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201-450 - LPIC-2 Exam 201, Part 1 of 2, version 4.5 - BrainDump Information

Vendor Name : LPI
Exam Code : 201-450
Exam Name : LPIC-2 Exam 201, Part 1 of 2, version 4.5
Questions and Answers : 161 Q & A
Updated On : December 13, 2018
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201-450 exam Dumps Source : LPIC-2 Exam 201, Part 1 of 2, version 4.5

Test Code : 201-450
Test Name : LPIC-2 Exam 201, Part 1 of 2, version 4.5
Vendor Name : LPI
Q&A : 161 Real Questions

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LPI LPIC-2 Exam 201, Part

LPIC-2 201-450 observe tests | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

increase your LPIC-2 201-450 readiness with this app in response to bestselling Sybex study e-book by using Steve Suehring. practice checks cowl a hundred% of exam pursuits.

practice tests QUESTIONS: 300+ simple practice questions with in-depth explanations.varied observe and mock tests to check your examination readiness. exams are randomly generated every time you're taking the examine. Take frequently to be more desirable organized for the real verify.

BOOKMARKS: Bookmark tricky questions and access them conveniently later.

verify efficiency: assess your verify performance growth over time.

The observe examine questions thoroughly assess:1. means Planning2. Linux Kernel3. device Startup4. Filesystem and Devices5. superior Storage machine Administration6. Networking Configuration7. equipment renovation

about the LPIC-2 201-450 examination

LPIC-2 ( examination codes 201-450 and 202-450 ) is the second certification in LPI’s multi-stage knowledgeable certification application. The LPIC-2 will validate the candidate's ability to administer small to medium–sized mixed networks. The candidate should have an lively LPIC-1 certification to get hold of LPIC-2 certification, however the LPIC-1 and LPIC-2 assessments could be taken in any order.

must haves: The candidate have to have an lively LPIC-1 certification to get hold of LPIC-2 certification, however the LPIC-1 and LPIC-2 assessments could be taken in any order

concerning the AuthorSteve Suehring is an Assistant Professor of Computing and New Media technologies at institution of Wisconsin – Stevens factor. Steve has worked as an editor for LinuxWorld journal, and has written several books on a variety of technologies, including JavaScript, Linux security, windows Server certifications, Perl, and others. Steve has worked at a large internet company in each programs engineering and safety roles, and has also worked at a Fortune 1000 company assisting to offering architectural path on a large number of initiatives.


LPIC-2: Linux knowledgeable Institute Certification look at ebook: exam 201 and examination 202 | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Synopsis

Full coverage of the newest LPI-stage 2 assessments, with bonus online examine bank LPIC-2 is the one-cease instruction useful resource for the Linux skilled Institute's superior degree certification examination. With 100% insurance of all examination pursuits, this publication gives clear and concise insurance of the Linux administration issues you are going to deserve to know for tests 201 and 202. useful examples spotlight the true-world applications of important ideas, and together, the writer group offers insights based on just about fifty years in the IT trade. This brand new second edition has been completely revamped to align with the latest versions of the checks, with authoritative insurance of the Linux kernel, system startup, superior storage, network configuration, system maintenance, internet services, safety, troubleshooting, and greater. You additionally get access to online gaining knowledge of equipment together with digital flashcards, chapter exams, observe checks, and a thesaurus of vital terms to assist you solidify your knowing of higher-level Linux administration issues. The LPI-level 2 certification confirms your superior Linux skill set, and the demand for qualified authorities continues to develop.

This e-book offers you the conceptual information and palms-on practice you should flow the examination with flying colorations. * understand all of the fabric for both LPIC-2 tests * gain perception into actual-world applications * look at various your capabilities with chapter exams and follow tests * entry online study aids for greater thorough preparation groups are flocking to the open-source Linux as a superb, low-budget, cozy alternative to costly operating methods like Microsoft windows. as the Linux market share continues to climb, agencies are scrambling to discover network and server administrators with professional Linux advantage and totally functional knowledge. The LPI-degree 2 certification makes you the expert they need, and LPIC-2 is your most advantageous e book to getting there.

Christine Bresnahan, is an Adjunct Professor at Ivy Tech neighborhood college, where she teaches Linux essentials, LPIC-1/CompTIA Linux+ Certification, and Python programming. With over 25 years of IT experience, Christine focuses on producing educational substances for use both internal and out of doors of the classroom. Richard Blum, is a 20-yr IT industry veteran skilled with methods and network administration for UNIX, Linux, Novell, and Microsoft servers. rich is a web Linux instructor for universities nationwide, and is a greatly-posted expert on Linux and open-source application.

