  • All credentials require passing one exam.

    Source: McAfee Certification Program

    Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA)Prerequisites: None; training recommended.

    This credential started as an academic-only credential for students, but Microsoft made it available to the general public in 2012.

    There are 10 different MTA credentials across three tracks (IT Infrastructure with five certs, Database with one and Development with four). The IT Infrastructure track includes a Security Fundamentals credential, and some of the other credentials include security components or topic areas.

    To earn each MTA certification, candidates must pass the corresponding exam. 

    Source: Microsoft MTA Certifications

    Fortinet Network Security Expert (NSE)Prerequisites: Vary by credential.

    The Fortinet NSE program has eight levels, each of which corresponds to a separate network security credential within the program. The credentials are:

  • NSE 1 -- Understand network security concepts.
  • NSE 2 -- Sell Fortinet gateway solutions.
  • NSE 3 (Associate) -- Sell Fortinet advanced security solutions.
  • NSE 4 (Professional) -- Configure and maintain FortiGate Unified Threat Management products.
  • NSE 5 (Analyst) -- Implement network security management and analytics.
  • NSE 6 (Specialist) – Understand advanced security technologies beyond the firewall.
  • NSE 7 (Troubleshooter) -- Troubleshoot internet security issues.
  • NSE 8 (Expert) -- Design, configure, install and troubleshoot a network security solution in a live environment.
  • NSE 1 is open to anyone, but is not required. The NSE 2 and NSE 3 information technology security certifications are available only to Fortinet employees and partners. Candidates for NSE 4 through NSE 8 should take the exams through Pearson VUE.

    Source: Fortinet NSE

    Symantec Certified Specialist (SCS)This security certification program focuses on data protection, high availability and security skills involving Symantec products.

    To become an SCS, candidates must select an area of focus and pass an exam. All the exams cover core elements, such as installation, configuration, product administration, day-to-day operation and troubleshooting for the selected focus area.

    As of this writing, the following exams are available:

  • Exam 250-215: Administration of Symantec Messaging Gateway 10.5
  • Exam 250-410: Administration of Symantec Control Compliance Suite 11.x
  • Exam 250-420: Administration of Symantec VIP
  • Exam 250-423: Administration of Symantec IT Management Suite 8.0
  • Exam 250-424: Administration of Data Loss Prevention 14.5
  • Exam 250-425: Administration of Symantec Cyber Security Services
  • Exam 250-426: Administration of Symantec Data Center Security -- Server Advanced 6.7
  • Exam 250-427: Administration of Symantec Advanced Threat Protection 2.0.2
  • Exam 250-428: Administration of Symantec Endpoint Protection 14
  • Exam 250-513: Administration of Symantec Data Loss Prevention 12
  • Source: Symantec Certification

    Intermediate information technology security certifications 

    AccessData Certified Examiner (ACE)Prerequisites: None required; the AccessData BootCamp and Advanced Forensic Toolkit (FTK) courses are recommended.

    This credential recognizes a professional's proficiency using AccessData's FTK, FTK Imager, Registry Viewer and Password Recovery Toolkit. However, candidates for the certification must also have moderate digital forensic knowledge and be able to interpret results gathered from AccessData tools.

    To obtain this certification, candidates must pass one online exam (which is free). Although a boot camp and advanced courses are available for a fee, AccessData provides a set of free exam preparation videos to help candidates who prefer to self-study.

    The certification is valid for two years, after which credential holders must take the current exam to maintain their certification.

    Source: Syntricate ACE Training

    Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) Security Prerequisites: CCNA Security or any CCIE certification.

    This Cisco credential recognizes professionals who are responsible for router, switch, networking device and appliance security. Candidates must also know how to select, deploy, support and troubleshoot firewalls, VPNs and intrusion detection system/intrusion prevention system products in a networking environment.

    Successful completion of four exams is required.

    Source: Cisco Systems CCNP Security

    Check Point Certified Security Expert (CCSE)Prerequisite: CCSA certification R70 or later.

    This is an intermediate-level credential for security professionals seeking to demonstrate skills at maximizing the performance of security networks.

    A CCSE demonstrates a knowledge of strategies and advanced troubleshooting for Check Point's GAiA operating system, including installing and managing VPN implementations, advanced user management and firewall concepts, policies, and backing up and migrating security gateway and management servers, among other tasks. The CCSE focuses on Check Point's VPN, Security Gateway and Management Server systems.

    To acquire this credential, candidates must pass one exam.

    Source: Check Point CCSE program

    Cisco Cybersecurity SpecialistPrerequisites: None required; CCNA Security certification and an understanding of TCP/IP are strongly recommended.

    This Cisco credential targets IT security professionals who possess in-depth technical skills and knowledge in the field of threat detection and mitigation. The certification focuses on areas such as event monitoring, event analysis (traffic, alarm, security events) and incident response.

    One exam is required.

    Source: Cisco Systems Cybersecurity Specialist

    Certified SonicWall Security Administrator (CSSA)Prerequisites: None required; training is recommended.

    The CSSA exam covers basic administration of SonicWall appliances and the network and system security behind such appliances.

    Classroom training is available, but not required to earn the CSSA. Candidates must pass one exam to become certified.

    Source: SonicWall Certification programs

    EnCase Certified Examiner (EnCE)Prerequisites: Candidates must attend 64 hours of authorized training or have 12 months of computer forensic work experience. Completion of a formal application process is also required.

    Aimed at both private- and public-sector computer forensic specialists, this certification permits individuals to become certified in the use of Guidance Software's EnCase computer forensics tools and software.

    Individuals can gain this certification by passing a two-phase exam: a computer-based component and a practical component.

    Source: Guidance Software EnCE

    EnCase Certified eDiscovery Practitioner (EnCEP)Prerequisites: Candidates must attend one of two authorized training courses and have three months of experience in eDiscovery collection, processing and project management. A formal application process is also required.

    Aimed at both private- and public-sector computer forensic specialists, this certification permits individuals to become certified in the use of Guidance Software's EnCase eDiscovery software, and it recognizes their proficiency in eDiscovery planning, project management and best practices, from legal hold to file creation.

