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Vendor Name : Oracle
Exam Code : 1Z0-899
Exam Name : Java EE 6 Web Component Developer(R) Certified Expert
Questions and Answers : 108 Q & A
Updated On : January 22, 2019
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1Z0-899 exam Dumps Source : Java EE 6 Web Component Developer(R) Certified Expert

Test Code : 1Z0-899
Test Name : Java EE 6 Web Component Developer(R) Certified Expert
Vendor Name : Oracle
Q&A : 108 Real Questions

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Oracle Oracle Java EE 6

Java in 2019: a look forward | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Java in 2019: a look forward

The past yr noticed a different surge within the evolution of Java, due to myriad adjustments that allows you to have lengthy-time period impacts on the Java developer community -- every thing from the Eclipse foundation's resolution to settle for stewardship of business Java and rename it Eclipse Jakarta to IBM's acquisition of crimson Hat, the release of JDK 11 to the appeals court docket ruling against Google in its lengthy-working combat with Oracle over Java copyrights, the latter enterprise's implementation of its faster Java free up cadence to its choice to roll up the venerable JavaOne convention (already whittled all the way down to a subset of Oracle OpenWorld) into a brand new experience with classes and keynotes protecting an accelerated menu of languages, frameworks, equipment and tech referred to as Oracle Code One.

I reached out (as every person overlaying this beat does at the beginning of a brand new 12 months) to business analysts, market watchers and Java jocks to find out what they coming in 2019 for this dynamic community.

Gartner analyst Ann Thomas noticed the writing on the wall for Java EE, now Eclipse Jakarta, at least a yr before that startling necessities-physique hand-off. She believes Oracle's new subscription mannequin goes to have the largest have an impact on on Java in 2019.

"Oracle will no longer distribute free trojan horse fixes and protection patches except for the latest edition of OpenJDK, and Oracle could be releasing new types every 6 months," she pointed out in an email. however most Java applications nonetheless run on Java 8, she stated, users who want to get patches for Java eight going ahead need to either buy a Java Subscription from Oracle or locate another distribution, akin to AdoptOpenJDK, Amazon, Azul, IBM, or crimson Hat.

"lots of my valued clientele assume that the annual subscription can charge is greater than $1 million," she noted. "I expect that this new subscription mannequin will encourage most agencies to adopt alternate distributions, and extremely few groups will ever adopt Java eleven or beyond. I trust that Java eight is the end of the road."

She additionally pointed me to a Snyk survey file ("Which Java SE version Do you use in construction in your leading software? "), posted in October on the JVM ecosystem in 2018, written by Simon Maple and Andrew Binstock, which i like to recommend.

For Michael Remijan, senior business Java developer and methods architect at the Federal Reserve bank of St. Louis, 2019 may be the year we see some wonderful consequences of the business embody of cloud computing.

"With IBM's acquisition of crimson Hat, it is apparent IBM is making an attempt to profit some market share in cloud computing," he talked about in an electronic mail. "Amazon, IBM, Google and Microsoft all seem to be scuffling with in the space, with Amazon the clear leader in the meanwhile. as the trade sees 'cloud computing' because the technical route to stream toward, and as these vendors try to differentiate their cloud offerings, we will see the endured rise of seller-specific construction talents and the decline of business specifications. In different phrases, companies can have need for Microsoft builders or Amazon builders, not necessarily Java/Jakarta EE developers."

Siddhartha Agarwal, Oracle's VP of product management and strategy usually has a savvy prediction or two at the moment of 12 months. (there is a motive I as soon as dubbed him "Oracle's Oracle.") This year turned into no exception; he sent me his newest checklist. however one in specific stands out for the Java neighborhood: "Serverless features go big in creation."

"The attraction of serverless services is obvious: when there is demand for my code to be carried out in response to a definite event, a characteristic assures it runs, however simplest for the amount of time that the code is required," he wrote. "for example, somebody can build a go back and forth reserving characteristic to ebook/cancel flights, hotels and condo vehicles. each of these actions can also be built as a serverless function written in distinct languages similar to Java, Ruby, JavaScript and Python.

"For builders, these disconnected serverless capabilities/transactions strung collectively create some new challenges, comparable to figuring out how these features work collectively to deliver a transaction, or, if things go badly right through the movement, how to create compensating transactions to cancel. Debugging distributed transactions is also a challenge. however these obstacles don't seem to be adequate to stall the adoption of serverless capabilities, given their financial merits of enormously decreased operations costs, from most effective purchasing what is basically used. So more and more developers will wish to movement functions out of the labs and into full construction. For that, seek open-supply tools, just like the FN task, to flourish through helping developers manage composition and debugging, to be capable of deploy and look at various serverless capabilities on your laptop, or across any cloud. the important thing goes to be picking out a serverless platform that provides highest portability."

Ivar Grimstad, a Java Champion, Oracle Groundbreaker Ambassador and JUG chief working as primary consultant for Cybercom neighborhood in Sweden, also offered his predictions for the coming yr.

"I believe we can see the trade embracing the quicker release cadence of Java to a far better diploma than thus far," he talked about in an electronic mail. "I consider most groups had been caught a little off guard when the brand new cadence was added and persevered appearing as they at all times have performed related to important models, i.e. reluctantly and still considering when it comes to a required company commonplace VM edition. Following the expanding use of container technology, I consider we will see further and further agencies lax during this requirement and allow using different Java types. for this reason the adoption of more recent Java versions will accelerate.

"As for Jakarta EE, I suppose that 2019 could be the year it basically takes shape and we can see business Java evolving within the open. I consider we can proceed to look lots of discussions about how the relationship with the Eclipse MicroProfile initiatives might be."

Forrester analysts John Rymer and Jeffrey S. Hammond pointed me to a document, "Predictions 2019," posted by way of the firm in November, which i like to recommend. Hammond introduced a private commentary:

"according to our client inquires, we're going to see a lot of development shops scrambling to retest and recertify their apps on OpenJDK eight or OpenJDK eleven, to steer clear of the unanticipated assist bills they appear to be getting from their Oracle reps," he referred to. "there will also be a lot of customers pressuring their third-birthday party ISVs with Java dependencies to do the equal, and i'd now not be stunned to look internet-new earnings of 3rd birthday celebration application income held up if the ISVs don't certify on OpenJDK."

Two succinctly stated insights from the record with a view to observe to developers of each stripe within the coming year: "Agile and DevOps are the brand new regular for builders;" and "Cloud-Native, value move and AI-primarily based equipment Are among the many next frontiers."

search for my interviews with Eclipse groundwork leader Mike Milinkovich and JCP Chair Heather Van Cura, coming later this month.

Posted by means of John k. Waters on 01/03/2019 at 12:26 PM


Oracle broadcasts Migration of Java EE to Eclipse basis | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

In a pair of Oracle weblog posts dated August 17, 2017 and September 12, 2017, Oracle introduced that it's going to movement the stewardship of Java EE to the Eclipse groundwork. Java EE refers to Java enterprise version.

in keeping with Oracle’s blog posts, despite the fact Java EE is already open source and developed by the use of the participation of Java EE neighborhood, the circulate to Eclipse is geared toward making the process more agile, bendy, and open. Oracle announced it'll take right here steps as quickly as feasible after the completion of Java EE edition eight (the date of which turned into no longer introduced):

· define a procedure through which current necessities can evolve and new standards may also be protected within the platform.