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Linux knowledgeable Institute examination Labs with FOSSFA/ict@innovation in South Africa | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Sacramento, CA, us of a: February 17, 2011) – The Linux skilled Institute (LPI), the area’s premier Linux certification organization (http://www.lpi.org), introduced promotional examination labs for his or her Linux professional Institute Certification (LPIC) with the Free and Open source application basis for Africa (FOSSFA: http://www.fossfa.net/) on the adolescence Chamber of Commerce and trade’s Technopreneurship Centre, Johannesburg, South Africa on March 5, 2011 at 10 a.m. This exam lab is a part of a larger “teach-the-trainers” application, ict@innovation,collectively subsidized via FOSSFA and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GIZ: http://www.giz.de) and is undertaken with the cooperation of LPI-South Africa.

All LPIC tests could be obtainable (LPI-a hundred and one, 102, 201, 202, 301, 302, 303 and 304) with the aid of registration and payment in boost (Paypal or bank card) at events@lpi.org.  All exams are available at an develop promotional fee of US $95 each aside from the LPI-301 examination (LPIC-3 certification). For details on payment on web site in Rand (ZAR) and pricing of the LPI-301 exam please contact operations@south-africa.lpi.org

every examination takes about 90 minutes to finished. Candidates ought to convey their LPI identification and a govt issued photo identification to the exam lab.  To participate in the examination labs you must achieve an LPI id at LPI’s registration enviornment: http://www.lpi.org/eng/certification/register_now

“We entirely assist FOSSFA efforts to promote the growth of Linux authorities right through Africa. Their program is chiefly helpful as it offers both LPI and FOSS training and, as well, advantage building in entrepreneurship. this will make certain that there are manageable IT carrier providers who can suggest low-cost and comfortable solutions in Linux and Open supply application to their potential clients,” mentioned Jim Lacey, president and CEO of the Linux professional Institute.

¨in this second LPI teach-the-trainer workshop, we hope to build on the momentum that we begun in Nairobi throughout the first workshop. within the first workshop, 12 contributors had been certified in LPIC-1. With this training and certification, these participants at the moment are able to deliver LPI working towards of their personal institutions as a business initiative. With this we will build a network of trainers throughout Africa for you to make a contribution to the broader deployment of Open supply options, so they can in flip make a favorable contribution to economic development in Africa, observed Evans Ikua, FOSS Certification supervisor, ict@innovation.

The joint FOSSFA/GIZ Linux practicing undertaking is a component of the ict@innovation program which aims at constructing capacities for African small and medium ICT companies to do enterprise with Free and Open supply utility. The ict@innovation application is also funded by way of the German Federal Ministry for financial Cooperation and construction (BMZ) and the Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa (OSISA).

The program presents online training modules for LPIC-1 certification and is attainable athttp://www.ict-innovation.fossfa.net/e-studying/index.personal home page?class=LC

FOSSFA is additionally setting up the first “made in Africa” practicing guide for LPIC-1 which can be released below a inventive Commons license.  For further information on this LPIC-1 training manual initiative please see: http://www.ict-innovation.fossfa.internet/weblog/%5Buser-rawpercent5D/ictnnovation-lpic-1-practicing-e-book-coming-soon

The Linux expert Institute is globally supported through the IT industry, enterprise purchasers, group professionals, executive entities and the educational group. LPI’s certification application is supported via an affiliate community spanning five continents and is disbursed worldwide in multiple languages in additional than 7,000 trying out places. when you consider that 1999, LPI has delivered over 270,000 assessments and ninety,000 LPIC certifications all over the world.

concerning the Linux professional Institute:

The Linux knowledgeable Institute promotes and certifies standard knowledge on Linux and Open source technologies throughout the global delivery of complete, superior, dealer-independent checks. based as an overseas non-profit company in September 1999 with the aid of the Linux group, the Linux skilled Institute continues to show diagnosed international leadership within the certification of Linux professionals. LPI advances the Linux and Open supply circulate through strategic partners, sponsorships, creative classes and group building activities. LPI’s main financial sponsors are Platinum Sponsors IBM, Linux Journal, Linux journal, Novell, SGI, and TurboLinux as well as Gold Sponsors, HP and IDG.

About ict@innovation:

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201-450 exam Dumps Source : LPIC-2 Exam 201, Part 1 of 2, version 4.5

Test Code : 201-450
Test Name : LPIC-2 Exam 201, Part 1 of 2, version 4.5
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Q&A : 161 Real Questions

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LPIC-2 Exam 201, Part 1 of 2, version 4.5

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No, JAMA does not now recommend chiropractic care first for low back pain | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Of all the alternative medical systems out there, chiropractic is one of the oddest. Unlike many of the others, it has a modicum of plausibility, at least for back problems due to musculoskeletal strains. After all, the science-based specialty of physical therapy uses spinal manipulation to treat back problems. Of course, the big difference between chiropractic and physical therapy is that chiropractic is based on a delusion, namely the concept of subluxations. To science-based specialties, a subluxation a painful partial dislocation. This is different from a chiropractic subluxation, which is claimed to cause disease by interfering with nerve supply to organs. Such subluxations have never been shown to exist, nor has it ever been shown that “innate intelligence,” which to chiropractors is the organizing property of living things and a term originally coined by Daniel David Palmer, the founder of chiropractic. Palmer proclaimed that subluxations interfered with the body’s expression of “innate intelligence,” that controls the healing process. One notes that this vitalistic concept is very much like qi in acupuncture, except that instead of needles redirecting or unblocking the flow of qi in chiropractic adjusting subluxations unblocks the flow or function of the “innate intelligence.” Unfortunately, chiropractic subluxations have never been shown to exist.