    EnCEP-certified professionals possess the technical skills necessary to manage e-discovery, including the search, collection, preservation and processing of electronically stored information in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

    Individuals can gain this certification by passing a two-phase exam: a computer-based component and a scenario component.

    Source: Guidance Software EnCEP Certification Program

    IBM Certified Administrator -- Security Guardium V10.0Prerequisites: IBM recommends basic knowledge of operating systems and databases, hardware or virtual machines, networking and protocols, auditing and compliance, and information security guidelines.

    IBM Security Guardium is a suite of protection and monitoring tools designed to protect databases and big data sets. The IBM Certified Administrator -- Security Guardium credential is aimed at administrators who plan, install, configure and manage Guardium implementations. This may include monitoring the environment, including data; defining policy rules; and generating reports.

    Successful completion of one exam is required.

    Source: IBM Security Guardium Certification

    IBM Certified Administrator -- Security QRadar Risk Manager V7.2.6Prerequisites: IBM recommends a working knowledge of IBM Security QRadar SIEM Administration and IBM Security QRadar Risk Manager, as well as general knowledge of networking, risk management, system administration and network topology.

    QRadar Risk Manager automates the risk management process in enterprises by monitoring network device configurations and compliance. The IBM Certified Administrator -- Security QRadar Risk Manager V7.2.6 credential certifies administrators who use QRadar to manage security risks in their organization. Certification candidates must know how to review device configurations, manage devices, monitor policies, schedule tasks and generate reports.

    Successful completion of one exam is required.

    Source: IBM Security QRadar Risk Manager Certification

    IBM Certified Analyst -- Security SiteProtector System V3.1.1Prerequisites: IBM recommends a basic knowledge of the IBM Security Network Intrusion Prevention System (GX) V4.6.2, IBM Security Network Protection (XGS) V5.3.1, Microsoft SQL Server, Windows Server operating system administration and network security.

    The Security SiteProtector System enables organizations to centrally manage their network, server and endpoint security agents and appliances. The IBM Certified Analyst -- Security SiteProtector System V3.1.1 credential is designed to certify security analysts who use the SiteProtector System to monitor and manage events, monitor system health, optimize SiteProtector and generate reports.

    To obtain this certification, candidates must pass one exam.

    Source: IBM Security SiteProtector Certification

    Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Solaris 10 Certified Security AdministratorPrerequisite: Oracle Certified Professional, Oracle Solaris 10 System Administrator.

    This credential aims to certify experienced Solaris 10 administrators with security interest and experience. It's a midrange credential that focuses on general security principles and features, installing systems securely, application and network security, principle of least privilege, cryptographic features, auditing, and zone security.

    A single exam -- geared toward the Solaris 10 operating system or the OpenSolaris environment -- is required to obtain this credential.

    Source: Oracle Solaris Certification

    Oracle Mobile SecurityPrerequisites: Oracle recommends that candidates understand enterprise mobility, mobile application management and mobile device management; have two years of experience implementing Oracle Access Management Suite Plus 11g; and have experience in at least one other Oracle product family.

    This credential recognizes professionals who create configuration designs and implement the Oracle Mobile Security Suite. Candidates must have a working knowledge of Oracle Mobile Security Suite Access Server, Oracle Mobile Security Suite Administrative Console, Oracle Mobile Security Suite Notification Server, Oracle Mobile Security Suite Containerization and Oracle Mobile Security Suite Provisioning and Policies. They must also know how to deploy the Oracle Mobile Security Suite.

    Although the certification is designed for Oracle PartnerNetwork members, it is available to any candidate. Successful completion of one exam is required.

    Source: Oracle Mobile Security Certification

    RSA Archer Certified Administrator (CA)Prerequisites: None required; Dell EMC highly recommends RSA training and two years of product experience as preparation for the RSA certification exams.

    Dell EMC offers this certification, which is designed for security professionals who manage, administer, maintain and troubleshoot the RSA Archer Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC) platform.

    Candidates must pass one exam, which focuses on integration and configuration management, security administration, and the data presentation and communication features of the RSA Archer GRC product.

    Source: Dell EMC RSA Archer Certification

    RSA SecurID Certified Administrator (RSA Authentication Manager 8.0)Prerequisites: None required; Dell EMC highly recommends RSA training and two years of product experience as preparation for the RSA certification exams.

    Dell EMC offers this certification, which is designed for security professionals who manage, maintain and administer enterprise security systems based on RSA SecurID system products and RSA Authentication Manager 8.0.

    RSA SecurID CAs can operate and maintain RSA SecurID components within the context of their operational systems and environments; troubleshoot security and implementation problems; and work with updates, patches and fixes. They can also perform administrative functions and populate and manage users, set up and use software authenticators, and understand the configuration required for RSA Authentication Manager 8.0 system operations.

    Source: Dell EMC RSA Authentication Manager Certification

    RSA Security Analytics CAPrerequisites: None required; Dell EMC highly recommends RSA training and two years of product experience as preparation for the RSA certification exams.

    This Dell EMC certification is aimed at security professionals who configure, manage, administer and troubleshoot the RSA Security Analytics product. Knowledge of the product's features, as well the ability to use the product to identify security concerns, are required.

    Candidates must pass one exam, which focuses on RSA Security Analytics functions and capabilities, configuration, management, monitoring and troubleshooting.

    Source: Dell EMC RSA Security Analytics

    Advanced information technology security certifications 

    CCIE SecurityPrerequisites: None required; three to five years of professional working experience recommended.

    Arguably one of the most coveted certifications around, the CCIE is in a league of its own. Having been around since 2002, the CCIE Security track is unrivaled for those interested in dealing with information security topics, tools and technologies in networks built using or around Cisco products and platforms.

    The CCIE certifies that candidates possess expert technical skills and knowledge of security and VPN products; an understanding of Windows, Unix, Linux, network protocols and domain name systems; an understanding of identity management; an in-depth understanding of Layer 2 and 3 network infrastructures; and the ability to configure end-to-end secure networks, as well as to perform troubleshooting and threat mitigation.

