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1Z0-895 - Java Platform Enterprise Edition 6(R) Enterprise JavaBeans Developer Certified Expert(R) - BrainDump Information

Vendor Name : Oracle
Exam Code : 1Z0-895
Exam Name : Java Platform Enterprise Edition 6(R) Enterprise JavaBeans Developer Certified Expert(R)
Questions and Answers : 302 Q & A
Updated On : March 20, 2019
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1Z0-895 exam Dumps Source : Java Platform Enterprise Edition 6(R) Enterprise JavaBeans Developer Certified Expert(R)

Test Code : 1Z0-895
Test Name : Java Platform Enterprise Edition 6(R) Enterprise JavaBeans Developer Certified Expert(R)
Vendor Name : Oracle
Q&A : 302 Real Questions

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Oracle Java Platform Enterprise Edition

Oracle Java regular edition Runtime atmosphere | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Oracle Java typical version Runtime environment (often known as JRE SE, Java SE or Java SE Runtime ambiance) is a closed-supply and freely allotted computer technology that offers an easy option to run Java courses on any Linux-based mostly operating device.

Invented with the aid of sun Microsystems

initially invented through sun Microsystems for interactive television, the application become up to now referred to as Java 2 Platform, general version or J2SE. It became later obtained by using the Oracle agency that now actively develops and keeps the supply code.

it's known as Java SE (standard version) since the technology is additionally distributed as a Micro edition (ME) and an business edition (EE), which can be found simplest for embedded programs/cellular devices and commercial enterprise computing platforms respectively.

dispensed as binary applications for all Linux distributions

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whereas the Java Runtime environment platform is used most effective for having fun with rich web content and Java courses, the Java building equipment platform helps Java builders to create contemporary content for web sites or feature-rich applications that work on multiple structures.

Java building kit incorporates Java Runtime ambiance

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Java Runtime atmosphere Java common edition Oracle Java Oracle Java JRE SE


Oracle: Java EE wants an Open supply basis | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

information

Oracle: Java EE needs an Open supply foundation
  • by using John okay. Waters
  • 08/17/2017
  • With Java EE eight poised to head GA, and JavaOne 2017 just across the corner, Oracle Corp. says the time is right to "rethink" how Java EE is developed, and it's given that the knowledge advantages of relocating the platform and linked technologies to an open supply groundwork "to make it greater agile and conscious of altering industry and technology demands."

    The Redwood Shores, Calif.-based steward of Java put ahead that conception these days on The Aquarium weblog.

    "We agree with that moving Java EE applied sciences to an open source foundation can be the right next step, so as to undertake more agile approaches, put in force extra flexible licensing, and alter the governance procedure," wrote Oracle software evangelist David Delabassee. "We plan on exploring this chance with the group, our licensees and a number of candidate foundations to see if we are able to flow Java EE forward during this course."

    The roster of technologies that fall under the Java Platform business edition umbrella at present contains each open and proprietary tech. The TCKs (check compatibility kits), for instance, which might be used to validate and show an implementation of the spec is compliant, are proprietary. And Java EE is licensed under an Oracle business license.

    Mike Lehman, VP of product administration at Oracle, additionally pointed to the notoriously byzantine Java Specification Participation settlement (JSPA), which former Chair of the Java community system (JCP) Patrick Curran once referred to as "big and scary," as a part of the Java EE construction system that can be dramatically superior by this type of movement.

    "The manner itself within the JCP is idiosyncratic to the Java neighborhood and field to licensing rules and felony terms that are often now not viewed as permissive and simple as other foundations," Lehman stated in an email, "like Apache or Eclipse…"

    Lehman allowed that what Oracle is suggesting isn't as a whole lot about open sourcing Java EE because it is "opening up and updating the technique linked to Java EE to be compatible with the centered open supply basis method."

    in the Aquarium put up, Delabassee emphasised that, whereas Oracle is exploring this thought, it intends "to fulfill its ongoing commitments to builders, end clients, valued clientele, know-how patrons, know-how contributors, partners, and licensees."

    "And we can assist current Java EE implementations and future implementations of Java EE eight," he wrote. "we will proceed to participate sooner or later evolution of Java EE technologies. but we consider a more open technique, that isn't dependent on a single seller as platform lead, will inspire greater participation and innovation, and may be in most desirable pursuits of the group."

    as a minimum one main seller believes Oracle is on the right song. "We think that putting Java EE below the jurisdiction of an open source company is a really high-quality stream to be able to advantage the entire business Java neighborhood," noted John Clingan, senior principle product manager at pink Hat, in an e mail. "while there is lots of element to flesh out, pink Hat is optimistic and applauds Oracle's choice to increase Java EE below an open and collaborative community."

    purple Hat is a member of the JCP and leads the CDI and Bean Validation Java EE-linked JSRs. The enterprise is a Java EE licensee, and its JBoss enterprise application Platform is wholly Java EE-suitable.

    yet another JCP member, Reza Rahman, a longtime commercial enterprise Java evangelist and founding member of the Java EE Guardians, also favored the conception.

    "this is superb information," Rahman instructed ADTMag, "and a long time coming."

    Rahman and the Guardians began making the case that Oracle has been "conspicuously neglecting" Java EE due to the fact that the group became situated closing 12 months.

    "I suppose it remains authentic that Oracle undervalues Java EE," he pointed out. "I do not believe the business is familiar with Java EE and what it may well do for it the way, for instance, Microsoft understands the value of .web. this is in reality a big victory for a lot of of us within the group. Now the ball is in our court, and the onus is upon us to make the most of it."

    Oracle wants comments on this recommended new direction for Java EE building, and the company is featuring a place to weigh in by the use of email: feedback@javaee.companies.io.

    about the writer

    John has been overlaying the high-tech beat from Silicon Valley and the San Francisco Bay enviornment for nearly two many years. He serves as Editor-at-tremendous for software development developments (www.ADTMag.com) and contributes regularly to Redmond magazine, The know-how Horizons in schooling Journal, and Campus expertise. he's the writer of greater than a dozen books, together with The every little thing e-book to Social Media; The everything laptop book; Blobitecture: Waveform architecture and Digital Design; John Chambers and the Cisco method; and Diablo: The legitimate strategy book.