· outline a branding approach for the platform inside the Eclipse foundation, together with a brand new identify for Java EE (to be decided). Oracle intends to permit use of present javax kit names and part specification names for present JSRs to supply continuity.

· reveal the skill to construct a suitable implementation, the usage of Eclipse basis sources, that passes existing Java EE eight TCKs.

· Recruit and permit builders and other community individuals and providers to sponsor platform applied sciences to be able to develop the platform within the Eclipse foundation.

· Relicense Oracle-led Java EE technologies and connected GlassFish technologies, together with RLS TCKs, and associated assignment documentation to Eclipse.

what's Java EE?

The various aspects of Java — platforms, VMs, TCKs, editions, and building kits — will also be confusing. To consider the implications of the migration of Java EE to Eclipse, you ought to understand how Java EE matches into the Java universe.

Java. “Java” is a go-platform programming language which became created to enable “write-as soon as run-anyplace” construction of applications. The time period Java essentially refers back to the programming language. That language makes use of syntax comparable to C, but executes differently. Java executes on a considerable number of structures via a “VM” or digital machine, and applications written in Java are pointed out to run “on exact of” the VM. every application computing environment — similar to windows or Linux — has its own VM. inserting this deposit between the execution of the language and the computing ambiance ability that a single application can run in many environments.

Java editions: over the years, Oracle (and before it, solar) developed a few editions of Java, the most successful of which is Java SE or common version. When most americans confer with Java utility, here's what they imply. typical version is written to set up Java applications on pcs or servers. different variations have covered cell (or Micro) version and Java FX (GUI tools). Java enterprise edition (mentioned beneath) changed into in the past referred to as J2EE.

Java EE: The Java element worried in the newest announcement is Java “business version” or Java EE. Java EE runs on right of Java SE, meaning it extends the functionality of Java SE. The Java EE platform helps builders create tremendous-scale network applications. Descriptions of Java EE technologies utilized in every tier of these multi-tiered purposes (client, internet, enterprise) are here.

Java EE is once in a while referred to as a “platform,” a term used inconsistently in computing, however for Java it has a specific that means. A Java platform is a group of specifications. The specifications for Java EE edition 7, as an example, is here (click on the “download spec” hyperlink).

How Does the Migration have an effect on the Java neighborhood?

The circulate to Eclipse is intended to foster a more group-pushed system for construction of the Java EE platform. previous to the stream to Eclipse, Oracle has developed specifications via the Java group process, or JCP. any person can participate in the JCP. although, to join as a full member, a participant ought to enter into the Java Specification Participation settlement with Oracle. With the circulation to Eclipse, building will take area under the participation methods of the Eclipse groundwork.

The movement to Eclipse will additionally effect in adjustments to the TCK manner. The TCK is a compatibility check package intended to ascertain that an utility works with the Java EE platform. Oracle has lengthy taken the place that most effective purposes that move the TCK can market themselves for that reason. earlier than the migration to Eclipse, TCKs have been commercially licensed, and this created some complaints within the group. After the migration to Eclipse, the TCK’s for Java EE will become open source. here's advantageous to open source builders who cannot or will no longer comply with proprietary terms.

however, it is critical to note that the circulate announced via Oracle will no longer exchange the licensing of Java SE or OpenJDK. although some have recommended that a complete migration of Java to an independent foundation can be welcome, Oracle has not yet taken that step.

greater about Java

For greater on the elements of the Java world, and their licensing, see the word list below.

Java SE or Java general version. Licensed below a proprietary license.

TCK or expertise Compatibility package. The TCK is a suite of tests that assessments a particular Java implementation of a specification for compliance with the Java requirements. Proprietary, however the TCK for Java EE will stream to open supply

RI or Reference Implementation. An RI is developed concurrently with standards and check suites. It verifies that the specification can also be carried out, makes it possible for the examine suite to be validated, serves as a reference for other implementations, and helps to discover errors or make clear error within the specification. Glassfish is Oracle’s Java EE reference implementation (see also right here for different providers proposing implementations). Glassfish is licensed under CDDL and GPL+CE.

OpenJDK is Oracle’s open supply implementation of the Java VM, comparable to commonplace version.* JDK ability Java building equipment. A JDK is a application building atmosphere — a collection of equipment for developing Java programs. OpenJDK is licensed beneath GPL+CE.

JVM and JRE are laptop programs software applications that permit a computer to run a software written in Java. JVM ability Java virtual computing device; JRE capability Java Runtime environment.

Oracle JDK is abinary free up of OpenJDK. it's licensed below the Oracle Binary Code License settlement (though its counterpart OpenJDK is licensed under GPL/+CE, as described above).

How identical is a matter of debate. OpenJDK is free software, and Java SE isn't. for this reason, clients of Java are keenly interested in the additional cost represented by Java SE and therefore, no matter if a paid license is worth it. however this suggestions has always been tricky to pin down. Oracle says it's going to continue to ship commercial facets in Oracle JDK, comparable to Java Flight Recorder and Mission manage, below a click-via binary license and may offer paid help for these builds. After Oracle JDK 9, Oracle plans to open-supply these industrial points, with the lengthy-time period aim to make the OpenJDK and Oracle JDK builds interchangeable.

Heather Meeker is a associate within the Silicon Valley workplace of O’Melveny & Myers. She makes a speciality of know-how licensing, and is an internationally universal skilled on utility licensing, including open source utility licensing. She is the writer of the conventional handbook Open source for company. due to Daniel Levy, of O’Melveny & Myers, for his counsel on this text.


Oracle profits surge—at the price of Java development and utility aid | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Oracle is very proud of its cloud sales. But not everyone is very happy about how it got them.Oracle is terribly happy with its cloud revenue. but not all and sundry is terribly chuffed about the way it received them. Håkan Dahlström reader comments with sixty eight posters participating Share this story
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  • On June sixteen, Oracle enterprise released fiscal consequences for the fourth quarter of fiscal 12 months 2016, and company executives trumpeted the company's cloud services success. in accordance with the newest record, Oracle's cloud infrastructure, platform, and application capabilities collectively brought in $859 million for the quarter ending may additionally 31, in comparison to $576 million for the same duration in 2015. Oracle introduced in $2.853 billion in revenues for cloud and had an $eight.9 billion (£6.07 billion) earnings for the yr.

    however those numbers don't tell the complete story. Oracle's average profits changed into down, mostly on account of its shrinking "on premises" software revenue, which fell by means of $224 million versus 4Q FY2015 and via $1.245 billion (£0.85 billion) for the yr as a whole. utility license and software renovation revenue still account for 73 percent of Oracle's salary, whereas cloud debts for less than 5 p.c. Oracle's hardware revenues, which still account for 14 % of its overall salary, fell through 9 percent right through the quarter and 10 % for the full year.

    there is some controversy over Oracle's suggested cloud sales numbers, youngsters. On June 1, former Oracle senior finance manager Svetlana Blackburn filed go well with in opposition t Oracle for wrongful termination in October of 2015, claiming that she became fired after she "resisted, refused to have interaction in, and threatened to blow the whistle on accounting practices she fairly believed to be unlawful" surrounding how Oracle counted cloud revenues. In a statement to the click, an Oracle spokesperson denied that there was any wrongdoing.