Such is the reason why I like to refer to chiropractors as physical therapists with delusions of grandeur. They claim to be able to treat all manner of disease, not just back problems, by adjusting the spine. Even more unfortunately, among the alternative medical specialties, chiropractic is arguably the most entrenched, the most accepted, of them all.

Still, chiropractors have a much-earned inferiority complex. They desperately crave the acceptance that they don’t deserve and the scientific acceptance they don’t have. That’s why, whenever a story like this pops up, it’s spread far and wide as though it’s some sort of validation of chiropractic. In this case, the story is entitled JAMA recommends chiropractic as first means of back pain treatment. Let’s just say that the title of this article is profoundly misleading:

Medical doctors and chiropractors are often at odds with each other. The Journal of the American Medical Association now recommends chiropractic as a first means of treating back pain.

Dr. Alex Vidan wasn’t going to let that pass by without a comment. He stops by FOX2 with his pal Mr. Spine with more information.

As is the video itself:

My first inclination when I saw this article and the accompanying video was to wonder what the source of Vidan’s claims were? What article in JAMA was he referring to? I couldn’t find it, search as I could. The article didn’t seem to exist. Then I finally found it when I came across another chiropractor touting the article, and the reason why there’s much less there than meets Vidan’s eye became apparent. Basically, it’s an article by Denise M. Goodman, MD, MS; Alison E. Burke, MA; Edward H. Livingston, MD entitled, Low Back Pain. It’s a brief article on the causes and treatment of, yes, low back pain. It’s very simple, and it’s very short.

To be fair, the article does mention chiropractic—once. It’s less than a glowing endorsement:

Many treatments are available for low back pain. Often exercises and physical therapy can help. Some people benefit from chiropractic therapy or acupuncture. Sometimes medications are needed, including analgesics (painkillers) or medications that reduce inflammation. Surgery is not usually needed but may be considered if other therapies have failed.

All in all, it’s pretty vague, and saying that “some people” benefit says nothing about evidence or science. It’s actually not a very good article, at least not with respect to discussing treatment. More importantly, just because JAMA published a brief Patient Page on low back pain does not mean that JAMA endorses chiropractic, any more than a medical journal publishing on any topic implies endorsement. Vidan is suffering from self-delusion at best and is being disingenuous at worst. He should know that publishing an article in a journal doesn’t necessarily imply endorsement of the concepts of that article by the journal. If Vidan doesn’t know that, he’s more clueless than the average chiropractor.

But what about this further claim:

The JAMA`s recommendation comes on the heels of a recent study out of the medical journal Spine where sufferers of lower back pain all received standard medical care (SMC) and half of the participants additionally received chiropractic care. The researchers found that in SMC plus chiropractic care patients, 73% reported that their pain was completely gone or much better after treatment compared to just 17% of the SMC group.

Again, this is something that irritates the hell out of me: News articles that mention a study but don’t give me any easy way of identifying it, no link, no author, no title, no anything. As far as I can tell, this article from November appears to be the right article. it’s from the Palmer Center for Chiropractic Research, Davenport, IA; Physical Medicine and Integrative Care Services, Fort Bliss, TX; Samueli Institute, Alexandria, VA; Palmer College of Chiropractic, Davenport, IA; TriMax Direct, Saint Paul, MN; and Palmer College of Chiropractic, San Jose, CA, and entitled Adding chiropractic manipulative therapy to standard medical care for patients with acute low back pain: results of a pragmatic randomized comparative effectiveness study. It’s a randomized trial of standard medical care (SMC) versus standard medical care plus chiropractic manipulative therapy (SMC+CMT).

Pragmatic trial. It had to be a pragmatic trial.

I’ve discussed pragmatic trials before. Alternative medicine advocates love them because they don’t have rigorous controls. “pragmatic trials” are basically an attempt to determine whether treatments validated in properly designed randomized clinical trials (RCTs) work under “real world” conditions. RCTs are intentionally designed to make the population studied as homogeneous as possible, both to minimize differences between the control group and the experimental groups and to decrease variability within groups, the better to isolate the signal from the difference between treatment and control. However, once a treatment gets out into the community, it becomes more widely used, and the rigid inclusion and exclusion criteria used to select subjects for clinical trials fly out the window. The patients upon whom the treatment is used become much less homogeneous, and differences between academic medical centers and the community can change how the treatment is delivered. So “pragmatic” trials seek to determine effectiveness in the real world, which is a different thing than the efficacy determined in the rarified, tightly controlled world of RCTs. Here’s the problem. Pragmatic trials in CAM are putting the cart before the horse. You need to demonstrate efficacy in RCTs before it’s appropriate to consider doing pragmatic trials to determine real world effectiveness. There’s a reason why the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) loves pragmatic trials.