    Oracle Shares Key Updates on Java Platform, business version, Introduces GlassFish Server Open source version 4.1 at JavaOne 2014 | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Oracle Shares Key Updates on Java Platform, enterprise edition, Introduces GlassFish Server Open source version 4.1 at JavaOne 2014

    source: Oracle enterprise

    Oracle Corporation

    September 29, 2014 11:10 ET

    Oracle particulars New Capabilities in Upcoming Java EE 8 and Enhancements to GlassFish Server Open source edition

    SAN FRANCISCO, CA--(Marketwired - Sep 29, 2014) - JAVAONE, SAN FRANCISCO - Oracle (NYSE: ORCL)

    news abstract Ubiquitous throughout the know-how panorama, Java is the realm's most accepted programming language and serves as the backbone of countless creative applied sciences. because the international average in community-driven commercial enterprise software, Java Platform, business edition (Java EE) is a a must-have platform for the development and start of business-grade applications and features. To that end, Oracle and the Java neighborhood are perpetually innovating to force Java EE ahead and deliver value to end-users. At JavaOne 2014, Oracle highlighted key updates to the Java EE platform, including upcoming groundbreaking aspects in Java EE eight, and also delivered the newest edition of GlassFish Server Open supply edition 4.1.

    news data

  • At JavaOne 2014, Oracle is showcasing the latest tendencies for Java Platform, enterprise edition (Java EE) and future plans for Java EE eight.
  • additionally, the enterprise is introducing GlassFish Server Open source edition four.1, which provides updated platform help, new facets, and an superior developer experience.
  • Java EE 8, the next era of Java EE, has been accredited by the Java group system (JCP) govt Committee as Java Specification Request (JSR) 366 and is slated to be launched in 2016.
  • as the business typical for Java business computing, Java EE makes it possible for numerous implementations, which lowers possibility through offering organisations a decision of product implementation and carriers.
  • in addition, Java EE provides a authentic groundwork that evolves to meet the wants of business applications.
  • Java EE eight will offer enhanced HTML5 aid to bring scalable services to cellular instruments and browsers, ease of development for improved developer productiveness and less boilerplate code, and cloud enablement for transportable purposes in cloud environments.
  • Java EE 8 is defined inside the JCP, which ensures a clear discussion board that encourages collaboration amongst people, vendors, and organisations to create the Java EE eight specification.
  • additionally at JavaOne 2014, Oracle will showcase the strong momentum and persisted innovation in the back of Java Platform, normal version 8 (Java SE eight), which has seen record adoption.
  • Oracle is showcasing these and other Java enhancements all through JavaOne 2014, operating September 28 through October 2, 2014 at the Hilton San Francisco Union rectangular and Parc fifty five Wyndham.
  • New Capabilities for the ordinary in community-pushed business software

  • Developed the usage of the Java neighborhood procedure with contributions from business specialists and business and open source companies, Java EE is the common in community-driven enterprise software. authorised JSRs anticipated to be featured in Java EE eight encompass:
  • Java API for JSON Binding 1.0 (JSR 367): Bidirectional mapping of Java objects and their JSON representations
  • Java Message service 2.1 (JSR 368): CDI alignment and superior ease of use
  • Java Servlet four.0 (JSR 369): HTTP 2.0 assist
  • Java API for RESTful web services 2.1 (JSR 370): Server-sent activities
  • model-View-Controller 1.0 (JSR 371): Standardized action-oriented MVC framework
  • JavaServer Faces 2.3 (JSR 372): greater AJAX API
  • extra JSRs are being planned, including:
  • Java EE security 1.0: Simplifies the development of secure functions
  • leisure administration 1.0: RESTful administration and monitoring of Java EE software servers
  • JSON Processing 1.1: improved assist for Java SE 8 and enhancing/transforming JSON object mannequin
  • Enhancements to GlassFish Server Open source edition

  • GlassFish Server Open supply edition four.1 presents a number of new features including updated platform guide and an stronger developer event.
  • GlassFish Server Open supply version four.1 comprises:
  • up to date platform aid: the brand new unlock features platform assist for Java eight, in addition to help for WebSocket 1.1 and CDI 1.2 protection releases.
  • stronger quality and developer experience: the new liberate contains up to date models of more than 20 subprojects and delivers greater than 1,000 trojan horse fixes and have enhancements.
  • WebSocket Reference Implementation (Tyrus): This implementation adds session limits, proxy aid, customer reconnect, optimized broadcast, and performance metrics uncovered over Java administration Extension (JMX).
  • JAX-RS Reference Implementation (Jersey): This implementation adds a brand new diagnostics API and Server-despatched experience customer reconnect.
  • JMS over WebSocket (OpenMQ): GlassFish Server Open supply version four.1 adds guide for communicating over WebSocket, including the mqstmp and mqjsonstmp protocols for non-Java shoppers.
  • NetBeans 8.0.1 integration: GlassFish Server Open source edition 4.1 is now bundled in NetBeans eight.0.1, for a productive out-of-the-container Java EE 7 development event.
  • The Java EE 7 utility development kit (SDK) has been up to date to encompass GlassFish Server Open supply edition 4.1, in addition to an up-to-date Java EE tutorial and a new zip installer.
  • Oracle is additionally offering an up to date Java EE Reference Implementation in response to GlassFish Server Open supply version 4.1.
  • assisting Quote

  • "Java Platform, enterprise version, the trade typical for commercial enterprise Java, continues to lead the business with an incredible volume of participation from consumer companies, businesses, trade specialists, and particular person developers," said Anil Gaur, vice president of software building, Oracle. "This participation manifests itself through GlassFish Server Open source edition 4.1 as an implementation of the newest Java EE 7 normal, and additionally with the active involvement of the impending Java EE eight platform during the undertake-a-JSR software."
  • aiding elements

    Java records and Figures

  • 9 million developers global
  • more than 3 billion contraptions are powered by Java expertise
  • more than a hundred twenty five million Java-primarily based media devices had been deployed
  • Over 10 billion Java playing cards had been shipped given that its introduction
  • About Oracle Oracle engineers hardware and software to work together within the cloud and to your records middle. For extra counsel about Oracle (NYSE: ORCL), visit www.oracle.com.

    About JavaOne The JavaOne conference brings collectively Java experts and fanatics for an brilliant week of gaining knowledge of and networking focused wholly on all things Java. With more than 550 periods overlaying themes that span the breadth of the Java universe, keynotes from most excellent Java visionaries, tutorials, and professional-led arms-on learning opportunities, JavaOne is the area's most critical event for the Java community. be a part of the JavaOne discussion on Twitter, fb, LinkedIn, and the JavaOne weblog.

    trademarks Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its associates. other names may well be emblems of their respective homeowners.

    For a far better experience using this web site, please improve to a latest web browser.


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    Java Platform Enterprise Edition 6(R) Enterprise JavaBeans Developer Certified Expert(R)

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    Whatever Happened to JAAS? | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Introduced in 1995, Java has firmly established itself as a mature mainstream programming language for enterprises. The Java platform security model has evolved over the years to meet new requirements, and today enterprise Java developers have a large number of APIs and services to choose from to fulfill their security needs.

    Originally touted as a secure runtime environment for downloadable executables (applets), Java platform security received a lot of attention early on and the rather inflexible security model was quickly identified as a weakness in the system. With the Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE), Sun revamped the Java platform security model and introduced a fine-grained, flexible, and extensible security model for code-based security. This new model has largely been a success but it was restricted to code-based security. This makes sense for browser-based deployment environments but is not as relevant for server-side deployments. To address this gap, Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) was introduced as an optional package for Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.3.1, and subsequently integrated into JDK 1.4.

    Sun officially announced Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) 1.0 in 2000. Just as Java became the mainstream programming language of choice, Java EE has been widely adopted as the primary application platform for enterprises. But the security needs of enterprise applications are quite different from those of downloadable executable code, so Java EE defined its own security model that is declarative, consistent, and portable across Java EE implementations.

    JAAS was included officially as part of the Java EE 1.3 specification. Unfortunately, Java EE 1.3 did not attempt to resolve the differences between the Java EE security model and JAAS, which made it more difficult to deploy off-the-shelf JAAS login modules in some vendors' implementations.

    State of Java EE SecurityIn this section, we'll provide a brief overview of the main players in the Java EE security landscape.