    So how did Oracle increase earnings on revenue that shrank average by means of about 1 %? The business slashed the working cost of performing application updates, license support, developing and assisting new hardware, and functions—in other words, via layoffs, consolidation, and redirection of efforts from areas that had been Oracle's core company. That effort has covered pretty much stopping building work on the rest that is not directly tied to income technology, including moving the subsequent new release of the commercial enterprise Java platform forward, as a couple of closing dates for milestones within the release of Java commercial enterprise version (Java EE) eight were blown.

    in accordance with information gleaned from the Java group method (JCP) by means of Java community members linked to Java EE Guardians—a Java EE advocacy community that includes Java's main creator, Dr. James Gosling—development on Java EE eight essentially halted following the JavaOne convention in October 2015. (Java EE 8 is the subsequent generation of the server-side Java add-ons used in lots of enterprise application systems.) Some Oracle business shoppers have complained that there were long delays in addressing bugs, including safety flaws, in other software items.

    aside from its legal combat with Google over Android's use of Java APIs ,Oracle's commitment to the Java platform has been in query for a while. In November of 2013, Oracle halted support for enterprise users of the Glassfish Java commercial enterprise version server platform. And whereas the "Open" edition become nevertheless below building up except October of 2015 and was meant to be the groundwork of Java EE eight, Oracle introduced in April that the Java.web repository web site where Glassfish and other open Java tasks have resided could be shuttered by way of next April. And Oracle no longer indicated if there could be future direct assist from Oracle for building of the platform. meanwhile, building of Java SE, the desktop Java runtime, has continued at life-assist ranges.




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    The hardest thing for the SAP professional is to stay on top of where SAP is headed -- without overlooking the skills that are needed now. SAP does a terrific job of marketing its next-generation solutions, but what's next is not the whole story.

    That's why I like to turn to SAP staffing professionals for their take on the market. I have pulled together the SAP market outlooks of two executives with B2B Workforce: Brad Elster, vice president of sales; and Ray Kelly, vice president - B2B Solution Center.

    Recently, Brad and Ray attended SAP's FKOM (Field Kick Off Meeting) sessions and published some reviews of those sessions. The FKOM sessions are geared toward prepping SAP's sales force and business partners for the coming year, so it's a great time to get an inside view of SAP's market strategy.

    Why is SAP consulting demand as high as it's been in years?

    Before looking at the demand for particular SAP skills, it's a good idea to identify the forces that are driving the overall market. Ray Kelly sees three factors driving SAP consulting demand: SAP software license sales, major technology changes (related to new product versions and upgrades), and new product introductions, either internally or through acquisition. As Ray pointed out, "the last three years for SAP have seen unprecedented growth in all three categories.

    "SAP license sales are higher than ever -- with 2007 another record year for license sales growth," he said. "As business process automation moves into the SOA era, SAP has introduced newer versions of their technology platform (NetWeaver 2004/s/7.0/7.1) and ECC, all capable of running dual-stack environments (ABAP and Java), which easily support new product introductions."

    What are the areas of greatest SAP consulting demand?

    "The landscape of SAP skill-sets that are most in demand is ever-changing," Brad added. "However, from the tone at FKOM and my contact with our clients, I foresee high demand for NetWeaver, BW, Enterprise Portal, and HCM in the coming year. There is also likely to be a strong need for core ERP skills like FI, MM and PP."

    Ray spelled out three areas of SAP skills demand for 2008. First, he also continues to see demand in the core SAP ERP areas, such as FI/CO, SD, MM, PP, and HCM (formerly SAP HR). As he pointed out, however, "ECC experience is mandatory, so if you are behind in your training, now is the time to 'take the leap' and earn those extra dollars. Of those traditional ERP skills, we see the highest demand for HCM skilled resources or consultants with upgrade experience. Traditional ERP skills combined with upgrade experience will put you in a premium class, earning you a higher rate."

    Ray and Brad are looking for résumés with "ECC" ERP skills. For anyone who isn't clear, the "ECC" is what SAP now calls the Enterprise Core Components. Starting with the ERP 5.0 release, and continuing with ERP 6.0, what we used to call "R/3" in terms of the core modules is now referred to as ECC. Now that SAP is emphasizing ERP 6.0 as the "go-to release," what you are really shooting for is exposure to ECC 6.0. ECC 5.0 also looks nice on the résumé, but it's all about ERP 6.0 from this point forward. If these terminology changes make you a little dizzy, you're not alone, but ERP 6.0 should remain the standard SAP release through at least 2010.

    The next area of demand that Ray foresees relates to the technical innovations of the eSOA-enabled NetWeaver technology platform. He points out that SAP actually began to introduce major changes to its underlying architecture in 2004, with the release of NetWeaver 2004s (the technical underpinnings of ECC 5.0).

    But it's not enough to focus on "getting NetWeaver experience." NetWeaver is actually a broader term for a number of components.

    "We see extremely high demand for NetWeaver Architects, NetWeaver Basis (BI and Portal) and NetWeaver Developers (BI and Portal), all of whom must be skilled in the latest versions of the NetWeaver Platform (2004s, 7.0, 7.1)," Ray said.

    "Achieving a NetWeaver Upgrade certification offered by SAP America will put you at the top of the class," he continued. "At minimum, most customers will perform a technical upgrade (not introducing any additional functionality) of ERP (to ECC) and/or the NetWeaver Portal/BI platforms. Over the course of the three-day FKOM event, we were told a number of times that SAP's internal bench is drained of these resources."

    As Ray pointed out, the latest SAP upgrade wave is really driven by two other factors, SOA and business process transparency. "SAP has dramatically changed the integration layer of their platform to support SOA-enabled business processes, which will primarily consist of one or more business functions spanning across multiple technology landscapes," he said.

    Given this emphasis on integrated business processes, which SAP trumpets as the "Business Process Platform," two new product areas within NetWeaver that Ray sees as especially significant are PI (Process Integration, formerly XI), and MDM (Master Data Management).

    "In terms of PI/XI and MDM, think of those components as 'repositories' which provide SOA enablement to seamlessly take place at the business process level," Ray said. "The technical infrastructure for Web services (primarily Java-enabled) is the NetWeaver Platform in a nutshell."

    So how does this lead to consulting demand? "Unfortunately for customers, but good for consultants, the PI/XI and MDM 'rules of engagement' have not been shared in the public domain," Ray said. "Getting the most out of NetWeaver is nowhere near as easy as how our PC works today when we plug in our iPods or BlackBerrys." And that's where the consulting demand comes in! As Ray pointed out, there's a lot of rolling-up-the-sleeves work involved here: "We will need to build these rules of engagement, individually by company and for each disparate system platform within each company that supports their business processes."

    Ray boiled it down simply: "Go re-tool yourself on PI/XI and MDM; they are here to stay and will be mandatory for all of SAP's current and future new product introductions."

    Brad Elster is the Vice President of Sales for B2B Workforce. He has been working in the SAP field since 1997.

    Ray Kelly is the Vice President - B2B Workforce Solution Center. He has been working in the SAP field since 1995.