One way to look at pragmatic trials is that they often don’t have a placebo control. That’s one of their big problem in many pragmatic trials, and it’s definitely a problem in this trial, which studies two groups, SMC (N=46) and SMC + chiropractic (N=45). SMC consisted of this:

The study did not restrict access to SMC or prescribe a SMC delivery protocol. Thus, both groups had normal access to the SMC typically provided to patients with LBP at WBAMC. Standard care included any or all of the following: a focused history and physical examination, diagnostic imaging as indicated, education about self-management including maintaining activity levels as tolerated, pharmacological management with the use of analgesics and anti-inflammatory agents, and physical therapy and modalities such as heat/ice and referral to a pain clinic.

And:

The number of visits in the SMC group was in the range of 0 to 8, with a mean of 1.4 visits. The majority of participants (n = 24) in this group had only 1 visit. Medications were prescribed for 37% of the participants and included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, benzodiazepines, analgesic creams, and narcotics. Thirty-three percent were placed on a treatment plan (exercise program, range of motion, stretching and modalities including heat and electrical stimulation) delivered primarily by a physical therapist. Fifty percent were given referrals, with a majority for physical therapy (38%) followed by radiographical evaluation (31%). The SMC group providers were physician assistants (28%), family practice physicians (18%), physical therapists (16%) or aides (12%), nurse practitioners (9%), or specialty providers (physical medicine [3%], athletic trainer [3%], and chiropractor [3%]).

Inclusion criteria included male and female US active-duty military personel between 18 and 35 years of age with acute low back pain (LBP). Acute LBP is defined as LBP of less than four weeks of duration. Exclusion criteria were pretty minor, including not being at the post for at least six weeks, LBP for more than four weeks, pregnancy, or other conditions for which CMT is contraindicated. The specific type of chiropractic manipulation was specified in the study criteria. Outcomes studied included pain measured using the numerical rating scale and physical functioning measured using the Roland-Morris Disability questionnaire (RMQ) and the Back Pain Functional Scale (BPFS). The NRS asks participants to rate their level of pain during the past 24 hours on an ordinal 11-point scale (0 = no LBP; 10 = worst possible pain). The minimal clinically important difference is a change of 2.5 points. 20 The modified RMQ assesses LBP-related disability and the minimal clinically important difference is estimated at 2 to 3.5 points. Finally, secondary outcomes included satisfaction, measured on the same 0-10 point scale as the pain scale to respond to the question, “How satisfied were you with the overall results of your care?” Patients were also ased to rate their improvement on a seven-point Likert scale answering the question, “Compared to your first visit, your back pain is...”

No attempt was made to blind treating personnel or research subjects, although the principal investigator and data analysts were blinded to subject group.

So what were the results? They were pretty much what one would expect for a trial like this. Both groups improved. (After all, most acute back pain resolves on its own.) However, the SMC+CMT group improved a bit more. For instance, the pain scores for the SMC group was 6.1 and 5.2 at two and four weeks, respectively; for the SMC+CMT group, the scores were 3.9 and 3.9 at two and four weeks respectively, for a difference of 2.2 and 1.2. Remember, the minimally clinically important difference in pain scores is considered to be 2.5 points, which tells us that these differences were short-lived and probably not clinically significant. Differences were somewhat higher for the RMQ and BPFS.

Let me note one thing that stood out. Both treatment groups got very few visits to the conventional medical care practitioners. For instance, the number of visits in the SMC group ranged from 0 to 8, with a mean of 1.4 visits, but the majority of participants had only one visit. The same was true of the SMC+CMT group, whose visit number ranged from 0 to 4 for conventional therapy, with a mean of 1. In contrast, in this group, this group had a median of 7 visits for CMT, with a range from 2-8, which tells me that a lot of them got 7 or 8 visits in four weeks. This is a huge difference in contact with conventional therapists. Thus, even though 50% of subjects in SMC got referrals to physical therapy, their visit numbers tell me that few went, or at least went very often. Another big problem with this study is the disproportionate loss to followup. The loss to followup was only 15% in the SMC+CMT group and 35% in the SMC group. Although an analysis was done to try to see if this affected the results, bias due to this disproportionate dropout can’t be ruled out. Also, the investigators didn’t actually track medication use between the two groups.