    To achieve this certification, candidates must pass both a written and lab exam. The lab exam must be passed within 18 months of the successful completion of the written exam.

    Source: Cisco Systems CCIE Security Certification

    Check Point Certified Managed Security Expert (CCMSE)Prerequisites: CCSE certification R75 or later and 6 months to 1 year of experience with Check Point products.

    This advanced-level credential is aimed at those seeking to learn how to install, configure and troubleshoot Check Point's Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension.

    Professionals are expected to know how to migrate physical firewalls to a virtualized environment, install and manage an MDM environment, configure high availability, implement global policies and perform troubleshooting.

    Source: Check Point CCMSE

    Check Point Certified Security Master (CCSM)Prerequisites: CCSE R70 or later and experience with Windows Server, Unix, TCP/IP, and networking and internet technologies.

    The CCSM is the most advanced Check Point certification available. This credential is aimed at security professionals who implement, manage and troubleshoot Check Point security products. Candidates are expected to be experts in perimeter, internal, web and endpoint security systems.

    To acquire this credential, candidates must pass a written exam.

    Source: Check Point CCSM Certification

    Certified SonicWall Security Professional (CCSP)Prerequisites: Attendance at an advanced administration training course.

    Those who achieve this certification have attained a high level of mastery of SonicWall products. In addition, credential holders should be able to deploy, optimize and troubleshoot all the associated product features.

    Earning a CSSP requires taking an advanced administration course that focuses on either network security or secure mobile access, and passing the associated certification exam.

    Source: SonicWall CSSP certification

    IBM Certified Administrator -- Tivoli Monitoring V6.3Prerequisites: Security-related requirements include basic knowledge of SSL, data encryption and system user accounts.

    Those who attain this certification are expected to be capable of planning, installing, configuring, upgrading and customizing workspaces, policies and more. In addition, credential holders should be able to troubleshoot, administer and maintain an IBM Tivoli Monitoring V6.3 environment.

    Candidates must successfully pass one exam.

    Source: IBM Tivoli Certified Administrator

    Master Certified SonicWall Security Administrator (CSSA)The Master CSSA is an intermediate between the base-level CSSA credential (itself an intermediate certification) and the CSSP.

    To qualify for Master CSSA, candidates must pass three (or more) CSSA exams, and then email training@sonicwall.com to request the designation. There are no other charges or requirements involved.

    Source: SonicWall Master CSSA

    Conclusion 

    Remember, when it comes to selecting vendor-specific information technology security certifications, your organization's existing or planned security product purchases should dictate your options. If your security infrastructure includes products from vendors not mentioned here, be sure to check with them to determine if training or certifications on such products are available.

    About the author:Ed Tittel is a 30-plus year IT veteran who's worked as a developer, networking consultant, technical trainer, writer and expert witness. Perhaps best known for creating the Exam Cram series, Ed has contributed to more than 100 books on many computing topics, including titles on information security, Windows OSes and HTML. Ed also blogs regularly for TechTarget (Windows Enterprise Desktop), Tom's IT Pro and GoCertify.


    Creating New Resource Types | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the book 

    As described in the section "Data Service and Application Agents" in Chapter 2, "Oracle Solaris Cluster: Features and Architecture," Oracle has a substantial list of supported agents that cover most of the applications in your data center. These application agents are maintained by Oracle and are extensively tested on each new release of both the Solaris Cluster software and the application itself. Even so, inevitably you will have an application that is not part of the existing agent portfolio.

    Application Suitability

    Before creating a resource type for your application, you must determine whether the application meets the criteria for being made highly available. The following list highlights the main points you must consider. For a complete list see "Analyzing the Application for Suitability" in [SCDevGuide].

  • Is your application crash-tolerant? This is important because in a highly available environment your application must be able to recover its data consistency without requiring manual intervention. If the application did require such intervention, then most of the benefits of a high-availability framework would be lost.
  • Does your application rely on the physical node name of the machine, such as that resulting from calls to uname, gethostbyname, or equivalent interfaces? If so, then when the application moves to another cluster node, the dependency on the physical hostname will probably cause the application to fail. There is a work-around to this problem, which is to interpose the libschost.so.1 library. However, this work-around can sometimes raise support issues with application vendors.
  • Can your application run on a multihomed system, that is, one with several public networks? Your application must be able to handle situations where IP addresses are configured and unconfigured from network adapters as services move around the cluster. This has consequences for the way your application binds to the network.
  • Does your application use hard-coded path names for the location of its data? If so, then symbolic links might not be sufficient to ensure that the data is stored in a location that is compatible with using a failover or global file system. If the application renames a data file, it can break the symbolic links.
  • After you have determined that your application is suitable for being made highly available, you have several ways to achieve the necessary integration:

  • You can use the Generic Data Service (GDS) directly and just supply the required parameters. Although you cannot define any new extension properties for the resource type you create, it is by far the simplest option.
  • You can create a subclass of the GDS to create a completely new resource type. This option enables you to define one or more extension properties for your new resource type. This option is relatively simple and yet provides considerable flexibility.
  • You can extend the GDS using the Advanced Agent Toolkit. Although this option does not create a new resource type, it does enable you to define one or more extension properties. This option is also relatively simple and provides considerable flexibility.
  • You can use the GUI scdsbuilder tool and customize the resulting shell script or C source using the Resource Management API (RMAPI) and the Data Service Development Library (DSDL) APIs. If significant customization work is needed, this option might result in an increased maintenance burden.
  • You can use the RMAPI or DSDL APIs directly to develop your resource type from scratch. This option trades the development and maintenance costs for ultimate flexibility and performance.
  • Each option is discussed in more detail in the following sections.

    Generic Data Service

    The Generic Data Service (GDS) is provided with the Solaris Cluster software. The SUNW.gds agent is packaged in the SUNWscgds package, which is installed as standard by the Solaris Cluster software installer program. The SUNW.gds agent is considered the preferred way to create both failover and scalable resources. The GDS is supported by Oracle, but you must support the script that you provide for the Start_command, Stop_command, Probe_command, and Validate_command methods.