    Jon Reed is an independent SAP analyst who writes on SAP consulting trends. Jon is the president of JonERP.com, an interactive website that features his take on SAP career trends. Jon is also the author of The SAP Consultant Handbook, and he serves as the career expert for SearchSAP's "Ask the Expert" panel.


    Where is Java EE headed to? [UPDATE] | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Discussions about Java EE‘s future persist. After JAXenter launched its interview series with Java EE Guardians, people started a conversation on Reddit, so we decided to move it here and invite everyone to participate. 

    Java Champion Lukas Eder

    We asked Java Champion Lukas Eder to comment on the current state of Java EE, as well as on the rise of Java EE Guardians and MicroProfile.

    JAXenter: Considering the current state of Java EE, do you think we need an initiative to protect its legacy?

    Lukas Eder: That’s a very interesting open-ended question. And we can look at it from different angles (all subjective, of course). First off:

    Do we need Java EE in the first place?

    The Java EE “market” is big; a lot of companies (let’s call them companies) want to build “standard” software and a lot of infrastructure software vendors (let’s call them vendors) want to get a piece of the cake by selling “standard” software platforms (and/or services related to the “standard” platforms) to these companies.

    These companies want to have as little cognitive friction as possible when going from one project to the next, but it is a poisonous thing to have too many choices in terms of technology. They pay the vendors to guarantee this lack of friction. Many companies get a free ride because many vendors offer the platform software for free as Open Source.

    There is no Java EE standard.

    Java EE evangelists used to like to paint a standards-biased picture where the UI framework market (often their favorite example) was shared mostly between Java EE’s JSF and Spring’s MVC. Of course, as the saying goes: “The only statistics you can trust are those you falsified yourself”. If you look at “the market” from a different angle, there’s also Angular JS which dominates it, probably much more than JSF and MVC combined.

    We’ve had Struts, before that JSP (still the best Java web UI tech if you ask me) and before Java EE (and before J2EE), there were other technologies, and surely, in the future, there will be other technologies. And that’s just talking about UI frameworks. So, you can see that even within the “standards” scope there are a lot of choices — which is not surprising, given XKCD 927.

    So, in my opinion, there is no Java EE standard. Java EE is only a recommended set of libraries that are guaranteed by Java EE certification to work together.

    Therefore, the answer to the question do we need Java EE in the first place is “Yes.” However, this is the case only if said certification is your highest priority as an API consumer. Spring is an alternative to the Java EE “standards” where innovation and new features are added without too much of a formal process by a single vendor: Pivotal. They still add exactly the same value as Java EE to most customers, though. That value is: “It just works”. The difference is the following: there’s no certification, but trust in the vendor after many years of excellent delivery. And, there’s no competition in the implementation process because many APIs are proprietary Open Source.

    Spring is an alternative to the Java EE “standards”.

    Of course, if you build decent integration tests yourself, there’s a third alternative to Java EE and Spring. You don’t need either. You can choose any arbitrary set of third party libraries as long as you trust each individual vendor to “do the right thing” (which is often the case anyway, no matter if you’re using Java EE or Spring). For instance, if you’re using jOOQ (or Hibernate), you can use that library in a “standalone application”, in a Spring application, or in a Java EE application just the same.

    Now back to the actual question:

    Do we need a group like the Java EE Guardians?

    If Java EE was a truly open standard (like HTML, or SQL to some extent), we wouldn’t be in the situation that we’re in. Oracle would just be one more stakeholder in a large consortium and it would be their own choice whether they withdraw from the consortium or not, without affecting the consortium as a whole.

    Still, because of the way the JCP is organized, Oracle pretty much dictates what happens in the “standard”. For instance, the TCK for most aspects of Java EE are not open, freely available or even available without the need to accept very restrictive terms.

    Should Oracle “secretly” want Java EE’s death, then that’s exactly what’s going to happen.

    Now, Oracle seems to have lost interest in Java EE (although we do not know that for sure) and frankly they didn’t do an excellent PR job explaining their strategy. There is a lot of uncertainty in the industry with respect to the future of Java EE. Given Oracle’s tight grip on the legal aspects of Java EE, there can be no fork or truly open standard without Oracle’s consent. So, should Oracle “secretly” want Java EE’s death, then that’s exactly what’s going to happen.

    I personally don’t think the Java EE Guardians can do a lot in this case. It’s worth trying, sure. The Guardians all have a big personal stake given the fact that their professional careers depend on Java EE. But as I explained above, there are non-certified alternatives like Spring, or random third party library collections that do the job just the same, so, perhaps, the best way to go forward is to create a new “Spring” from scratch that is governed by a true open standard consortium, free from any legal ties to Java EE, and with or without Oracle. Let’s call it … “Summer” (Note that the community just published “MicroProfile”, which seems to be an initiative which does precisely that.)

    JAXenter: How could Java EE be brought forward? Should Oracle be convinced that they will get a better return from continuing to invest in Java EE? Should the focus remain on the community’s support? 

    Lukas Eder: There was an interesting discussion on Reddit’s /r/java just recently. /user/thesystemx, who frequently comments on the subject, said:

    At last Devoxx I spoke to several spec leads and people from Oracle, and they told me (off the record) that the direct licensing income alone is enough to run Java EE, and that excludes the tag on sales for related products.

    And my first thought was…

    The direct licensing income of a single Exadata installation is probably enough to run Java EE as well, so perhaps this is an order of magnitude thing (i.e. a “what’s this boring, irrelevant stuff over there stop wasting my time thing”)

    As you can see, as a community, we can only speculate about what’s going on right now. I believe that the business is not interesting enough for Oracle. Plus, neither is the community because it isn’t Oracle’s. It’s Red Hat’s, Pivotal’s, IBM’s, and everyone else’s community. Oracle inherited a rather difficult legacy from Sun. Jonathan Schwartz (the former Sun CEO) testified in court in the Oracle vs. Google case that Java was “free”. Quoting from the Ars Technica series:

    The strategy was, we agree on these open APIs, then we compete on implementations.

    This is what an open standard does, and it was certainly Sun’s intention to “sell” Java EE as an (almost) open standard. But perhaps, after all these years. After doing some proper math, it just showed that this particular (almost) open standard provides benefits to competitors much more than to Oracle. Again, as we’re lacking official PR from Oracle, we can only guess. The fact is, we as a community cannot bring forward Java EE without Oracle. Oracle CEO Safra Catz made this very clear in the Oracle vs. Google lawsuit:

    […] And that Android was an unauthorized fork of Java.

    This means that any unauthorized fork of Java EE will have the same fate as Android. Besides, I sincerely doubt that we can convince Oracle to give us more free lunch, so the future of Java EE is, without an actual statement from Oracle’s side, on hold.

    Mike Croft —Java Middleware consultant at Payara

    We asked Payara’s Mike Croft to comment on the current state of Java EE, as well as on the rise of Java EE Guardians and MicroProfile.

    JAXenter: Considering the current state of Java EE, do you think we need an initiative to protect its legacy? 

    Mike Croft: Work on Java EE has slowed, but it hasn’t stopped. The JCP involves more than just Oracle, though they are the biggest players at the moment. The Java EE Guardians’ focus is on getting some action from Oracle; their opinion is that this is crucial to the success of Java EE. I agree that movement from Oracle is important for the future of Java EE, whether that is Oracle working on the JSRs they lead or in relinquishing them to the community. It is important to remember that Java EE isn’t only Oracle, however, and there are a huge number of people and corporations of varying size which have a vested interest in its future. The Guardians group is just one effort of many and all efforts are needed in this, just as in any community-led project.