Now here’s the result that was cherry-picked in the interview with Vidan:

Seventy-three percent of participants in the SMC plus CMT group rated their global improvement as pain completely gone, much better, or moderately better, compared with 17% in the SMC group (Figure 2). The mean satisfaction with care score on a 0 to 10 scale for the SMC plus CMT group was 8.9 at both weeks 2 and 4; the mean for the SMC group was 4.5 at week 2 and 5.4 at week 4 (Table 4).

Of course they did better. They got manipulation similar to physical therapy seven times during the eight weeks, while most of the control population didn’t. And of course they were more satisfied. They saw a practitioner more often and got an active intervention. Obviously, chiropractic is not physical therapy, but in this study clearly everyone in one group got some form of spinal manipulation on a regular basis (roughly twice a week), while most people in the control group did not get anywhere near that level of intervention. The real “pragmatic” trial would have been take physical therapy (PT) out of SMC for purposes of this study and study it as a separate variable, as in SMC, SMC+PT, and SMC+CMT. (Remember, I’m proposing what I’d consider to be a more rigorous pragmatic trial.)

I also note that this is one trial, and that its results conflict with another similar trial done published in 2009 that found that pain reductions and analgesic consumption were similar in all groups and concluded that spinal manipulative therapy “is unlikely to result in relevant early pain reduction in patients with acute low back pain.” Funny how Vidan never mentioned this.

And, of course, a rather weak article in JAMA that mentions chiropractic as a treatment for low back pain does not mean that JAMA recommends chiropractic first.


Ghaziabad school booked after boy slips and dies | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

GHAZIABAD: A nine-year-old boy, studying in a private school in Ghaziabad, died under suspicious circumstances after he allegedly slipped and fell on a corridor on the second floor of the school building on Tuesday. The boy, Armaan Sehgal, was a Class IV student at G D Goenka Public School in Indirapuram.Armaan was rushed to Shanti Gopal Hospital in Ahimsa Khand 2 by school staff where doctors declared him dead on arrival. Doctors at the hospital, however, could not confirm the cause of death. Later, the postmortem report said he died due to head injuries.

According to the school management, Armaan collapsed while he was walking on a corridor on the second floor of the school building around 8am. “Armaan had to appear in a unit test on Tuesday. He went outside the classroom in which the examination was being conducted to fetch a pencil box which he had forgotten. While returning to the classroom, he fell down on the corridor and collapsed. A female teacher informed us about the incident. A male teacher immediately picked up the kid and we rushed him to Shanti Gopal Hospital,” school principal, Dr Kavita Sharma, told TOI.

School authorities said no CCTV camera covered the area in which Armaan allegedly fell down on the corridor. Armaan’s family lives in Supertech Residency in Sector 5, Vaishali. According to a relative, Armaan’s father, Gulshan Sehgal, a deputy director of admissions in a private university, was returning home after dropping him at the school when he was informed about the incident. Armaan’s mother, Swati, a director and head of operations of a private firm, alleged negligence on the part of school authorities leading to her son’s death. “We were informed about the incident by the school only after they shifted Armaan to the hospital. Armaan’s dress was wet. I am sure there was water on the floor on which he slipped and fell. The school is trying to hide this fact. We tried talking to Armaan’s class teacher who was present at the spot but school authorities did not allow us to speak to her immediately. After repeated requests, we were allowed to speak to the teacher. She narrated a version that Armaan was there with her and his eyes were dilated. We refuse to believe her version as my son was not that weak. It is completely an act of negligence on the part of the school authorities that led to his death,” said Swati. The police were informed about the incident through a memo from the hospital. An FIR was registered at Indirapuram police station against the school principal and manager on Tuesday evening under sections 304 (culpable homicide not amounting to murder) and 201 (causing disappearance of evidence) of IPC. “As per the autopsy report, the kid died as a result of head injury. He was late for an examination and was rushing towards the hall when he slipped and fell face down on the floor. However, there was definitely some negligence on the part of the school management,” said Indirapuram SHO Sunil Kumar Dubey.

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  • ARRL Centennial: W100AW Hits the Airwaves!
  • ARRL Centennial: A Century of Amateur Radio and the ARRL
  • Milestones: Founder and President Emeritus of 4U1UN, Max de Henseler, HB9RS, SK
  • Milestones: QST Author, CW Key Maker Jerry Pittenger, K8RA, SK
  • Milestones: Austin Amateur Radio Supply Owner Johnny Paul, WA5BGO, SK
  • Solar Update
  • Getting It Right!
  • Just Ahead in Radiosport
  • Upcoming ARRL Section, State and Division Conventions and Events
  • Your League: ARRL Reply Comments Cite "Fundamental Misunderstanding" of "Symbol Rate" Petition

    In reply comments filed on its "symbol rate" Petition for Rule Making (RM-11708), the ARRL said comments opposed to its initiative reflect a "fundamental misunderstanding" of the petition's intent. The League's petition now tops the FCC's list of "Most Active Proceedings." More than 800 comments were filed as of January 7, some of them posted after the December 23 cut-off date and most favoring the ARRL's proposal. The ARRL earlier filed comments with the FCC on its own Petition (plus Erratum). RM-11708 proposes to drop the symbol rate limit in §97.307(f) of the FCC Amateur Service rules, substituting a maximum occupied bandwidth of 2.8 kHz for HF data emissions. The ARRL said those opposing the Petition do not, in general, challenge the removal of the symbol rate limit for data emissions in band segments where RTTY and data emissions are now permitted.