    Java EE Declarative SecurityJava EE defines a declarative and portable security model that applies to both Web and Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) modules and applications. The main goal of the declarative security model is to decouple security concerns from business application logic, so enterprise application developers can focus on the main business functions and services provided by the applications without worrying aboutsecurity.

    The Java EE declarative security model applies to the servlet container and the EJB container. The servlet container security model is based on URL patterns, whereas the EJB security model is method-based.

    For security-aware applications, Java EE also defines a programmatic API to handle more advanced security needs.

    JAASIntroduced as an option for JDK 1.3.1 and incorporated into J2EE 1.4, today JAAS has been quite widely adopted by commercial and open source vendors as the primary pluggable authentication framework for SE and EE applications alike.

    JAAS defines a framework for subject-based authentication and authorization in a pluggable manner, decoupling applications from underlying security implementations.

    Key components of JAAS include:

  • The definition of subject (javax.security.auth.Subject)
  • An authentication API (javax.security.auth.login.LoginContext) that supports pluggable and stacked authentications
  • An authentication SPI (javax.security.auth.spi.LoginModule) for pluggable authentication mechanisms
  • A configuration contract for configuring and associating login modules with applications
  • A typesafe callback contract (javax.security.auth.callback) for services to communicate with applications
  • The definition of SubjectDomainCombiner (javax.security.auth.SubjectDomainCombiner) for dynamically updating the protection domains with the principals from the subject, for integration with the J2EE security model
  • Figure 1 illustrates the JAAS authentication architecture.

    The JAAS authentication framework has been stable since JAAS 1.0 - there were some very minor changes (the introduction of a LoginContext constructor that takes a configuration as an argument for dynamic configuration of login modules, for example), but in general applications written on top of JAAS 1.0 (JDK 1.3.1) continue to work without modification today (JDK 6.0). Perhaps more remarkable, login modules written to the JAAS 1.0 SPI can be plugged into today's applications, which reflects well on the overall design of the API.

    Figure 2 illustrates the typical authentication call sequence.

    Note that the application developer is largely decoupled from underlying login module implementations - especially if the login module implementation only uses the standard callbacks.

    When integrating JAAS authentication with Java EE implementations, however, a number of thorny issues arise.

  • Although JAAS uses subject to represent a user, Java EE uses principal. A subject can - and usually does - contain multiple (custom) principal instances, so there must be a mechanism whereby a container can determine the principal instance representing the caller or user.
  • The standard JAAS callbacks are useful and valuable for Java Platform, Standard Edition applications, but they do not cover typical enterprise deployment scenarios. For instance, there is no standard definition of HttpServletRequestCallback or HttpServletResponseCallback, so if a login module provider needs to access the HttpServletRequest object (say to retrieve a HTTP header value), thelogin module provider must resort to a vendor-specific API, compromising portability.
  • Java Specification Request 196When this was written, Java Specification Request (JSR) 196 was slated to be included as part of Java EE 6.0.

    Figure 3 depicts the JSR 196 generic message processing model and the four interaction points.

    This generic model applies to any message-processing runtime that integrates with JSR 196. The reader is encouraged to peruse JSR 196 for more details.

    As part of JSR 196, a servlet container profile is defined, clarifying how servlet container implementations can integrate with this contract. When this was written, this profile is under consideration as a Java EE 6.0 requirement.

    JSR 196 defines a standard SPI for authentication providers. Therefore, the interfaces introduced by JSR 196 are primarily used by Java EE container vendors. Consequently, Java EE application developers are not directly affected by a container vendor's uptake of this SPI.

    On the other hand, JSR 196 directly addresses a few long-standing problems in the JAAS/Java EE landscape, namely determining a standard way to obtain user principals and group principals.

    JAAS, being a flexible, pluggable standard, allows any login module to define its own custom principal type(s) and populate the custom principal instance(s) into the subject. But because the custom principal type(s) are not known to the container, the container can only determine which principal represents the caller's identity by introducing CallerPrincipalCallback. JSR 196 addresses this issue. The ServerAuthModules can indicate to the container which principal instance represents the caller, and you can ensure that getUserPrincipal and getRemoteUser return the correct and expected value instead of leaving it to the mercy of the vendor's implementation details.

    The need to obtain group principals is an equally fundamental issue. This is addressed by introduction of GroupPrincipalCallback in JSR 196.

    ConclusionJAAS has come a long way since it was an option for JDK 1.3.1. With the introduction of JSR 196 in Java EE 6.0, many of the thorny issues that exist today will finally be addressed. JAAS has certainly evolved, and it looks to be well positioned to have a place in the enterprise marketplace for years to come.

    •   •   •

    SOAP Box: The Talented Callback HandlerOne of the most versatile components introduced by JAAS is the typesafe callback contract (javax.security.auth.callback). We assume the reader is already familiar with the commonly used NameCallback and PasswordCallback through which the security services (login modules) obtain user name and password information. However, the callback contract is actually a generic two-way communication model that can be applied in many circumstances, both security-related and not.

    For instance, JSR 196 takes advantage of the callback contract by defining a CallerPrincipalCallback whereby a security service (such as ServerAuthModule) can communicate with the container (or application) that the principal instance represents, solving a long-standing issue. JSR 115 defines a similar callback contract (javax.security.jacc.PolicyContextHandler) that enables the container to communicate additional contextual information to the policy provider to support advanced security policies such as the instance-based security model. In fact, with the callback model, notions such as XACML-styled obligations can be supported as well, without affecting existing APIs.

    Finally, JSR 196 creates a bridge to JAAS login modules, helping to preserve existing investments in JAAS. It also properly decouples JAAS login modules from any protocol-specific processing. In the past, attempts to create a JAAS login module to integrate with a single sign-on solution failed because there was no portable way to access the HttpRequest/Response objects. JSR196 solves that issue - not by making HttpRequest/Response objects available to JAAS login modules, but by cleanly separating the component that deals with protocol-specific processing from the component that deals with credential validation (the JAAS login module). We believe this is the right approach.

    When this was written, Glassfish was the only major Java EE provider that supports JSR 196, but the servlet container profile was slated to be part of Java EE 6.0, so you can expect major Java EE vendors to support this contract as well.

    •   •   •

    SOAP Box: Why JSR 196?The benefits of JSR 196 include:

  • It is sufficiently rich to enable implementations of complex authentication protocols
  • It is portable across component containers and servers-WORA capabilities for server-side authentication modules-Application-level binding supports application-level authentication configurations and mechanisms-Security-aware enterprise applications can remain portable
  • It properly delegates security processing to ServerAuthModules, which are registered/configured at the container level and can be associated with applications
  • It supports and preserves the existing declarative Java EE security model, auth-constraint processing, and the like
  • It defines a servlet container profile and a SOAP profile (with Java Message Service, Internet Inter-ORB Protocol, and the like) to be defined in the future
  • By supporting JSR196, Java EE vendors benefit by leveraging the available ServerAuthModule implementations for competitive advantages.

    How about Servlet Filters? Servlet filter is a very useful mechanism, but servlet filters must be configured as part of the application (via web.xml) and are considered part of the application. In fact, by the time a servlet filter is invoked, the authentication has already happened and auth-constraints have already been processed. That does not mean we cannot use servlet filters for security needs, but there are some undesirable tradeoffs with this approach.