    Java EE isn’t only Oracle, however, and there are a huge number of people and corporations of varying size which have a vested interest in its future.

    JAXenter: How could Java EE be brought forward? 

    Mike Croft: Java EE already has a way to move forward in the version 8 specifications. My personal view is that Oracle can still stand to grow their business by investing in Java EE. We have not heard any official, public response from Oracle as to their plans, so we can’t be sure that the lack of activity is permanent or only temporary as they put more resource into the “other projects” that has been noted on mailing lists. We, as a community, can’t stand still and wait for confirmation, though.

    It’s this lack of knowledge which has driven Red Hat, Payara, Tomitribe, IBM and the LJC, who each have significant interests in Java EE, to announce microprofile.io as a way to bring about open collaboration. This is not an effort designed to exclude Oracle, but to leverage the incredible power of the wider Java community to address the needs of modern Java EE users. The aim is to iterate quickly and to collaborate openly on a standard. Standards are incredibly important in technology to avoid fragmentation and, from here, the future looks bright.

    Java Champion Lukas Eder

    JAXenter: Mike Croft said that the JCP involves more than just Oracle. What’s your take on that? 

    Lukas Eder: That’s exactly how it ought to be, but for historic reasons it’s not true, and probably never will be. The JCP *is* Oracle, mostly, from a legal and operative perspective.

    But Payara and the others who joined forces to create this MicroProfile initiative can create their own committee (as I’ve mentioned in my previous responses on JAXenter), which is truly open, governed by a foundation, not a corporation. There will still be politics, of course, but it would certainly help move this forward as the legal hurdles would probably be much reduced.

    [MicroProfile’s strategy is to] catch up with Spring whose Spring Boot totally dominates the microservices hype.

    JAXenter: Do you think MicroProfile is hoping for a reaction from Oracle?

    Lukas Eder: I think that MicroProfile backers do not want to add more FUD to the debate. They thus openly invite Oracle to join. In my opinion, however, the strategy is to move forward with innovation and not wait for Oracle, but most importantly: to catch up with Spring whose Spring Boot totally dominates the microservices hype. If Oracle does decide to become part of MicroProfile, fine. But in my opinion, that would be rather surprising.

    JAXenter: He also mentioned that “standards are incredibly important in technology to avoid fragmentation”; you said there is no Java EE standard. Why are your viewpoints so different?

    Lukas Eder: Of course he says that. He couldn’t run Payara and not have this opinion :).

    And I don’t fully disagree with Mike. What I mean by Java EE is not a “standard” is this: There are good, “obvious” standards and less good, less “obvious” ones.

    A good standard is a standard that removes fragmentation where fragmentation creates friction, overhead, bureaucracy in the market without adding any value. Good examples for good standards are:

  • Electric voltages
  • Electric outlets (I still hope there will eventually be a world-wide standard, instead of dozens, but at least the EU mostly uses just one)
  • USB
  • Train track widths
  • DIN A4, A5 paper formats
  • JDBC
  • JMS
  • All of these standards simplify business for everyone by destroying the business of those who try to sell deviating, proprietary interfaces. For example, DIN A4 means 297mm x 210mm. Vendors of printers, photocopying machines, document processing software, paper, envelopes, binders, briefcases, etc. etc. can all support “the standard” and consumers don’t have to purchase a briefcase for JAXenter publications and a different briefcase for other documents.

    A bad standard is a “standard” that hinders innovation by adding complexity in a very opinionated environment.

    JDBC is an exceptionally good standard in software, as it removes the need for knowing about vendor-specific APIs and network protocols in order to access mostly RDBMS (although it works also with other data stores).

    There are some good Java EE standards, like JMS, Servlets, JavaMail and others, mostly those that define (again) protocol abstractions, or things that are too boring to be implemented a second time in a different way (JAXB, JavaMail).

    A bad standard is a “standard” that hinders innovation by adding complexity in a very opinionated environment, where differing opinions are good for the market, as each opinion can vary greatly in how it adds value to a consumer. There are a lot of business standards like the ISO 9001 for quality management or the ISO 29119 software testing standards, which are mostly certifications that companies like to show off to impress customers. They don’t really mean anything concrete as it is much too complex to derive from a simple yes/no flag what this really means in the context of a concrete corporation.

    Java EE “shines” here with bad “standards” like EJB, MVC, JPA, JSF, CDI, Bean Validation, Batch, and much more. All of these things do not belong in a standard because they are:

  • Complex
  • Often a bad default choice
  • Often not the only choice, specifically not the de-facto choice (e.g. bean validation, batch)
  • Very opinionated in terms of architecture and design, which greatly restricts the solution space for consumers
  • Take JSF, for instance. It’s a server-side UI component API specification. How many component APIs did we already have? AWT, Swing, JavaFX, Gwt, Vaadin, Wicket, JSF, and many others, lesser known ones. In this case, JSF is “just another” component API (specification). Of course, it’s one of the most popular ones today, but that’s only the case because it profits from the Java EE “brand”.

    JPA is a different story. It solves dozens of problems, which is a very bad thing for a “standard” API. It solves:

  • Mapping (that’s the best part)
  • Querying (in several different, conflicting ways: mapping, utility finder methods, JPQL, criteria API, fetch graphs, native queries, query annotations, etc. etc., none of them are satisfactory, given that SQL is incredibly more powerful)
  • Native SQL (in my opinion, the stored procedure support shows the desperation in this API to keep up with real world needs by shoe horning a feature into an API that was not designed for the mere existence of stored procedures)
  • Transactions (Why? There’s already JTA…)
  • Locking
  • Caching
  • It’s a heterogeneous monster that should be split in 10 different APIs. Don’t get me wrong. It’s fine for an *implementation* like Hibernate to offer all these features out of the box. But the specification shouldn’t do that. It’s simply not a good standard.

    To answer your question: As I mentioned already in my previous answers, the industry likes having guarantees that certain things work together. It’s good to know that JDBC works and that jOOQ or Hibernate work on top of JDBC and that none of these APIs will break in the future. JDBC is a standard. jOOQ and Hibernate aren’t. They’re complex tools that profit from the standard. They drive innovation. They add things, deprecate things, remove things. They should not be standards. Otherwise, their complex innovation will stop.

    I’m hoping that the MicroProfile initiative will take a fresh look at “standardization” in Java and prevent the “standard feature creep” that has happened in J2EE and later on in Java EE from happening. Mark Little’s comment on the topic looks precisely like it.

    Java Rock Star Adam Bien

    JAXenter: Considering the current state of Java EE, did we need an initiative like MicroProfile? Should Oracle take part in this initiative?

    Adam Bien: Sure! Oracle is highly welcome.

    JAXenter: Do you think MicroProfile will have any impact on Java EE Guardians? 

    Adam Bien: Java EE Guardians is just another group of passionate Java EE fan girls and fan boys. I’m sure they appreciate it. At least they retweeted everything what was microprofile.io-related.

    I will ask the Java EE Guardians about their opinion next time I get the chance.

    JAXenter: Mike Croft said that the JCP involves more than just Oracle while Lukas Eder opined that the JCP is Oracle. What is your opinion?