    "Rather, they tend to view the proposal to establish a maximum occupied bandwidth of 2.8 kHz for data emissions in the medium-frequency (MF) and high-frequency (HF) bands where data emissions are permitted now as an enabling provision," the ARRL said. Instead, the League said, its Petition is intended to impose "a limitation on the maximum bandwidth of data emissions where none exists now." Given state-of-the-art data technologies, the League said, there is no necessary correlation between the symbol rate and the bandwidth of a data emission. The current symbol rate "acts only as a limit on the efficiency of data emissions in the HF bands as a practical matter, and as an artificial and arbitrary filter on the types of emissions that can be utilized by radio amateurs."

    The ARRL said its suggested 2.8 kHz maximum bandwidth reflects a balanced approach that will permit all currently used data emissions, encourage experimentation with data emissions that the current symbol rate restriction prohibits, and preclude the use of wider-bandwidth data emissions that could usurp the limited RTTY/data subbands. Petition opponents, the ARRL went on to say, "offer no evidence" that the rule changes it proposes will lead to a situation where data transmissions overwhelm the subband and preclude narrow bandwidth emission communications.

    "The Commission has properly chastised the Amateur Service for resisting deregulatory proposals that are designed to enable amateur experimenters to refine and adapt technologies," the League said in its reply comments. "ARRL is of the view that outdated Commission regulations that needlessly preclude experimentation with data technologies should not be preserved. Outdated regulations are not a viable alternative to cooperative sharing arrangements in the HF bands through voluntary band plans."

    Some of those opposing its petition, the ARRL went on to say, expressed the belief that the proposed rule change would impose wider-bandwidth data emissions in spectrum where narrow-bandwidth modes such as CW and PSK31 now operate, to the detriment of the narrow-bandwidth modes. Other opponents contended that the Petition will benefit a few operators at the expense of the many now operating narrowband data, RTTY, and CW on the HF bands.

    "It is illogical to argue on the one hand that the Petition is intended to benefit 'the few' who are data emission experimenters and users, and on the other hand to predict that the relief requested in the Petition would create a flood of 'wide-bandwidth' data emissions, swamping the band segments used for CW, RTTY, and narrow-bandwidth data emissions," the League pointed out. "If the concern is that the rule changes will encourage more radio amateurs to experiment with data emissions, that would be a positive outcome." The ARRL further asserted that the fear of interference from automatically controlled stations "is not a valid one."

    Its Petition, the ARRL concluded, "is not a referendum on the value of MF or HF data emissions or data experimentation in those bands," but intended to encourage experimentation now restricted artificially by outdated rules. "It is instead a proposal to delete outdated limitations on Amateur Radio experimentation, which Commission policy supports, and which the basis and purpose of the Amateur Radio Service necessitates."

    Your League: ARRL-Sponsored Medium-Frequency Experiment Continues as Hams Hope for New Band

    The ARRL-sponsored medium-frequency experiment, operating as WD2XSH, continues apace in an effort to demonstrate the viability of 472 to 479 kHz as a secondary Amateur Radio allocation. At the same time, the FCC has been silent regarding the ARRL's November 2012 Petition for Rule Making that asked the Commission to make this segment of the spectrum available to radio amateurs in the US. Delegates to the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference approved a 7 kHz-wide secondary allocation between 472 and 479 kHz for the Amateur Radio Service, with a power limit of 5 W EIRP (or 1 W EIRP, depending on location). The FCC has indicated that it will address the issue within the context of its Notice of Proposed Rule Making in ET Docket No 12-338, to formally reflect the Final Acts of WRC 2007 in its rules. In his quarterly WD2XSH update, Experiment Coordinator Fritz Raab, W1FR, reported that 514 contacts -- 10 in the last quarter -- have been logged among those taking part in the experiment across the US.

    WD2XSH experiment participant Patrick Hamel, W5THT, in Mississippi, stands next to his antenna tuning unit. [Photo courtesy of Patrick Hamel, W5THT]

    "As usual, activity increased as conditions improved during the fall. Much of the recent activity has involved WSPR-15," Raab reported. "Reception over significant distances (eg, Europe, Alaska) has been reported. Much of the activity is being undertaken by a few new experimental licensees." Raab noted that WD2XSH participant Brian Justin, WA1ZMS, transmitted Fessenden commemorative broadcasts on AM via his own experimental license, WG2XFQ, during the December holidays.