    How about Spring Security? Spring is perhaps the most important de facto application framework in use today, and Spring security (formerly ACEGI security) is the main security framework provided by Spring. It takes advantage of Spring-styled configuration, aspect-oriented programming, and inversion of control technologies. Not surprisingly, Spring security uses a filter-based approach. Users must configure a series of filters as part of the application, and then Spring security effectively replaces Java EE container security. To compensate, Spring security provides its own security model based on URL patterns, and provides features typically found in servlet container implementations. The features offered by Spring security are indeed valuable and should not be underestimated - and aside from servlet filters, there are few other options available today. However, there are inevitably tradeoffs involved when this method is employed, and users should be aware of them. In fact, when JSR 196 becomes readily available, we expect some of the features implemented via servlet filters be folded into ServerAuthModule implementations.


    Simple Web Profile Application Server | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The Java EE 6 Web Profile specification defines the Java EE Web Profile (“Web Profile”), a profile of the Java Platform, Enterprise Edition specifically targeted at web applications. Siwpas, (Simple Web Profile Application Server) is an application server aimed at implementing the Java EE Web Profile specification. In this article, the components of Siwpas, its current state and the level of compatibility regarding the Web Profile Specification will be discussed.

    Java Enterprise Edition (Java EE or formerly known as Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition or J2EE) is an enterprise platform for developing highly available, secure, reliable and scalable business applications. The Java EE platform has undergone several changes from its first release version J2EE 1.2 (December 12, 1999). The latest version of the specification is Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) Specification, v6. In this white paper, Java EE and Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) Specification, v6 will be used interchangebly. The Java EE Specification defines “Java EE Profiles”. A Java EE profile (simply “a profile”) represents a configuration of the platform suited to a particular class of applications.

    “Java EE Web Profile” is a “Java EE Profile” that consists of several independent specifications related to web application development. Siwpas is an open source (LGPL license) application server based on Apache Software Foundation (ASF) Java EE projects. The latest version of Siwpas is “CR-5” and the first commerical quality version is planned to be released at the end of March. This white paper has been organized as follows: Java EE Web Profile section gives some details about Web Profile. The next section talks about the ASF and its Java EE based projects. The MechSoft Siwpas section explains the components of Siwpas and its compatibility regarding the Web Profile specification. This white paper ends with Summary and References sections.

    Java EE 6 Web Profile

    The Java EE Platform Specification consists of a huge number of specifications (APIs). For platform provider companies, it is not easy to develop a fully compliant Java EE Platform that implements all of the required components of the Java EE Platform Specification. For application developers, it is not necessary to use all of the Java EE APIs for developing enterprise applications. Because of these observations, the Java EE Expert Group (EG) has defined Profiles in Java EE v6 and the first standard profile has been defined, “Java Platform, Enterprise Edition 6 (Java EE 6) Web Profile Specification”.

    The Web Profile is aimed at developers of modern web applications. Aiming “modern” web applications then implies offering a reasonably complete stack, composed of standard APIs, and out-of-the-box capability to address the needs of a large class of web applications. Furthermore, this stack should be easy to grow, so as to address any remaining developer needs. The Web Profile stack has consisted of several technologies. Table 1 shows the Web Profile required components. Java web applications are generally written as 3-tiers. These tiers are “Web Tier”, “Business Tier ” and “Persistence Tier”. Each of the Web Profile component sits on these tiers as follows:

    • Web Tier: Servlet, Java Server Pages, Debugging Support for Other Languages, Standard Tag Library for JSP, Java Server Faces.

    • Business Tier: Enterprise Java Beans Lite, Persistence Tier, Java Persistence API

    Some of the components are used for general functionality. These components and their functions are as follows:

    • Common Annotations for the Java Platform: This JSR will develop annotations for common semantic concepts in the J2SE and J2EE platforms that apply across a variety of individual technologies:

    • Java Transaction API: Transaction management and demarcation

    • Bean Validation: Management of business constraints

    • Managed Beans: Common lifecycle of managed beans

    • Interceptors: Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP) operations

    • Context and Dependency Injection for Java EE: Dependency injection for Java EE

    • Dependency Injection for Java: Dependency injection for standard Java

    As we know, the Java EE Web Profile is a subset of the Java EE Platform specification. Lots of Java EE Platform specification required components are not contained in the Java EE Web Profile. For exampe, these are components that not defined for the Java EE Web Profile specification: JAX-WS, JAX-RPC, JAX-R, SAAJ, JAX-RS, JAX-B, JMS, JAAS, JASPIC, JACC, JCA, JavaMail, JSR77, JSR88. Finally, it is worth remembering that Web Profile products are allowed to ship with additional technologies, to the required ones. It is conceivable that products will offer choices during installation between different configurations, some richer in extensions, or even allow for complete customization beyond the required core (“à la carte” installation).

    Apache EE Projects

    The Apache Software Foundation provides organizational, legal, and financial support for a broad range of open source software projects. The Foundation provides an established framework for intellectual property and financial contributions that simultaneously limits the contributors’ potential legal exposure. Through a collaborative and meritocratic development process, Apache projects deliver enterprise-grade, freely available software products that attract large communities of users. The pragmatic Apache License makes it easy for all users, commercial and individual, to deploy Apache products.

    In Siwpas, we use ASF Java EE projects for satisfying Java EE Web Profile required components. These projects and their correspondence to Web Profile components are shown below.

    With the exception of the Apache OpenEJB project, each of the above ASF projects is standalone compatible with TCK (Technology Compatibility Kit). In other words, Tomcat 7, MyFaces 2, OpenWebBeans, Bean Validation and OpenJPA are TCK compliant projects on their own.

    EJB Lite container in Siwpas is a subset of the Apache OpenEJB project and is called a Siwpas EJB Lite Container. Currently Siwpas EJB Lite Container has not been tested with EJB 3 Lite TCK.

    Mechsoft Siwpas Application Server

    Siwpas (pronounced as Simple Web Profile Application Server) is a lightweight Java application server platform for developing enterprise quality Java EE web applications. Siwpas integrates above ASF Java EE based projects for providing a Java EE Web Profile compatible runtime platform Integrating different sets of projects on the same runtime is not an easy task . MechSoft has been writing an integration layer component to integrate Apache Tomcat 7 runtime with Siwpas EJB 3.1. Lite container runtime.

    Moreover, a cool web based management console for managing all aspects of Siwpas has been written. The Siwpas management console will be released with the 1.0.0 GA release of Siwpas and provides the following management operations:

    • Overall realtime view of the current running system: CPU, Memory, OS, JVM Heap size

    • Server configuration

    • Applications view and deployment operations

    • JMX, JNDI and ClassLoader views

    • Dashboards

    • Web and EJB Container runtime status

    • And more…

    Figure 2 shows a sample snapshot view from Siwpas console “Applications View” page.

    Why Siwpas, why another server?

    Before Siwpas was developed, Apache OpenWebBeans (implementation of Context and Dependency Injection for Java EE Specification) and Apache OpenEJB were used in some commercial projects, but we wanted to use a lightweight application server in a cloud infrastructure. At that time there was no open source application server for using the OpenWebBeans and the OpenEJB in a lightweight server runtime. Therefore it was decided to implement a lightweight server based on Apache Tomcat 7.