    By default, the SUNW.gds resource type is not registered, so you must register it before attempting to create a resource of that type. The commands in the following example show how to determine if the resource type is registered and then how to register it, if it is not already present.

    Example 4.13. Registering the SUNW.gds Resource Type

    Use the clresourcetype command to determine whether the SUNW.gds resource type needs to be registered.

    # clresourcetype list | grep SUNW.gds # clresourcetype register SUNW.gds # clresourcetype list | grep SUNW.gds SUNW.gds:6

    In addition to the standard resource properties, the GDS agent has four properties to enable you to integrate your application: Start_command, Stop_command, Probe_command, and Validate_command. These properties are described in "Integrating Your Application-Specific Logic." By using the GDS as the basis for your application, you automatically benefit from all the patches and feature upgrades that the GDS receives.

    Example 4.14 shows how you can use the GDS to make the X11 program xeyes highly available. You begin by creating a Start_command program. In this example, a script calls the full path name of the program with a parameter that is passed to the shell script. This script must exist on all the cluster nodes on which the application is intended to run.

    Next, having checked that the SUNW.gds resource type is registered, you create the resource group. In this example, you allow the resource group's node list to default to all the cluster nodes.

    Next, you create a resource to represent your program. In the example, the Start_command property is specified by the script you wrote (and which must exist on all nodes). The display parameter to use is also specified. Because this program does not listen on any network ports, you set the network_aware property to false. This means that the probe mechanism used will be the continued existence of the xeyes process that the Start_command program leaves running in the background. By default, any resource you create is enabled so that when the resource group is brought online, the resource is automatically started. To change the default, you can specify the -d argument to the clresource create command.

    The last two steps instruct the RGM that it needs to control or manage the xeyes-rg resource group and then to bring that resource group online. The action of bringing the resource group online starts the resource because it was created in an enabled state.

    Assuming you have allowed remote X11 clients to display on your X server using xhost and you have specified the correct X display to use (substitute a value suited to your environment for myhost:1.0), then the xeyes program will appear on your display. You can switch the resource group between nodes and the RGM will kill the xeyes process and restart it on the new node, phys-summer2, as the example shows.

    Example 4.14. Creating a Simple, Highly Available xeyes Service

    List the script that will be used to start the xeyes command.

    # cat /tmp/start_xeyes #!/bin/ksh /usr/openwin/demo/xeyes -display $1 & exit 0

    Check that the SUNW.gds resource type is registered, and then create the resource group and resource that will control the xeyes service.

    # clresourcetype list | grep SUNW.gds SUNW.gds:6 # clresourcegroup create xeyes-rg # clresource create -t SUNW.gds > -p start_command="/tmp/start_xeyes myhost:1.0" > -p network_aware=false > -g xeyes-rg xeyes-rs

    Use the clresourcegroup command to bring the xeyes-rg resource group online.

    # clresourcegroup manage xeyes-rg # clresourcegroup online xeyes-rg # clresourcegroup status xeyes-rg === Cluster Resource Groups === Group Name Node Name Suspended Status ---------- --------- --------- ------ xeyes-rg phys-summer1 No Online phys-summer2 No Offline # clresourcegroup switch -n phys-summer2 xeyes-rg # clresourcegroup status xeyes-rg === Cluster Resource Groups === Group Name Node Name Suspended Status ---------- --------- --------- ------ xeyes-rg phys-summer1 No Offline phys-summer2 No Online

    To demonstrate how the GDS handles application failure, quit the xeyes program from your X display. You will notice that the RGM restarts the application almost instantaneously. The messages in /var/adm/messages (see Example 4.15) indicate that the RGM recognized the failure and restarted the service.

    After the fault probe determines that the service is online, indicated by Service is online in /var/adm/messages, kill the process again. The resource has two properties that determine how many times it is restarted by the RGM within a certain time period. These properties are Retry_count and Retry_interval (see Example 4.16). After the specified number of failures, the built-in logic of the GDS determines that the current node is unhealthy and releases the service so that it can be started on another node. If the service also experiences problems on this node, then the RGM will not fail the service back to its original node unless the time period, in seconds, as defined by the resource group's Pingpong_interval property, has passed. Instead, the GDS attempts to keep the service running on the remaining node. This behavior is governed by another property called Failover_mode.

    The purpose of the Pingpong_interval property is to prevent a service that fails to start from endlessly looping, resulting in the service migrating back and forth between cluster nodes. In a test environment, you might need to reset the value of Pingpong_interval to a lower value. Doing so enables you to restart your service once you have corrected any problems you encountered.

    Example 4.15. Sample RGM Messages

    The /var/adm/messages file contains information on the state changes of the resource groups and resources in the cluster.

    Nov 23 04:00:23 phys-summer2 Cluster.RGM.global.rgmd: [ID 529407 daemon.notice] resource group xeyes-rg state on node phys-summer2 change to RG_ONLINE Nov 23 04:01:23 phys-summer2 Cluster.RGM.global.rgmd: [ID 922363 daemon.notice] resource xeyes-rs status msg on node phys-summer2 change to <Service is online.> Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 Cluster.PMF.pmfd: [ID 887656 daemon.notice] Process: tag="xeyes-rg,xeyes-rs,0.svc", cmd="/bin/sh -c /tmp/start_xeyes myhost:1.0", Failed to stay up. Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 Cluster.RGM.global.rgmd: [ID 784560 daemon.notice] resource xeyes-rs status on node phys-summer2 change to R_FM_FAULTED Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 Cluster.RGM.global.rgmd: [ID 922363 daemon.notice] resource xeyes-rs status msg on node phys-summer2 change to <Service daemon not running.> Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 SC[,SUNW.gds:6,xeyes-rg,xeyes-rs,gds_probe]: [ID 423137 daemon.error] A resource restart attempt on resource xeyes-rs in resource group xeyes-rg has been blocked because the number of restarts within the past Retry_ interval (370 seconds) would exceed Retry_count (2) Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 SC[,SUNW.gds:6,xeyes-rg,xeyes-rs,gds_probe]: [ID 874133 daemon.notice] Issuing a failover request because the application exited. Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 Cluster.RGM.global.rgmd: [ID 494478 daemon.notice] resource xeyes-rs in resource group xeyes-rg has requested failover of the resource group on phys-summer2. Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 Cluster.RGM.global.rgmd: [ID 423291 daemon.error] RGM isn't failing resource group <xeyes-rg> off of node <phys-summer2>, because there are no other current or potential masters Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 Cluster.RGM.global.rgmd: [ID 702911 daemon.error] Resource <xeyes-rs> of Resource Group <xeyes-rg> failed pingpong check on node <phys- summer1>. The resource group will not be mastered by that node. Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 SC[,SUNW.gds:6,xeyes-rg,xeyes-rs,gds_probe]: [ID 969827 daemon.error] Failover attempt has failed. Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 SC[,SUNW.gds:6,xeyes-rg,xeyes-rs,gds_probe]: [ID 670283 daemon.notice] Issuing a resource restart request because the application exited. Example 4.16. Retry, Failover Mode, and Ping-pong Interval Properties