    In the US, the 472-479 kHz band is part of the larger 435-495 kHz segment that is allocated on a primary basis to the Maritime Mobile Service (federal and non-federal users), and on a secondary basis for federal government aeronautical radionavigation. The ARRL stated in its Petition that it is unaware of any domestic assignments that might conflict with the allocation of 472 to 479 kHz to the Amateur Radio Service, and there is almost no power line carrier (PLC) operation in this band segment. The FCC in 2003 cited the potential for interference to utility-operated PLC systems when it turned down an ARRL petition seeking an LF "sliver band" at 135.7 to 137.8 kHz.

    The WD2XSH experiment involves more than three dozen stations and includes all geographic areas of the US, including Alaska and Hawaii. Most of the stations are in the eastern half of the US. Raab has reported no interference issues during the WD2XSH experiment, begun in 2006 and initially using spectrum in the vicinity of 500 kHz. Read more.

    Your League: National Contest Journal (NCJ) Debuts New Website!

    National Contest Journal (NCJ), the ARRL publication devoted to Amateur Radio contesting, has a fresh, new presence on the web, although the URL remains the same.

    "The new site was designed with simplicity and ease of use in mind," said NCJ Editor Kirk Pickering, K4RO. "The site contains selected feature articles as well as a group of tools for setting up teams and submitting logs for NCJ-sponsored contests. It also offers an archive of scores for all NCJ going back to 2001. The site still has room to accommodate new features in the future, so stay tuned."

    Pickering said the new NCJ website was a collaborative effort, and he expressed his appreciation to Bruce Horn, WA7BNM, "for his tireless support of the NCJ website from its inception" as well as to George Fremin, K5TR, who has served as the systems administrator. Pickering also thanked his partner Susie Coleman, who helped design the look and feel.

    "We hope that you will find the new site useful. Thanks to all who have helped to make this happen," said Pickering, who invited comments on the new site and design.

    Published every other month, NCJ features general-interest and technical articles and columns by top contesters, operator profiles, editorial comments, and correspondence from readers, as well as scores for the North American QSO Party and North American Sprint, which NCJ sponsors.

    International: IARU Showcases Amateur Radio at ITU Telecom World 2013

    The International Amateur Radio Union (IARU) got some visibility for Amateur Radio at ITU Telecom World 2013, sponsored by the International Telecommunication Union. The event was held November 19-22 in Bangkok, Thailand. The IARU and IARU Region 3 leaders arranged the display in cooperation with the ITU. A large, flat-screen TV in the booth displayed videos of Amateur Radio activities. Special event station HS2013ITU was on the air from the site. IARU President Tim Ellam, VE6SH, spoke at one of the forums. A highlight of the show for the IARU contingent was a visit by ITU Secretary General Dr Hamadoun Toure, HB9EHT. He took a turn at the operating position of HS2013ITU while there.

    ITU Secretary General Hamadoun Toure, HB9EHT, takes up the operating position of HS2013ITU, as IARU Region 3 Chairman Gopal Madhavan, VU2GMN (left), and Sakol Nakin, HS1JNB, look on. [Tony Waltham, HS0ZDX, photo]

    "We had a number of high-profile visitors to the booth, including ministers of communications and government regulators from various countries," said IARU Region 3 Director Peter Lake, ZL2AZ, and Region 3 Chairman Gopal Madhavan, VU2GMN, in a report. "They were keen to discuss the situation in their respective countries and the association with IARU and to learn about Amateur Radio and its capabilities. Telecom World 2013 gave the IARU a unique opportunity to showcase Amateur Radio at the highest level."

    ITU Telecom World 2013 also offered an opportunity for the IARU representatives to influence leaders who can favorably impact radio regulations and national attitudes toward Amateur Radio. "The presence of IARU, and its effort to showcase Amateur Radio and its capabilities, was well appreciated by all who visited the booth, and the effort was well worthwhile," said the IARU's report. "We also laid a foundation under the new ITU Telecom World structure to gain some similar space at the next event in 2014 in Qatar." Read more.

    International: Yasme Foundation Announces Supporting Grants

    To further the development of Amateur Radio around the world, The Yasme Foundation has announced the recipients of four supporting grants:

  • WRTC-2014, to help defray the expenses of the World Radiosport Team Championship in New England this July.

  • The Reverse Beacon Network (RBN), to purchase a receiver and necessary accessories to upgrade the RBN node in Bangalore, India.

  • CWOps CW Academy, to help defray the expenses of providing online CW training courses.

  • The ARRL Second Century Fund, to support the goal of the ARRL Second Century Campaign of opening a path to passionate involvement in Amateur Radio by new generations, providing opportunities for educational enrichment, community service, and personal achievement through the exploration and use of radio communication.