    Nowadays, a huge number of application developers and enterprise companies want to use lightweight application servers for deploying and running their web applications. They do not want to use heavyweight Java EE Servers that are fully compliant with Java EE Specifications. They want to manage lightweight, cloud environment friendly servers. Nonetheless, they also need more technology stack for implementing their web based applications, such as “JPA, JSF, JTA , EJB etc.” Moreover, most of them deploy their critical enterprise web applications into the Apache Tomcat in their production systems.

    Siwpas is aimed at providing a lightweight application server runtime based on Apache Tomcat 7 . It also fills web applications technology requirements via ASF Java EE projects. In summary, Siwpas translates Apache Tomcat 7 into a more powerful enterprise web server.

    The benefits of using Siwpas can be listed as follows:

    • It has a lightweight but powerful runtime environment

    • It is based on the very-well known JSP & Servlet Container, Apache Tomcat 7

    • It consists of Web Profile Specification technology stack

    • It consists of powerful, commerical quality ASF Java EE Projects

    • It is an open source project

    • It is supported by MechSoft (7×24 enterprise support)

    • It is light and will be always light

    • It has a very cool JSF based administration console

    Web Profile Compliance

    Currently Siwpas does not claim compliance with Java EE Web Profile Specification because it has not been tested with Java EE Web Profile TCK. This does not mean that Siwpas will never be certified as a Web Profile Compliance application server. In order to test Siwpas with Java EE Web Profile TCK, MechSoft has to be a licensee of Oracle and we are discussing a reasonable way to obtain this TCK. As mentioned in the above paragraphs, with the exception of Apache OpenEJB, ASF Java EE projects are TCK compliant with their respective specificiations.

    Siwpas Editions

    There are two different editions of Siwpas: Community Edition and Enterprise Edition. The table below shows differences between each edition.

    Summary

    The Java EE Web Profile Specification is the first standard profile specification in the Java EE Profiles that is explained in the Java EE Platform Specification. Instead of using full profile compatible Java EE servers, developers are now able to use more lightweight server runtimes for developing their Java based web applications. This does not mean that full profile application servers such as Apache Geronimo will be useless. Some enterprise applications still need to use other cool features of the Java EE full profile, such as Remote EJB Invocation, Asynchronous Message Processing via JMS, CORBA Integration etc. In an upcoming version of the Java EE platform, a number of more specific profiles can be seen. Siwpas is a lightweight web application server based on the ASF Java EE projects. It provides Java EE Web Profile components with a powerful web based administration console. It is one of the lightweight application servers to implement Java EE Web Profile Specification.


    An Overview of Batch Processing in Java EE 7.0 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This post by Mahesh Kannan appears via Oracle.

    Batch processing is used in many industries for tasks ranging from payroll processing; statement generation; end-of-day jobs such as interest calculation and ETL (extract, load, and transform) in a data warehouse; and many more. Typically, batch processing is bulk-oriented, non-interactive, and long running—and might be data- or computation-intensive. Batch jobs can be run on schedule or initiated on demand. Also, since batch jobs are typically long-running jobs, check-pointing and restarting are common features found in batch jobs.

    JSR 352 (Batch Processing for Java Platform), part of the recently introduced Java EE 7 platform, defines the programming model for batch applications plus a runtime to run and manage batch jobs. This article covers some of the key concepts including feature highlights, an overview of selected APIs, the structure of Job Scheduling Language, and a sample batch application. The article also describes how you can run batch applications using GlassFish Server Open Source Edition 4.0.

    Batch Processing Architecture

    This section and Figure 1 describe the basic components of the batch processing architecture.

    Figure 1

    Figure 1

  • A job encapsulates the entire batch process. A job contains one or more steps. A job is put together using a Job Specification Language (JSL) that specifies the sequence in which the steps must be executed. In JSR 352, JSL is specified in an XML file called the job XML file. In short, a job (with JSR 352) is basically a container for steps.
  • A step is a domain object that encapsulates an independent, sequential phase of the job. A step contains all the necessary logic and data to perform the actual processing. The batch specification deliberately leaves the definition of a step vague because the content of a step is purely application-specific and can be as complex or simple as the developer desires. There are two kinds of steps: chunk and batchlet.
  • A chunk-style step contains exactly one ItemReader, one ItemProcessor, and one ItemWriter. In this pattern, ItemReaderreads one item at a time, ItemProcessor processes the item based upon the business logic (such as "calculate account balance"), and hands it to the batch runtime for aggregation. Once the "chunk-size" number of items are read and processed, they are given to an ItemWriter, which writes the data (for example, to a database table or a flat file). The transaction is then committed.
  • JSR 352 also defines a roll-your-own kind of a step called a batchlet. A batchlet is free to use anything to accomplish the step, such as sending an e-mail.
  • JobOperator provides an interface to manage all aspects of job processing, including operational commands, such as start, restart, and stop, as well as job repository commands, such as retrieval of job and step executions. See section 10.4 of the JSR 352 specification for more details about JobOperator.
  • JobRepository holds information about jobs currently running and jobs that ran in the past. JobOperator provides APIs to access this repository. A JobRepository could be implemented using, say, a database or a file system.
  • Developing a Simple Payroll Processing Application

    This article demonstrates some of the key features of JSR 352 using a simple payroll processing application. The application has been intentionally kept quite simple in order to focus on the key concepts of JSR 352.

    The SimplePayrollJob batch job involves reading input data for payroll processing from a comma-separated values (CSV) file. Each line in the file contains an employee ID and the base salary (per month) for one employee. The batch job then calculates the tax to be withheld, the bonus, and the net salary. The job finally needs to write out the processed payroll records into a database table.

    We use a CSV file in this example just to demonstrate that JSR 352 allows batch applications to read and write from any arbitrary source.

    Job Specification Language for the Payroll Processing Application

    We discussed that a step is a domain object that encapsulates an independent, sequential phase of the job, and a job is basically a container for one or more steps.

    In JSR 352, a JSL basically specifies the order in which steps must be executed to accomplish the job. The JSL is powerful enough to allow conditional execution of steps, and it also allows each step to have its own properties, listeners, and so on.

    A batch application can have as many JSLs as it wants, thus allowing it to start as many batch jobs as required. For example, an application can have two JSLs, one for payroll processing and another for report generation. Each JSL must be named uniquely and must be placed in the META-INF/batch-jobs directory. Subdirectories under META-INF/batch-jobs are ignored.

    Our JSL for payroll processing is placed in a file called SimplePayrollJob.xml and looks like Listing 1:

    <job id="SimplePayrollJob" xmlns=http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee version="1.0"> <step id="process"> <chunk item-count="2"> <reader ref="simpleItemReader/> <processor ref="simpleItemProcessor/> <writer ref="simpleItemWriter/> </chunk> </step> </job>

    Listing 1

    Our SimplePayrollJob batch job has just one step (called "process"). It is a chunk-style step and has (as required for a chunk-style step), an ItemReader, an ItemProcessor, and an ItemWriter. The implementations for ItemReader, ItemProcessor, andItemWriter for this step are specified using the ref attribute in the <reader>, <processor>, and <writer> elements.