    Use the clresource command to determine the property values of the xeyes-rs resource.

    # clresource show > -p retry_count,retry_interval,failover_mode xeyes-rs === Resources === Resource: xeyes-rs --- Standard and extension properties --- Retry_interval: 370 Class: standard Description: Time in which monitor attempts to restart a failed resource Retry_count times. Type: int Retry_count: 2 Class: standard Description: Indicates the number of times a monitor restarts the resource if it fails. Type: int Failover_mode: SOFT Class: standard Description: Modifies recovery actions taken when the resource fails. Type: enum # clresourcegroup show -p pingpong_interval xeyes-rg === Resource Groups and Resources === Resource Group: xeyes-rg Pingpong_interval: 3600

    In the preceding example, the display variable property can be changed only by stopping the resource and modifying the Start_command property. Although of little importance here, because the xeyes program must be restarted to change the target X server on which it displays, it does make a difference in instances where a variable can be changed while a service is running. Examples include changing debugging levels to use and changing directories for log files.

    To create a resource type that has new extension properties that can be changed when you need to change them, you need to either write your resource type from scratch or create a subclass of the GDS, as described in a later section.

    Supporting New Applications Using the Advanced Agent Toolkit

    Many application agents in the current Solaris Cluster software release are derived from the Advanced Agent Toolkit methodology [AdvGDSTlkit]: HA-PostgreSQL, HA-MySQL, and HA containers, to name three. All three use the SUNW.gds agent as their basis. However, in its raw form, the SUNW.gds agent has some limitations.

    The rationale behind the toolkit is that all new application agents have many common requirements:

  • They might require one or more extension properties.
  • They must provide debugging information.
  • They might need to disable the process-monitoring facility (pmfadm) for applications that leave no obvious child processes to monitor.
  • They must supply a Start_command script, as a minimum, and possibly Stop_command, Probe_command, and Validate_command scripts.
  • The toolkit also simplifies much of the work needed to handle Oracle Solaris Zones and SMF. Thus, providing this extended framework enables your developers to focus on the application-specific integration work rather than on debugging the framework itself. After the work is complete, the new resource type is registered using a registration script.

    Developing Resource Types by Creating a Subclass of the GDS

    The advantage of creating a subclass of the GDS, rather than writing a new resource type from scratch, is that the new resource type inherits all the best practices that are already part of the standard GDS code. In addition, creating a subclass of the GDS enables you to create your own resource type extension properties while retaining the same level of flexibility as if you had started from scratch. Finally, your new resource type, which is a subclass of the GDS, has a distinct name, enabling you to easily distinguish resources of the new resource type. If you instead used the Advanced Agent Toolkit or the SUNW.gds agent, then you would have to determine what the resource is by examining the extension properties or reviewing the code. This step would be necessary because the resource type would be set to SUNW.gds, rather than MYCORP.appsvr, for example.

    You create a subclass of the GDS by creating a resource type registration (RTR) file where the RT_basedir parameter is set to the directory containing binaries used by the standard GDS methods: Start, Stop, Validate, and so on. You then extend the RTR file by defining your own resource type extension properties. Finally, you set the method parameters in the RTR file to point to your scripts that override the standard GDS behavior.

    Several existing Sun resource types are implemented this way, including the HA-Logical Domain agent (SUNW.ldom), which was covered in the section "Failover Guest Domains" in Chapter 3, "Combining Virtualization Technologies with Oracle Solaris Cluster Software."

    The RTR file for the SUNW.ldom resource type is shown in Example 4.17. In this RTR file, the RT_basedir parameter is set to the standard directory for the GDS package, that is, /opt/SUNWscgds/bin. Of the standard methods, only Init, Boot, and Validate have been overridden using programs that are located in the ../../SUNWscxvm/bin directory. Unlike a standard GDS resource type, the Start_command, Stop_command, Probe_command, and Validate_command properties are assigned fixed values and cannot be changed. This is indicated by the Tunable = NONE settings. Furthermore, each command, apart from validate_command, is called with a consistent set of arguments, namely, -R %RS_NAME -T %RT_NAME -G %RG_NAME. The %variable construct is similar to the $variable syntax found in shell scripts. It means that when a resource of this type is instantiated, use the names you assigned it as arguments. For example, if you wrote a resource type called FOO.bar and then created a resource group called whizz-rg containing a resource called bang-rs of this type, the argument passed would be -R bang-rs -T FOO.bar -G whizz-rg. With these arguments, you can then make calls to the RMAPI or DSDL APIs to retrieve or set properties.

    In contrast to the Start_command, Stop_command, and Probe_command properties, the Validate_command property does not use this construct. Instead, the RGM passes the validate command all the properties listed for the resource type on the command line. Then the validate command parses this list and determines whether the configuration is valid.