    Adam Bien: I asked the question myself. I asked Heather VanCura What is the relation between JCP and Oracle? The answer can be found here.

    Oracle has a permanent seat on the JCP Executive Committee (EC), and together with the other EC members, the EC votes on the work of the Expert Groups and evolves the JCP itself. The EC is led by a non-voting Chair from the PMO; the PMO is the group within Oracle that is responsible for administering the JCP and chairing the EC. The EC does not micro-manage the day-to-day workings of Expert Groups – the EC has the opportunity to review the work of each Expert Group at well-defined points as their specifications proceed through the JCP program. The primary function of the EC is to ensure that specifications do not overlap or conflict with one another and that the specifications meet the needs of the industry segment for which they are being written.

    Heather VanCura

    On the spec-level it is even clearer. Some specs JSR-365, CDI 2.0, Dependency Injection for Java, JSR 330 were / are led by other companies entirely without Oracle.

    More to come. 

    If you’d like to take part in our debate, drop us an email at editor@jaxenter.com.


    Building a MapReduce Application with Hadoop | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    As the amount of captured data increases over the years, so do our storage needs. Companies are realizing that “data is king,” but how do we analyze it? Through Hadoop. In the second article in this series, Java programming expert Steven Haines explains what a MapReduce application is and how to build a simple one.

    Like this article? We recommend 

    The first article in this series described the domain of business problems that Hadoop was designed to solve, and the internal architecture of Hadoop that allows it to solve these problems. Applications that run in Hadoop are called MapReduce applications, so this article demonstrates how to build a simple MapReduce application.

    Setting Up a Development Environment

    Before you can use Hadoop, you’re going to need to have Java 6 (or later) installed, which can be downloaded for your platform from Oracle’s website. Additionally, if you are running on Windows, the official development and deployment platform upon which Hadoop runs is Linux, so you’re going to need to run Hadoop using Cygwin. Mac OSX users should have no problem running Hadoop natively.

    Hadoop can be downloaded from its Releases page, but its numbering structure can be a little challenging to interpret. In short, the 1.x branch of code contains the current stable release, the 2.x.x branch contains the alpha code for version 2 of Hadoop, the 0.22.x branch of code is the 2.x.x code, but without security, and the 0.23.x branch of code excludes high availability. The 0.20.x branches of code are legacy and you should ignore them. For the examples in this article, I will be using the 0.23.x code branch, the latest of which is 0.23.5 as of this writing, but for production deployments, you would probably want to download version 1.x or 2.x.x.

    Download and decompress this file on your local machine. If you’re planning on doing quite a bit of Hadoop development, it might be in your best interest to add the decompressed bin folder to your environment PATH. You can test your installation by executing the hadoop command from the bin folder:

    bin/hadoop

    Executing this command without any arguments reveals the following output:

    Usage: hadoop [--config confdir] COMMAND where COMMAND is one of: fs run a generic filesystem user client version print the version jar <jar> run a jar file distcp <srcurl> <desturl> copy file or directories recursively archive -archiveName NAME -p <parent path> <src>* <dest> create a hadoop archive classpath prints the class path needed to get the Hadoop jar and the required libraries daemonlog get/set the log level for each daemon or CLASSNAME run the class named CLASSNAME Most commands print help when invoked w/o parameters.

    There are numerous commands that can be passed to Hadoop, but in this article we’ll be focusing on executing Hadoop applications in a development environment, so the only one we’ll be interested in is the following:

    hadoop jar <jar-file-name> Hello, MapReduce

    The first program that you write in any programming language is typically a “Hello, World” application. In terms of Hadoop and MapReduce, the standard application that everyone writes is the Word Count application. The Word Count application counts the number of times each word in a large amount of text occurs. For example, the word “a” might appear 2,000, times whereas the word “hypothetical” might appear three times. It is a perfect example to learn about MapReduce because the mapping step and reducing step are trivial, but introduce you to thinking in MapReduce. The following is a summary of the components in the Word Count application and their function:

  •   FileInputFormat: We define a FileInputFormat to read all of the files in a specified directory (passed as the first argument to the MapReduce application) and pass those to a TextInputFormat (see Listing 1) for distribution to our mappers.
  •   TextInputFormat: The default InputFormat for Hadoop is the TextInputFormat, which reads one line at a time and returns the key as the byte offset as the key (LongWritable) and the line of text as the value (Text).
  •   Word Count Mapper: This is a class that we write which tokenizes the single line of text passed to it by the InputFormat into words and then emits the word itself with a count of “1” to note that we saw this word.
  •   Combiner: While we don’t need a combiner in a development environment, the combiner is an implementation of the reducer (described later in this article) that runs on the local node before passing the key/value pair to the reducer. Using combiners can dramatically improve performance, but you need to make sure that combining your results does not break your reducer: In order for the reducer to be used as a combiner, its operation must be associative, otherwise the maps sent to the reducer will not result in the correct result.
  •   Word Count Reducer: The word count reducer receives a map of every word and a list of all the counts for the number of times that the word was observed by the mappers. Without a combiner, the reducer would receive a word and a collection of “1”s, but because we are going to use the reducer as a combiner, we will have a collection of numbers that will need to be added together.
  •   TextOutputFormat: In this example, we use the TextOutputFormat class and tell it that the keys will be Text and the values will be IntWritable.
  •   FileOutputFormat: The TextOutputFormat sends its formatted output to a FileOutputFormat, which writes results to a self-created “output” directory.
  • You might be wondering why we’re calling Strings “Text” and numbers “IntWritable” and “LongWritable”. The reason is that in order for values to be passed across the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) in a distributed fashion, there are specific rules that define serialization. Fortunately, Hadoop provides wrappers for common types, but if you need to develop your own, then it provides a Writable interface that you can implement it to do so.

    Listing 1 shows the source code for our first MapReduce application.