    When the job is submitted (we will see later how to submit batch jobs), the batch runtime starts with the first step in the JSL and walks its way through until the entire job is completed or one of the steps fails. The JSL is powerful enough to allow both conditional steps and parallel execution of steps, but we will not cover those details in this article.

    The item-count attribute, which is defined as 2 in Listing 1, defines the chunk size of the chunk.

    Here is a high-level overview of how chunk-style steps are executed. Please see section 11.6 ("Regular Chunk Processing") of the JSR 352 specification for more details.

  • Start a transaction.
  • Invoke the ItemReader and pass the item read by the ItemReader to the ItemProcessor. ItemProcessor processes the item and returns the processed item to the batch runtime.
  • The batch runtime repeats Step 2 item-count times and maintains a list of processed items.
  • The batch runtime invokes the ItemWriter that writes item-count number of processed items.
  • If exceptions are thrown from ItemReader, ItemProcessor, or ItemWriter, the transaction fails and the step is marked as "FAILED." Please refer to Section 5.2.1.2.1 ("Skipping Exceptions") in the JSR 352 specification.
  • If there are no exceptions, the batch runtime obtains checkpoint data from ItemReader and ItemWriter (see section 2.5 in the JSR 352 specification for more details). The batch runtime commits the transaction.
  • Steps 1 through 6 are repeated if the ItemReader has more data to read.
  • This means that in our example, the batch runtime will read and process two records and the ItemWriter will write out two records per transaction.

    Writing the ItemReader, ItemProcessor, and ItemWriter Writing the ItemReader

    Our payroll processing batch JSL defines a single chunk style step and specifies that the step uses an ItemReader namedsimpleItemReader. Our application contains an implementation of ItemReader to read input CSV data. Listing 2 shows a snippet of our ItemReader:

    @Named public class SimpleItemReader extends AbstractItemReader { @Inject private JobContext jobContext; ... }

    Listing 2

    Note that the class is annotated with the @Named annotation. Because the @Named annotation uses the default value, the Contexts and Dependency Injection (CDI) name for this bean is simpleItemReader. The JSL specifies the CDI name of the ItemReader in the<reader> element. This allows the batch runtime to instantiate (through CDI) our ItemReader when the step is executed.

    Our ItemReader also injects a JobContext. JobContext allows the batch artifact (ItemReader, in this case) to read values that were passed during job submission.

    Our payroll SimpleItemReader overrides the open() method to open the input from which payroll input data is read. As we shall see later, the parameter prevCheckpointInfo will not be null if the job is being restarted.

    In our example, the open() method, which is shown in Listing 3, opens the payroll input file (which has been packaged along with the application).

    public void open(Serializable prevCheckpointInfo) throws Exception { JobOperator jobOperator = BatchRuntime.getJobOperator(); Properties jobParameters = jobOperator.getParameters(jobContext.getExecutionId()); String resourceName = (String) jobParameters.get("payrollInputDataFileName"); inputStream = new FileInputStream(resourceName); br = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(inputStream)); if (prevCheckpointInfo != null) recordNumber = (Integer) prevCheckpointInfo; for (int i=1; i<recordNumber; i++) { //Skip upto recordNumber br.readLine(); } System.out.println("[SimpleItemReader] Opened Payroll file for reading from record number: " + recordNumber); }

    Listing 3

    The readItem() method basically reads one line of data from the input file and determines whether the line contains two integers (one for employee ID and one for base salary). If there are two integers, it creates and returns a new instance of PayrollInputRecord and returns to the batch runtime (which is then passed to ItemWriter).

    public Object readItem() throws Exception { Object record = null; if (line != null) { String[] fields = line.split("[, \t\r\n]+"); PayrollInputRecord payrollInputRecord = new PayrollInputRecord(); payrollInputRecord.setId(Integer.parseInt(fields[0])); payrollInputRecord.setBaseSalary(Integer.parseInt(fields[1])); record = payrollInputRecord; //Now that we could successfully read, Increment the record number recordNumber++; } return record; }

    Listing 4

    The method checkpointInfo() is called by the batch runtime at the end of every successful chunk transaction. This allows the Reader to check point the last successful read position.

    In our example, the checkpointInfo() returns the recordNumber indicating the number of records that have been read successfully, as shown in Listing 5.

    @Override public Serializable checkpointInfo() throws Exception { return recordNumber; }

    Listing 5

    Writing the ItemProcessor

    Our SimpleItemProcessor follows a pattern similar to the pattern for SimpleItemReader.

    The processItem() method receives (from the batch runtime) the PayrollInputRecord. It then calculates the tax and net and returns a PayrollRecord as output. Notice in Listing 6 that the type of object returned by an ItemProcessor can be very different from the type of object it received from ItemReader.

    @Named public class SimpleItemProcessor implements ItemProcessor { @Inject private JobContext jobContext; public Object processItem(Object obj) throws Exception { PayrollInputRecord inputRecord = (PayrollInputRecord) obj; PayrollRecord payrollRecord = new PayrollRecord(); int base = inputRecord.getBaseSalary(); float tax = base * 27 / 100.0f; float bonus = base * 15 / 100.0f; payrollRecord.setEmpID(inputRecord.getId()); payrollRecord.setBase(base); payrollRecord.setTax(tax); payrollRecord.setBonus(bonus); payrollRecord.setNet(base + bonus - tax); return payrollRecord; } }

    Listing 6

    Writing the ItemWriter

    By now, SimpleItemWriter must be following predictable lines for you.

    The only difference is that it injects an EntityManager so that it can persist the PayrollRecord instances (which are JPA entities) into a database, as shown in Listing 7.

    @Named public class SimpleItemWriter extends AbstractItemWriter { @PersistenceContext EntityManager em; public void writeItems(List list) throws Exception { for (Object obj : list) { System.out.println("PayrollRecord: " + obj); em.persist(obj); } } }

    Listing 7

    The writeItems() method persists all the PayrollRecord instances into a database table using JPA. There will be at most item-count entries (the chunk size) in the list.

    Now that we have our JSL, ItemReader, ItemProcessor, and ItemWriter ready, let's see how a batch job can be submitted.

    Starting a Batch Job from a Servlet

    Note that the mere presence of a job XML file or other batch artifacts (such as ItemReader) doesn't mean that a batch job is automatically started when the application is deployed. A batch job must be initiated explicitly, say, from a servlet or from an Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) timer or an EJB business method.

    In our payroll application, we use a servlet (named PayrollJobSubmitterServlet) to submit a batch job. The servlet displays an HTML page that presents to the user a form containing two buttons. When the first button, labeled Calculate Payroll, is clicked, the servlet invokes the startNewBatchJob method, shown in Listing 8, which starts a new batch job.

    private long startNewBatchJob() throws Exception { JobOperator jobOperator = BatchRuntime.getJobOperator(); Properties props = new Properties(); props.setProperty("payrollInputDataFileName", payrollInputDataFileName); return jobOperator.start(JOB_NAME, props); }

    Listing 8

    The first step is to obtain an instance of JobOperator. This can be done by calling the following:

    JobOperator jobOperator = BatchRuntime.getJobOperator();

    The servlet then creates a Properties object and stores the input file name in it. Finally, a new batch job is started by calling the following:

    jobOperator.start(jobName, properties)

    The jobname is nothing but the job JSL XML file name (minus the .xml extension). The properties parameter serves to pass any input data to the job. The Properties object (containing the name of the payroll input file) is made available to other batch artifacts (such as ItemReader, ItemProcessor, and so on) through the JobContext interface.