    Example 4.17. RTR File for the SUNW.ldom Resource Type

    The following text shows some of the key parts of the RTR file for the SUNW.ldom resource type:

    . . . RESOURCE_TYPE = "ldom"; VENDOR_ID = SUNW; RT_DESCRIPTION = "Sun Cluster HA for xVM Server SPARC Guest Domains"; RT_version ="1"; API_version = 10; RT_basedir=/opt/SUNWscgds/bin; Init = ../../SUNWscxvm/bin/init_xvm; Boot = ../../SUNWscxvm/bin/boot_xvm; Start = gds_svc_start; Stop = gds_svc_stop; Validate = ../../SUNWscxvm/bin/validate_xvm; Update = gds_update; Monitor_start = gds_monitor_start; Monitor_stop = gds_monitor_stop; Monitor_check = gds_monitor_check; Init_nodes = RG_PRIMARIES; Failover = FALSE; # The paramtable is a list of bracketed resource property declarations # that come after the resource-type declarations # The property-name declaration must be the first attribute # after the open curly of a paramtable entry # # The following are the system defined properties. Each of the system defined # properties have a default value set for each of the attributes. Look at # man rt_reg(4) for a detailed explanation. # { PROPERTY = Start_timeout; MIN = 60; DEFAULT = 300; } { PROPERTY = Stop_timeout; MIN = 60; DEFAULT = 300; } . . . # This is an optional property. Any value provided will be used as # the absolute path to a command to invoke to validate the application. # If no value is provided, The validation will be skipped. # { PROPERTY = Validate_command; EXTENSION; STRING; DEFAULT = ""; TUNABLE = NONE; DESCRIPTION = "Command to validate the application"; } # This property must be specified, since this is the only mechanism # that indicates how to start the application. Since a value must # be provided, there is no default. The value must be an absolute path. { PROPERTY = Start_command; EXTENSION; STRINGARRAY; DEFAULT = "/opt/SUNWscxvm/bin/control_xvm start -R %RS_NAME -T %RT_NAME -G %RG_NAME"; TUNABLE = NONE; DESCRIPTION = "Command to start application"; } # This is an optional property. Any value provided will be used as # the absolute path to a command to invoke to stop the application. # If no value is provided, signals will be used to stop the application. # # It is assumed that Stop_command will not return until the # application has been stopped. { PROPERTY = Stop_command; EXTENSION; STRING; DEFAULT = "/opt/SUNWscxvm/bin/control_xvm stop -R %RS_NAME -T %RT_NAME -G %RG_NAME"; TUNABLE = NONE; DESCRIPTION = "Command to stop application"; } # This is an optional property. Any value provided will be used as # the absolute path to a command to invoke to probe the application. # If no value is provided, the "simple_probe" will be used to probe # the application. # { PROPERTY = Probe_command; EXTENSION; STRING; DEFAULT = "/opt/SUNWscxvm/bin/control_xvm probe -R %RS_NAME -G %RG_NAME -T %RT_NAME"; TUNABLE = NONE; DESCRIPTION = "Command to probe application"; } # This is an optional property. It determines whether the application # uses network to communicate with its clients. # { PROPERTY = Network_aware; EXTENSION; BOOLEAN; DEFAULT = FALSE; TUNABLE = AT_CREATION; DESCRIPTION = "Determines whether the application uses network"; } # This is an optional property, which determines the signal sent to the # application for being stopped. # { PROPERTY = Stop_signal; EXTENSION; INT; MIN = 1; MAX = 37; DEFAULT = 15; TUNABLE = WHEN_DISABLED; DESCRIPTION = "The signal sent to the application for being stopped"; } # This is an optional property, which determines whether to failover when # retry_count is exceeded during retry_interval. # { PROPERTY = Failover_enabled; EXTENSION; BOOLEAN; DEFAULT = TRUE; TUNABLE = WHEN_DISABLED; DESCRIPTION = "Determines whether to failover when retry_count is exceeded during retry_interval"; } # This is an optional property that specifies the log level GDS events. # { PROPERTY = Log_level; EXTENSION; ENUM { NONE, INFO, ERR }; DEFAULT = "INFO"; TUNABLE = ANYTIME; DESCRIPTION = "Determines the log level for event based traces"; } { Property = Debug_level; Extension; Per_node; Int; Min = 0; Max = 2; Default = 0; Tunable = ANYTIME; Description = "Debug level"; } { Property = Domain_name; Extension; String; Minlength = 1; Tunable = WHEN_DISABLED; Description = "LDoms Guest Domain name"; } { Property = Migration_type; Extension; Enum { NORMAL, MIGRATE }; Default = "MIGRATE"; Tunable = ANYTIME; Description = "Type of guest domain migration to be performed"; } { PROPERTY = Plugin_probe; EXTENSION; STRING; DEFAULT = ""; TUNABLE = ANYTIME; DESCRIPTION = "Script or command to check the guest domain"; } { PROPERTY = Password_file; EXTENSION; STRING; DEFAULT = ""; TUNABLE = WHEN_DISABLED; DESCRIPTION = "The complete path to the file containing the target host password"; } scdsbuilder GUI

    To customize an agent beyond what is permitted by the GDS, you can use the Agent Builder command, scdsbuilder (see the scdsbuilder(1HA) man page). This command has three code generation options, and the resulting files are wrapped in a Solaris package that you can install on your cluster nodes:

  • DSDL code (see the section "Data Service Development Library").
  • ksh code, including all the necessary scha_control commands (see the section "Resource Management API"). With the ksh code, you are creating your own resource type.
  • A ksh registration script for a GDS agent. Here, the code generates the appropriate clresource create command.
  • You can customize the resulting code to your specific needs. However, with the ksh registration script for the GDS agent, the scope for modification is limited. The example in Figure 4.7 shows the use of the third option.

    Figure 4.7

    Figure 4.7 Using the scdsbuilder GUI to create a new resource type

    The scdsbuilder command starts the Solaris Cluster Agent Builder GUI, as shown in Figure 4.7. In this example, data has already been specified for each field available to the user. A short code of SUNW is specified for the vendor name, and tstgds is specified for the application name. This data is then used to generate both the name of the package that Agent Builder creates for you and the name of the resource type that you will subsequently use.