    Listing 1 WordCount.java package com.geekcap.hadoopexamples; import org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configured; import org.apache.hadoop.util.Tool; import org.apache.hadoop.util.ToolRunner; import org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration; import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Path; import org.apache.hadoop.io.Text; import org.apache.hadoop.io.IntWritable; import org.apache.hadoop.io.LongWritable; import org.apache.hadoop.io.Text; import org.apache.hadoop.mapred.Mapper; import org.apache.hadoop.mapred.Reducer; import org.apache.hadoop.mapred.JobConf; import org.apache.hadoop.mapred.MapReduceBase; import org.apache.hadoop.mapred.OutputCollector; import org.apache.hadoop.mapred.Reporter; import org.apache.hadoop.mapred.KeyValueTextInputFormat; import org.apache.hadoop.mapred.TextOutputFormat; import org.apache.hadoop.mapred.JobClient; import org.apache.hadoop.mapred.FileInputFormat; import org.apache.hadoop.mapred.FileOutputFormat; import java.io.IOException; import java.util.Iterator; import java.util.StringTokenizer; /** * Created by IntelliJ IDEA. * User: shaines * Date: 12/9/12 * Time: 9:25 PM * To change this template use File | Settings | File Templates. */ public class WordCount extends Configured implements Tool { public static class MapClass extends MapReduceBase implements Mapper<LongWritable, Text, Text, IntWritable> { private Text word = new Text(); private final static IntWritable one = new IntWritable( 1 ); public void map( LongWritable key, // Offset into the file Text value, OutputCollector<Text, IntWritable> output, Reporter reporter) throws IOException { // Get the value as a String String text = value.toString().toLowerCase(); // Replace all non-characters text = text.replaceAll( "'", "" ); text = text.replaceAll( "[^a-zA-Z]", " " ); // Iterate over all of the words in the string StringTokenizer st = new StringTokenizer( text ); while( st.hasMoreTokens() ) { // Get the next token and set it as the text for our "word" variable word.set( st.nextToken() ); // Output this word as the key and 1 as the value output.collect( word, one ); } } } public static class Reduce extends MapReduceBase implements Reducer<Text, IntWritable, Text, IntWritable> { public void reduce( Text key, Iterator<IntWritable> values, OutputCollector<Text, IntWritable> output, Reporter reporter) throws IOException { // Iterate over all of the values (counts of occurrences of this word) int count = 0; while( values.hasNext() ) { // Add the value to our count count += values.next().get(); } // Output the word with its count (wrapped in an IntWritable) output.collect( key, new IntWritable( count ) ); } } public int run(String[] args) throws Exception { // Create a configuration Configuration conf = getConf(); // Create a job from the default configuration that will use the WordCount class JobConf job = new JobConf( conf, WordCount.class ); // Define our input path as the first command line argument and our output path as the second Path in = new Path( args[0] ); Path out = new Path( args[1] ); // Create File Input/Output formats for these paths (in the job) FileInputFormat.setInputPaths( job, in ); FileOutputFormat.setOutputPath( job, out ); // Configure the job: name, mapper, reducer, and combiner job.setJobName( "WordCount" ); job.setMapperClass( MapClass.class ); job.setReducerClass( Reduce.class ); job.setCombinerClass( Reduce.class ); // Configure the output job.setOutputFormat( TextOutputFormat.class ); job.setOutputKeyClass( Text.class ); job.setOutputValueClass( IntWritable.class ); // Run the job JobClient.runJob(job); return 0; } public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception { // Start the WordCount MapReduce application int res = ToolRunner.run( new Configuration(), new WordCount(), args ); System.exit( res ); } } Code Analysis

    Execution starts as the WordCount’s main() method is executed, which uses the ToolRunner class to run the job. The ToolRunner creates the WordCount class and executes its run() method.

    The run() method configures the job by defining input and output paths and then creating FileInputFormat and FileOutputFormat objects that reference those paths. Setting the input and output formats is a little different from the remainder of the configuration because we create their instances and pass them the reference to the job. The other configuration is accomplished by invoking one of the job’s setter methods.

    The job is then configured with a mapper class, a reducer class, and a combiner class. Note that we pass the class itself and not an instance of the class so that Hadoop can create as many of them as it needs to across its distributed environment.

    The real work takes place in the MapClass and the Reduce class. The MapClass receives the following information:

  • key: The byte offset into the file.
  • value: The text of a single line of the file.
  • output: The OutputCollector is the mechanism through which we output the key/value pair that we want to pass to the reducer.
  • reporter: Used to report progress in processing the job back to the Hadoop server. It is not used in this example
  • The MapClass extracts the value to a String by calling the value’s toString() method and then does a few conversions: It converts the String to lowercase so that we can match words like “Apple” with “apple”, it deletes single quotes, and it replaces all non-characters with spaces. It then tokenizes the String using white space, and then iterates over all of the tokens in the String. For each token that it finds, it sets the word variable’s text to the token and then emits the word as the key and a static IntWrapper for the number 1 as the value. We could have created a new Text word each time, but because of the number of times this is going to run, it improves performance to maintain the word as a member variable and not re-create it each time.

    The Reduce class’ reduce() method receives the same set of parameters that the map() method receives, only its key is the word and, instead of receiving a single value, it receives an Iterator to a list of values. In this example, it would receive something like the word “apple” and an Iterator to a collection with values 1, 1, 1, 1. But because we want to also be able to use this Reduce class as a combiner, we don’t just count the number of entries, but instead of extract the value by calling the IntWritable’s get() method and adding it to our sum. In the end, the reduce() method returns the same key it received (the word) and the sum of the number of occurrences.

    You might be wondering what the big deal is. This is a simple program, right? And you are right, it is a simple program, and that is the elegance with MapReduce: You will find yourself spending more time deriving your solution that actually coding.

    Listing 2 shows a Maven POM file for building this source code.

    Listing 2 pom.xml <project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd"> <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion> <groupId>com.geekcap</groupId> <artifactId>hadoop-examples</artifactId> <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version> <packaging>jar</packaging> <name>hadoop-examples</name> <url>http://maven.apache.org</url> <properties> <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding> </properties> <dependencies> <dependency> <groupId>org.apache.hadoop</groupId> <artifactId>hadoop-core</artifactId> <version>0.20.205.0</version> </dependency> <dependency> <groupId>junit</groupId> <artifactId>junit</artifactId> <version>3.8.1</version> <scope>test</scope> </dependency> </dependencies> </project>

    The POM file is very simple and only includes a reference to the hadoop-core dependency. You can build with the following command:

    mvn clean install

    To put this all together, we need a significant text file for which to count words. A great source of large text files is the Project Gutenberg, which includes more than 100,000 free ebooks. For my example, I chose Moby Dick. Download one of the text files and put it in a directory on your hard drive (and it should be the only file in that directory on your hard drive). Once you have it, then you can execute your MapReduce project by executing the hadoop command, passing it the path to the directory that contains your book, and a destination directory. For example:

    hadoop jar hadoop-examples-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar com.geekcap.hadoopexamples.WordCount ~/apps/hadoop-0.23.5/test-data output

    When I execute this I see the following output:

    2012-12-11 22:27:08.929 java[37044:1203] Unable to load realm info from SCDynamicStore 2012-12-11 22:27:09.023 java[37044:1203] Unable to load realm info from SCDynamicStore 12/12/11 22:27:09 WARN conf.Configuration: session.id is deprecated. Instead, use dfs.metrics.session-id 12/12/11 22:27:09 INFO jvm.JvmMetrics: Initializing JVM Metrics with processName=JobTracker, sessionId= 12/12/11 22:27:09 INFO jvm.JvmMetrics: Cannot initialize JVM Metrics with processName=JobTracker, sessionId= - already initialized 12/12/11 22:27:09 WARN util.NativeCodeLoader: Unable to load native-hadoop library for your platform... using builtin-java classes where applicable 12/12/11 22:27:09 WARN snappy.LoadSnappy: Snappy native library not loaded 12/12/11 22:27:09 INFO mapred.FileInputFormat: Total input paths to process : 1 12/12/11 22:27:10 INFO mapreduce.JobSubmitter: number of splits:1 12/12/11 22:27:10 WARN conf.Configuration: mapred.jar is deprecated. Instead, use mapreduce.job.jar 12/12/11 22:27:10 WARN conf.Configuration: mapred.output.value.class is deprecated. Instead, use mapreduce.job.output.value.class 12/12/11 22:27:10 WARN conf.Configuration: mapred.job.name is deprecated. Instead, use mapreduce.job.name 12/12/11 22:27:10 WARN conf.Configuration: mapred.input.dir is deprecated. Instead, use mapreduce.input.fileinputformat.inputdir 12/12/11 22:27:10 WARN conf.Configuration: mapred.output.dir is deprecated. Instead, use mapreduce.output.fileoutputformat.outputdir 12/12/11 22:27:10 WARN conf.Configuration: mapred.map.tasks is deprecated. Instead, use mapreduce.job.maps 12/12/11 22:27:10 WARN conf.Configuration: mapred.output.key.class is deprecated. Instead, use mapreduce.job.output.key.class 12/12/11 22:27:10 WARN conf.Configuration: mapred.working.dir is deprecated. Instead, use mapreduce.job.working.dir 12/12/11 22:27:10 INFO mapreduce.JobSubmitter: Submitting tokens for job: job_local_0001 12/12/11 22:27:10 INFO mapreduce.Job: The url to track the job: http://localhost:8080/ 12/12/11 22:27:10 INFO mapred.LocalJobRunner: OutputCommitter set in config null 12/12/11 22:27:10 INFO mapreduce.Job: Running job: job_local_0001 12/12/11 22:27:10 INFO mapred.LocalJobRunner: OutputCommitter is org.apache.hadoop.mapred.FileOutputCommitter 12/12/11 22:27:10 INFO mapred.LocalJobRunner: Waiting for map tasks 12/12/11 22:27:10 INFO mapred.LocalJobRunner: Starting task: attempt_local_0001_m_000000_0 12/12/11 22:27:10 INFO mapred.Task: Using ResourceCalculatorPlugin : null 12/12/11 22:27:10 INFO mapred.MapTask: numReduceTasks: 1 12/12/11 22:27:10 INFO mapred.MapTask: (EQUATOR) 0 kvi 26214396(104857584) 12/12/11 22:27:10 INFO mapred.MapTask: mapreduce.task.io.sort.mb: 100 12/12/11 22:27:10 INFO mapred.MapTask: soft limit at 83886080 12/12/11 22:27:10 INFO mapred.MapTask: bufstart = 0; bufvoid = 104857600 12/12/11 22:27:10 INFO mapred.MapTask: kvstart = 26214396; length = 6553600 12/12/11 22:27:11 INFO mapred.LocalJobRunner: 12/12/11 22:27:11 INFO mapred.MapTask: Starting flush of map output 12/12/11 22:27:11 INFO mapred.MapTask: Spilling map output 12/12/11 22:27:11 INFO mapred.MapTask: bufstart = 0; bufend = 2027118; bufvoid = 104857600 12/12/11 22:27:11 INFO mapred.MapTask: kvstart = 26214396(104857584); kvend = 25353164(101412656); length = 861233/6553600 12/12/11 22:27:11 INFO mapreduce.Job: Job job_local_0001 running in uber mode : false 12/12/11 22:27:11 INFO mapreduce.Job: map 0% reduce 0% 12/12/11 22:27:12 INFO mapred.MapTask: Finished spill 0 12/12/11 22:27:12 INFO mapred.Task: Task:attempt_local_0001_m_000000_0 is done. And is in the process of committing 12/12/11 22:27:12 INFO mapred.LocalJobRunner: file:/Users/shaines/apps/hadoop-0.23.5/test-data/mobydick.txt:0+1212132 12/12/11 22:27:12 INFO mapred.Task: Task 'attempt_local_0001_m_000000_0' done. 12/12/11 22:27:12 INFO mapred.LocalJobRunner: Finishing task: attempt_local_0001_m_000000_0 12/12/11 22:27:12 INFO mapred.LocalJobRunner: Map task executor complete. 12/12/11 22:27:12 INFO mapred.Task: Using ResourceCalculatorPlugin : null 12/12/11 22:27:12 INFO mapred.Merger: Merging 1 sorted segments 12/12/11 22:27:12 INFO mapred.Merger: Down to the last merge-pass, with 1 segments left of total size: 247166 bytes 12/12/11 22:27:12 INFO mapred.LocalJobRunner: 12/12/11 22:27:12 INFO mapreduce.Job: map 100% reduce 0% 12/12/11 22:27:12 INFO mapred.Task: Task:attempt_local_0001_r_000000_0 is done. And is in the process of committing 12/12/11 22:27:12 INFO mapred.LocalJobRunner: 12/12/11 22:27:12 INFO mapred.Task: Task attempt_local_0001_r_000000_0 is allowed to commit now 12/12/11 22:27:12 INFO output.FileOutputCommitter: Saved output of task 'attempt_local_0001_r_000000_0' to file:/Users/shaines/Documents/Workspace/hadoop-examples/target/output/_temporary/0/task_local_0001_r_000000 12/12/11 22:27:12 INFO mapred.LocalJobRunner: reduce > reduce 12/12/11 22:27:12 INFO mapred.Task: Task 'attempt_local_0001_r_000000_0' done. 12/12/11 22:27:13 INFO mapreduce.Job: map 100% reduce 100% 12/12/11 22:27:13 INFO mapreduce.Job: Job job_local_0001 completed successfully 12/12/11 22:27:13 INFO mapreduce.Job: Counters: 24 File System Counters FILE: Number of bytes read=2683488 FILE: Number of bytes written=974132 FILE: Number of read operations=0 FILE: Number of large read operations=0 FILE: Number of write operations=0 Map-Reduce Framework Map input records=21573 Map output records=215309 Map output bytes=2027118 Map output materialized bytes=247174 Input split bytes=113 Combine input records=215309 Combine output records=17107 Reduce input groups=17107 Reduce shuffle bytes=0 Reduce input records=17107 Reduce output records=17107 Spilled Records=34214 Shuffled Maps =0 Failed Shuffles=0 Merged Map outputs=0 GC time elapsed (ms)=32 Total committed heap usage (bytes)=264110080 File Input Format Counters Bytes Read=1212132 File Output Format Counters Bytes Written=182624

    And because I told it output to an “output” directory, my output directory has a file named part-00000. Here is a small snippet of its contents:

    a 4687 aback 2 abaft 2 abandon 3 abandoned 7 abandonedly 1 abandonment 2 ... your 251 youre 6 youve 1 zephyr 1 zeuglodon 1 zones 3 zoology 2 zoroaster 1

    The output contains the word that it found and the number of occurrences of that word. The word “a” occurred 4687 times in Moby Dick, whereas the word “your” only occurred 251 times.

    Summary

    This article demonstrated how to create a simple MapReduce application from start to finish. It delved into the depths of MapReduce to describe how mappers and reducers are built and then how Hadoop is configured to execute the mapper, reducer, and combiner. The important thing to realize about Hadoop and MapReduce in general is that you’ll need to spend more time thinking about how to solve your problem than you will coding. The trick is to think about the type of key that you need and how to properly construct your value. It takes time and practice, but it is a powerful tool at your disposal.

    Don't miss the final article in this series, Applied Big Data Analysis in the Real World with MapReduce and Hadoop, to be posted next week. This article will walk you through setting up and managing a Hadoop production environment.

    If you are looking for a good book to help you think in MapReduce, O’Reilly’s MapReduce Design Patterns is a great choice. I read through several books to help me get Hadoop set up and configured, but MapReduce Design Patterns was the first book that I found that helped me really understand how to approach MapReduce problems. I highly recommend it!



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