    The batch runtime assigns a unique ID, called the execution ID, to identify each execution of a job whether it is a freshly submitted job or a restarted job. Many of the JobOperator methods take the execution ID as parameter. Using the execution ID, a program can obtain the current (and past) execution status and other statistics about the job. The JobOperator.start() method returns the execution ID of the job that was started.

    Retrieving Details About Batch Jobs

    When a batch job is submitted, the batch runtime creates an instance of JobExecution to track it. JobExecution has methods to obtain various details such as the job start time, job completion time, job exit status, and so on. To obtain the JobExecution for an execution ID, you can use the JobOperator.getJobExecution(executionId) method. Listing 9 shows the definition of JobExecution:

    package javax.batch.runtime; public interface JobExecution { long getExecutionId(); java.lang.String getJobName(); javax.batch.runtime.BatchStatus getBatchStatus(); java.util.Date getStartTime(); java.util.Date getEndTime(); java.lang.String getExitStatus(); java.util.Date getCreateTime(); java.util.Date getLastUpdatedTime(); java.util.Properties getJobParameters(); }

    Listing 9

    Packaging the Application

    Now that we have our JSL, ItemReader, ItemProcessor, ItemWriter, and our servlet ready, it is time to package them and get ready to deploy.

    You can deploy your batch application as any of the supported Java EE archives (for example, .war, .jar, or .ear). You can bundle your batch artifact classes along with other Java EE classes (such EJB beans and servlets).

    The only special requirement is that you need to place your job JSLs under the META-INF/batch-jobs directory for .jar files. For.war archive types, place your job JSLs under the WEB-INF/classes/META-INF/batch-jobs directory.

    Deploying and Running the Payroll Sample Application in GlassFish 4.0

    Let's deploy the payroll application that we have developed into the GlassFish 4.0 application server. GlassFish 4.0 is the reference implementation (RI) for the Java EE 7.0 specification and contains the RI for JSR 352 as well. You can find more information about GlassFish 4.0 at http://glassfish.org and about the Java Batch 1.0 RI at https://java.net/projects/jbatch/.

    Installing and Starting GlassFish 4.0

    You can download GlassFish 4.0 from https://glassfish.java.net/public/downloadsindex.html#top and then install it. Start GlassFish 4.0 by opening a command window and running the following command:

    <GlassFish Install Dir>/bin/asadmin start-domain

    Because the sample payroll application uses a database (to write out processed data), we need a database running before we can run our application. You can start the Apache Derby database by running the following command:

    <GlassFish Install Dir>/bin/asadmin start-database Compiling, Packaging, and Deploying the Payroll Application

    First, create a new directory named hello-batch. Then change to the hello-batch directory:

    cd hello-batch

    To compile and package, run the following command, which creates hello-batch.war under the target directory:

    mvn clean package

    To deploy hello-batch.war, run the following command:

    <GlassFish Install Dir>/bin/asadmin deploy target/hello-batch.war

    If you want to redeploy the application, you can run the following command:

    <GlassFish Install Dir>/bin/asadmin deploy -force target/hello-batch.war Running the Payroll Application

    Once you deploy the hello-batch.war file, you can run the application by accessing http://localhost:8080/hello-batch/PayrollJobSubmitterServlet from a browser. Accessing this URL should present the screen shown in Figure 2.

    Figure 2

    Figure 2

    Click the Calculate Payroll button and you should see a new entry in the table, as shown in Figure 3.

    Figure 3

    Figure 3

    Click the Refresh button and you should see the Exit Status and End Time columns updated for the latest job (see Figure 4). The Exit Status column shows whether the job failed or completed successfully. Since our SimplePayrollJob doesn't have any errors (at least not yet!), the Exit Status displays COMPLETED.

    Figure 4

    Figure 4

    Click the Calculate Payroll and Refresh buttons a few more times. Note that each time a job is started, a new execution ID (and instance ID) is given to the job, as shown in Figure 5.

    Figure 5

    Figure 5

    Restarting Failed Jobs

    So far, we had been starting batch jobs using the jobOperator.start() method. Let's say that our payroll input file has some errors. Either the ItemReader or the ItemProcessor could detect invalid records and fail the current step and the job. The administrator or the end user can fix the error and can restart the batch job. This approach of launching a new job that starts from the beginning after recovering from errors might not scale if the amount of data to be processed is large. JobOperator provides another method calledrestart() to solve exactly this problem.

    Quick Overview of JobInstance and JobExecution

    We saw earlier that a job is essentially a container for steps. When a job is started, it must be tracked, so the batch runtime creates aJobInstance. A JobInstance refers to the concept of a logical run. In our example, we have a PayrollJob and if the PayrollJob is run every month, there will be a Jan-2013 JobInstance and there will be another Feb-2013 JobInstance, and so on.

    If the payroll processing for Jan-2013 fails, it must be restarted (after presumably fixing the error), but it is still the Jan-2013 run because it is still processing Jan-2013 records.

    A JobExecution refers to the concept of a single attempt to run a Job. Each time a job is started or restarted, a new JobExecution is created that belongs to the same JobInstance. In our example, if the Jan-2013 JobInstance is restarted, it is still the same Jan-2013JobInstance but a new JobExecution is created that belongs to the same JobInstance.

    In summary, a job can have one or more instances of JobInstance and each JobInstance can have one or more JobExecutioninstances. Using a new JobInstance means "start from the beginning" and using an existing JobInstance generally means "start from where you left off."

    Resuming Failed Jobs

    If you recall, a chunk-style step executes in a transaction in which item-count entries are read, processed, and written. After theItemWriter's writeItems() has been invoked, the batch runtime calls the checkpointInfo() method on both ItemReader andItemWriter. This allows both ItemReader and ItemWriter to bookmark (save) their current progress. The data that is bookmarked for an ItemReader could be anything that will help it to resume reading. For example, our SimpleItemReader needs to save the line number up to which it has read successfully so far.

    Section 10.8 of the JSR 352 specification describes the restart processing in detail.

    Let's take a moment to look into the log file where our SimpleItemReader outputs some useful messages from the open() andcheckpoint() methods. Each message is prefixed with the string [SimpleItemReader] so you can quickly identify the messages. The log file is located at <GlassFish install Dir>/domains/domain1/logs/server.log.

    Listing 10 shows the messages that are prefixed by the string [SimpleItemReader]:

    [SimpleItemReader] Opened Payroll File. Will start reading from record number: 0]] [SimpleItemReader] checkpointInfo() called. Returning current recordNumber: 2]] [SimpleItemReader] checkpointInfo() called. Returning current recordNumber: 4]] [SimpleItemReader] checkpointInfo() called. Returning current recordNumber: 6]] [SimpleItemReader] checkpointInfo() called. Returning current recordNumber: 8]] [SimpleItemReader] checkpointInfo() called. Returning current recordNumber: 9]] [SimpleItemReader] close called.]]