    The information you provide in the other fields is used as follows:

  • The RT version enables you to specify a version number for this resource type. You can identify which version of the agent you are running when it is placed into production.
  • The working directory is used by Agent Builder as a working area in which it can create your package and write other associated, intermediate files.
  • Your target application determines whether you select the scalable or failover option. If a particular instance of an application can run on multiple nodes at once without corrupting any of its data files, then you can select the scalable option. A good example of such an application is a web server. For all other applications, such as databases and file services, select the failover option.
  • The Network Aware check box is used to determine whether any resource created using this resource type needs to have the port_list property set. The port_list property is then used by the GDS service to provide a simple probe mechanism.
  • The source type option determines whether the resulting code uses the C programming language, ksh, or the GDS (see the section "SUNW.gds" in Chapter 2, "Oracle Solaris Cluster: Features and Architecture") to create the data service. To use the C option, you must have a C compiler installed on your system.
  • After you have entered the data and clicked on the Next button, you are presented with the screen shown in Figure 4.8.

    Figure 4.8

    Figure 4.8 Completing the resource type definition using scdsbuilder

    Integrating Your Application-Specific Logic

    You use the fields in this second screen to provide the location of the programs (which can be compiled executables or scripts) and their associated arguments that will be used to start, stop, probe, and validate your data service when it is installed on the target cluster nodes. For each program, you can set a time limit on how long it can take for the program to complete. If the program does not complete within the allocated time period, then the resource is placed into a failed state, such as STOP_FAILED.

    You are required to provide a value only for the start program. All the other programs are optional. Any programs specified must exit with a return code of zero only when they have successfully completed their work. If they fail to perform their allotted task, they must return a value greater than 100. Values below that are used by the Solaris Cluster commands and have specific meanings (see the intro(1CL) man page).

    The programs you assign to the start and stop commands must return successfully only when your target application has actually completed the relevant operation. If the stop command leaves the application under its control running, or not completely stopped, but the stop command returns successfully, then the cluster framework erroneously determines that it is safe to start the resource group on another cluster node. In some instances, particularly when the application uses a global file system, this outcome could result in data corruption because the two instances of the application could write to their data files in an uncontrolled fashion.

    If no stop command is provided, the process tree that results from the start command is terminated using the kill command.

    The validate command enables you to check that your application is correctly configured on all the potential nodes on which it can run. Again, if the program determines that your application is misconfigured, the validate program must exit with a nonzero exit code.

    The capability to incorporate a probe command is one of the key benefits of using the Solaris Cluster framework. A probe command enables you to write a program that determines the health of your application. As an example, if you are writing a probe for a database, you could test whether it can execute basic SQL statements, such as creating or deleting a table, or adding or deleting a record. If you do not provide a probe script, then default methods are used instead.

    For non-network-aware applications, the process-monitoring command pmfadm (see the pmfadm(1M) man page) monitors the process tree spawned by your start command. Only if all the processes have failed will the cluster framework attempt to restart the service. Therefore, if your service consists of multiple processes and only one process fails, then pmfadm will not recognize this fault unless it causes all the other processes to fail as well. Consequently, if you need to monitor your application with a higher degree of granularity, you must provide a custom fault probe.

    If the application is network-aware, then the default probe tries to open the port listed in the port_list property. Because this is a simple probe, it makes no attempt to retrieve any data. Even if the default probe successfully opens the ports, that does not necessarily indicate overall application health.

    In the preceding example, you would install the package generated by scdsbuilder on all your cluster nodes. You would then register the new resource type so that you could create new resources of this type. When the RGM is requested to create a resource, it calls the validate command: /usr/local/bin/my_validate -o some_param. If that command succeeds and you enable the resource, the RGM calls the /usr/local/bin/my_start -r foo-rs -g bar-rg command. In both cases, the initial arguments are fixed, but you can modify them subsequently using the clresource command.

    Resource Type Registration File

    If you decide to write an agent from scratch using either the RMAPI or DSDL APIs, you must first describe the properties of your proposed resource type in a file known as the resource type registration (RTR) file. This file provides the RGM with details on which programs to call and which variables are required to control the particular application.

    Example 4.18 shows an extract from the SUNW.LogicalHostname RTR file. As the example shows, all the programs for this resource type are located in the directory defined by RT_BASEDIR. The RTR file also defines programs that will, among other tasks, start, stop, and probe (Monitor_start) the logical IP address that the resource plumbs. These addresses are, in turn, defined in the HostnameList property.

    The extension properties you define are all application-specific. They could, for example, refer to the location of the software binaries, that is, the application home directory. If a property has a default value, then you can define it in the RTR file to save your system administrator from having to override it each time he or she creates a resource of this type. Furthermore, you can place limits on what values certain properties can take and when they can be changed.

    Example 4.18. Extract from the SUNW.LogicalHostname RTR File

    The following text shows some of the key parts of the RTR file for the SUNW.LogicalHostname resource type:

    # # Copyright 1998-2008 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All rights reserved. # Use is subject to license terms. # #ident "@(#)SUNW.LogicalHostname 1.20 08/05/20 SMI" # Registration information and Paramtable for HA Failover IPaddress # # NOTE: Keywords are case insensitive, i.e. users may use any # capitalization style they wish # RESOURCE_TYPE ="LogicalHostname"; VENDOR_ID = SUNW; RT_DESCRIPTION = "Logical Hostname Resource Type"; SYSDEFINED_TYPE = LOGICAL_HOSTNAME; RT_VERSION ="3"; API_VERSION = 2; INIT_NODES = RG_PRIMARIES; RT_BASEDIR=/usr/cluster/lib/rgm/rt/hafoip; FAILOVER = TRUE; # To enable Global_zone_override GLOBAL_ZONE = TRUE; START = hafoip_start; STOP = hafoip_stop; PRENET_START = hafoip_prenet_start; VALIDATE = hafoip_validate; UPDATE = hafoip_update; MONITOR_START = hafoip_monitor_start; MONITOR_STOP = hafoip_monitor_stop; MONITOR_CHECK = hafoip_monitor_check; PKGLIST = SUNWscu; # # Upgrade directives # #$upgrade #$upgrade_from "1.0" anytime #$upgrade_from "2" anytime # The paramtable is a list of bracketed resource property declarations # that come after the resource-type declarations # The property-name declaration must be the first attribute # after the open curly of a paramtable entry # # The Paramtable cannot contain TIMEOUT properties for methods # that aren't in the RT { PROPERTY = Start_timeout; MIN=360; DEFAULT=500; } . . . # HostnameList: List of hostnames managed by this resource. All must be # on the same subnet. If need > 1 subnet with a RG, create as many # resources as there are subnets. { PROPERTY = HostnameList; EXTENSION; STRINGARRAY; TUNABLE = AT_CREATION; DESCRIPTION = "List of hostnames this resource manages"; } . . . Resource Management API