    Listing 10

    Note: You could also use the command tail -f server.log | grep SimpleItemReader.

    Because, our job XML file (SimplePayrollJob.xml) specifies a value of 2 for item-count as the chunk size, the batch runtime callscheckpointInfo() on our ItemReader every two records. The batch runtime stores this checkpoint information in JobRepository. So, if an error occurs during the midst of our chunk processing, the batch application must be able to resume from the last successful checkpoint.

    Let's introduce some errors in our input data file and see how we can recover from input errors.

    If you look at our servlet's output, which is located under <GlassFish install Dir>/domains/domain1/applications/hello-batch/WEB-INF/classes/payroll-data/payroll-data.csv, you see that it displays the location of the input file from where CSV data is read for our payroll application. Listing 11 shows the content of the file:

    1, 8100 2, 8200 3, 8300 4, 8400 5, 8500 6, 8600 7, 8700 8, 8800 9, 8900

    Listing 11

    Open your favorite editor and introduce an error. For example, let's say we add a few characters to the salary field on the eighth record, as shown in Listing 12:

    1, 8100 2, 8200 3, 8300 4, 8400 5, 8500 6, 8600 7, 8700 8, abc8800 9, 8900

    Listing 12

    Save the file and quit the editor. Go back to your browser and click the Calculate Payroll button followed by the Refresh button. You would see that the recently submitted job failed, as shown in Figure 6. (Look at the Exit Status column.)

    Figure 6

    Figure 6

    You will also notice that a Restart button appears next to the execution ID of the job that just failed. If you click Refresh, the job will fail (because we haven't fixed the issue yet). Figure 7 shows what is displayed after a few clicks of the Refresh button.

    Figure 7

    Figure 7

    If you look into the GlassFish server log (located under <GlassFish install Dir>/domains/domain1/logs/server.log), you will see an exception, as shown in Listing 13:

    Caught exception executing step: com.ibm.jbatch.container.exception.BatchContainerRuntimeException: Failure in Read-Process-Write Loop ... ... Caused by: java.lang.NumberFormatException: For input string: "abc8800" at java.lang.NumberFormatException.forInputString(NumberFormatException.java:65) at java.lang.Integer.parseInt(Integer.java:492) at java.lang.Integer.parseInt(Integer.java:527) at com.oracle.javaee7.samples.batch.hello.SimpleItemReader.readItem(SimpleItemReader.java:100)

    Listing 13

    You should also notice that when you click the Restart button, a new job execution is created but its job instance ID remains the same. When you click the Refresh button, our PayrollJobSubmitter servlet calls a method named restartBatchJob(), which is shown in Listing 14:

    private long restartBatchJob(long lastExecutionId) throws Exception { JobOperator jobOperator = BatchRuntime.getJobOperator(); Properties props = new Properties(); props.setProperty("payrollInputDataFileName", payrollInputDataFileName); return jobOperator.restart(lastExecutionId, props); }

    Listing 14

    The key line in Listing 14 is the call to JobOperator's restart() method. This method takes a Properties object just like start(), but instead of passing a job XML file name, it passes the execution ID of the most recently failed job. Using the most recently failed job's execution ID, the batch runtime can retrieve the previous execution's last successful checkpoint. The retrieved checkpoint data is passed to the open() method of our SimpleItemReader (and ItemWriter) to enable them to resume reading (and writing) from the last successful checkpoint.

    While ensuring that your browser shows the page with a Restart button, edit the file again and remove the extraneous characters from the eighth record. Then click the Restart and Refresh buttons. The latest execution should display a COMPLETED status, as shown in Figure 8.

    Figure 8

    Figure 8

    It is time to look into the log file to understand what just happened. Again, looking for messages prefixed with SimpleItemReader, Listing 15 shows what you might see:

    [SimpleItemReader] Opened Payroll File. Will start reading from record number: 7]] [SimpleItemReader] checkpointInfo() called. Returning current recordNumber: 9]] [SimpleItemReader] checkpointInfo() called. Returning current recordNumber: 10]] [SimpleItemReader] close called.]]

    Listing 15

    As you can see, our SimpleItemReader's open() method was called with the previous checkpoint value (which was record number 7) allowing our SimpleItemReader to skip the first six records and resume reading from the seventh record.

    Viewing Batch Jobs Using the GlassFish 4.0 Admin Console

    You can view the list of all batch jobs in the JobRepository. Fire up a browser window and go to localhost:4848. Then click server (Admin Server) in the left panel, as shown in Figure 9.

    Figure 9

    Figure 9

    You can click the Batch tab, which should list all the batch jobs submitted to this GlassFish server. Note that the JobRepository is implemented using a database and, hence, the job details survive GlassFish 4.0 server restarts. Figure 10 shows all the batch jobs in theJobRepository.

    Figure 10

    Figure 10

    You can also click one of the IDs listed under Execution IDs. For example, clicking 293 reveals details about just that execution:

    Figure 11

    Figure 11

    More details about the execution can be obtained by clicking the Execution Steps tab on the top.

    Figure 12

    Figure 12

    Look at the statistics provided by this page. It shows how many reads, writes, and commits were performed during this execution.

    Viewing Batch Jobs Using the GlassFish 4.0 CLI

    You can also view the details about jobs running in the GlassFish 4.0 server by using the command-line interface (CLI).

    To view the list of batch jobs, open a command window and run the following command:

    asadmin list-batch-jobs -l

    You should see output similar to Figure 13:

    Figure 13

    Figure 13

    To view the list of batch JobExecutions, you can run this command:

    asadmin list-batch-job-executions -l

    You should see output similar to Figure 14:

    Figure 14

    Figure 14

    The command lists the completion status of each execution and also the job parameters passed to each execution.

    Finally, in order to see details about each step in a JobExecution, you could use the following command:

    asadmin list-batch-job-steps -l

    You should see output similar to Figure 15:

    Figure 15

    Figure 15

    Take note of the STEPMETRICS column. It tells how many times ItemReader and ItemWriter were called and also how many commits and rollbacks were done. These are extremely valuable metrics.

    The CLI output must match the Admin Console view because they both query the same JobRepository.

    You can use asadmin help <command-name> to get more details about the CLI commands.

    Conclusion

    In this article, we saw how to write, package, and run simple batch applications that use chunk-style steps. We also saw how the checkpoint feature of the batch runtime allows for the easy restart of failed batch jobs. Yet, we have barely scratched the surface of JSR 352. With the full set of Java EE components and features at your disposal, including servlets, EJB beans, CDI beans, EJB automatic timers, and so on, feature-rich batch applications can be written fairly easily.

    This article also covered (briefly) the GlassFish 4.0 Admin Console and CLI support for querying the batch JobRepository. Both the Admin Console and the CLI provide valuable details about jobs and steps that can be used to detect potential bottlenecks.

    JSR 352 supports many more exciting features such as batchlets, splits, flows, and custom checkpoints, which will be covered in future articles.

    See Also

    JSR 352

    About the Author

    Mahesh Kannan is a senior software engineer with Oracle's Cloud Application Foundation team, and he is the Expert Group Member for the Java Batch JSR. Due to his extensive experience with application servers, containers, and distributed systems, he has served as lead architect and "consultant at large" on many projects that build innovative solutions for Oracle products.



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