    The Resource Management API (RMAPI) is a set of low-level functions contained in the libscha.so library with both C and shell interfaces. All the function names provided by this interface are prefixed with scha_. The shell interfaces are listed in section 1HA of the Solaris Cluster manual pages.

    The ksh scripts generated by the Agent Builder are built using these commands, so you can insert additional lines in this code where the comments indicate. However, for greater control over the logic imposed on your application you must write your application agent from scratch.

    Data Service Development Library

    The Data Service Development Library (DSDL) is a set of higher-level functions encapsulated in the libdsdev.so library that builds on the RMAPI functionality. This library can only be accessed using a C programming language interface. Consequently, it is potentially more time-consuming to write a complete application agent using this approach, although it does offer the greatest level of performance and flexibility.

    If you used Agent Builder to create a resource type, you can customize it by inserting extra DSDL code where the comments indicate. Otherwise, you must write your agent from scratch.

    All the function names provided by the library are prefixed with scds_ and are documented in section 3HA of the Solaris Cluster manual pages. The NFS agent source code [NFSAgent] serves as a good example of how these APIs are used. Using the nfs_svc_start.c source as a specific example, the library is initialized with scds_initialize(). Resource and resource group names are then retrieved using scds_get_resource_name() and scds_get_resource_group_name() calls, respectively. Finally, the status of the resource is set by the RMAPI scha_resource_setstatus() call. Most of the coding effort involved with using these interfaces is consumed by the logic that describes how the agent should behave in various failure scenarios. For example, how many times should the agent attempt to restart the service before giving up and potentially failing over? What should the agent do in response to a network failure?

    One advantage of using the GDS is that all the best practices for service behavior are already in the logic of the code that makes up the agent, saving you from re-creating that code.

    Useful Utilities for Building Custom Data Services

    The Solaris Cluster software comes with two programs that you will find very useful if you create your resource type from scratch: hatimerun (see the hatimerun(1M) man page) and pmfadm.

    hatimerun Command

    Throughout the Start, Stop, Monitor_start, and Validate methods of your resource type, you will need to run various programs to perform the required logic steps. Because your goal is high availability, you cannot wait for a program that might never respond or return, whether that program has gone into a loop or is unable to retrieve some important data from the network, disk, or other program. Consequently, you must place time constraints on the duration of the program's execution. This is the function of the hatimerun command. It enables you to execute a program under its control and set a limit on the time it can take to respond. If the program in question fails to respond in a timely fashion, it is terminated by default.

    The hatimerun command also enables you to leave the program running asynchronously in the background, change the exit code returned after a timeout, or use a particular signal to terminate your program.

    The most common usage of this command is in your probe commands or in the steps leading up to stopping or starting your application.

    pmfadm Command

    If you write a custom probe for your service, you decide what constitutes a healthy service. The criteria might include application-specific checks to determine if the data it is delivering to potential clients is valid or timely. If the application consists of multiple processes, you might want to check that each process is running, using the ps command. All of these tests combine to give you the best assessment of your application's current health. However, your probe is scheduled to make its checks only at regular intervals. Even though you can tune these checks to occur at shorter intervals, doing so results in a greater load on your system. Consequently, you must wait, on average, half the probe period before your probe detects a situation where your application has completely failed, meaning that all the processes have exited. Once again, this does not help much toward your goal of high availability.

    The solution is to use pmfadm, the process-monitoring facility command. When you start your application under pmfadm, it monitors all the processes your application spawns to a level that you determine. By default, it monitors all the application's child processes. If they all exit, pmfadm immediately restarts your application for you on the condition that it has not already exceeded a preset number of restarts within a certain time interval.

    The most common usage of this command is in your start command to ensure that your key application processes are monitored and that complete failures are reacted to immediately.

    libschost.so Library

    Some applications store or make use of configuration information about the physical hostname of the server on which the application is running. Such applications will most likely fail when the application is placed in a resource group and moved between the nodes of a cluster. This failure occurs because calls to uname or gethostbyname produce different responses on the global zone of each cluster node. Oracle Application Server and the Oracle E-Business Suite are two examples of programs that risk such failures [LibHost].

    To overcome this limitation, you use the LD_PRELOAD feature to enable the runtime linker to interpose the libschost.so.1 library in the dynamic linking process. The following example shows how this is done. You can use the same construct within your resource Start or Monitor_start (probe) methods, as required.

    Example 4.19. How to Use the sclibhost.so.1 Library to Change the String Returned as the Hostname

    Use the uname command to display the current hostname.

    # uname -n phys-winter1

    Set the LD_PRELOAD_32, LD_PRELOAD_64 and SC_LHOSTNAME environment variables, and then rerun the uname command.

    # LD_PRELOAD_32=$LD_PRELOAD_32:/usr/cluster/lib/libschost.so.1 # LD_PRELOAD_64=$LD_PRELOAD_64:/usr/cluster/lib/64/libschost.so.1 # SC_LHOSTNAME=myhost # export SC_LHOSTNAME LD_PRELOAD_32 LD_PRELOAD_64 # uname -n myhost


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