  • The Yasme Foundation is a not-for-profit corporation organized to conduct scientific and educational projects related to Amateur Radio, including DXing and the introduction and promotion of Amateur Radio in developing countries. The Foundation supports individuals and organizations providing or creating useful services for the Amateur Radio community, regardless of originality or novelty, to further the development of Amateur Radio around the world.

    Radiosport: New ARRL Single-Operator Unlimited Contest Category Now in Effect

    Responding to many requests, the ARRL Programs and Services Committee in 2013 accepted the Contest Advisory Committee (CAC) recommendation to add the Single-Operator Unlimited category to the ARRL 10 Meter Contest, ARRL 160 Meter Contest, RTTY Roundup, and the IARU HF Championship. "This particular issue has been a long time coming," said CAC Chairman Al Dewey, K0AD.

    The new category permits the use of spotting information within the Single-Operator class. In the past, using spotting information placed a station in the Multioperator category. Per the revised rules, "Single-Operator Unlimited: The use of spotting assistance or automated, multi-channel decoders is permitted."

    Ham Radio Business: Tokyo Hy-Power Files for Bankruptcy

    Tokyo Hy-Power, a manufacturer of Amateur Radio amplifiers, antenna tuners, and other equipment, is in bankruptcy, and its plant, in Saitama Prefecture near Tokyo, has been shuttered. Telephones at the company no longer are being answered, and its Japanese website has been taken down, although the company's US website remains working. Company CEO/President Nobuki Wakabayashi, JA1DJW, founded Tokyo Hy-Power Labs in 1975. He blamed "the recent depression in the industrial RF power products area [which] has led to the very difficult financial position."

    The Tokyo Hy-Power factory in Saitama, Japan. [Tokyo Hy-Power photo]

    Tokyo Hy-Power's early products were HF antenna couplers, although within a couple of years it began manufacturing amplifiers for the Amateur Radio market, including solid-state mobile amplifiers. Among its early products was the HL-4000 linear amplifier, which the company claimed was "the first real HF band high-power linear of its kind in Japan." It has been manufacturing RF products for the industrial market since 1984.

    The company also once marketed the HT-750, a portable, low-power SSB/CW transceiver for 40, 15, and 6 meters in a hand-held transceiver form factor. At Dayton Hamvention® 2013, the company displayed a prototype of the XT-751, an advanced model it hoped to develop, covering 40 through 6 meters and with an internal antenna tuner. Among its latest products were solid-state HF amplifiers, as well as amplifiers for 6 and 2 meters.

    In a December 26 news release, Ham Radio Outlet (HRO) reacted with "disappointment" and said it was "deeply saddened" to learn that Tokyo Hy-Power had gone into bankruptcy.

    "This action in Japan appears to be similar to a Chapter 7 action here within the United States, as the process in this case appears to be the liquidation of organizational assets in order to attempt to fund some portion of its debt obligation(s)," the HRO release said. "This appears to indicate that a court has deemed the organization unable to be effectively reorganized under Japan's Civil Reconstruction Code."

    HRO said it was working with AVSL, the current US service provider for Tokyo Hy-Power products "to discuss the opportunity of continued maintenance at the component level of the US-sold Tokyo Hy-Power line of amplifiers." Read more.

    Ham Radio Business: CQ to Realign Publications, Launch Digital Supplement

    CQ Communications Inc has announced plans to realign its publications lineup and to launch a new online supplement to its flagship magazine, CQ Amateur Radio.

    "The hobby radio market is changing," said CQ Communications President and Publisher Dick Ross, K2MGA, "and we are changing what we do and how we do it in order to continue providing leadership to all segments of the radio hobby."

    Effective with the February 2014 issue of CQ, said Ross, content from the magazine's three sister publications -- Popular Communications, CQ VHF and WorldRadio Online -- will be incorporated into CQ's digital edition as a supplement to be called CQ Plus. The print editions of Popular Communications and CQ VHF will be phased out, and WorldRadio Online will no longer exist as a separate online publication. Current Popular Communications, CQ VHF and WorldRadio Online subscribers will be converted to CQ subscribers and receive CQ Plus at no additional charge. Details will be posted on each magazine's website.

    CQ Communications says the change will offer hobby radio enthusiasts a single source for articles from shortwave listening and scanner monitoring to personal two-way services and Internet radio, as well as Amateur Radio. Richard Fisher, KI6SN, currently editor of both Popular Communications and WorldRadio Online, will be editor of CQ Plus. Read more.

    Ham Radio Business: InnovAntennas Acquires Force 12

    InnovAntennas has acquired the legendary Force 12 antenna company and product line and has moved the Force 12 factory from Bridgeport, Texas, to Grand Junction, Colorado, into a facility shared with InnovAntennas America. InnovAntennas Ltd in England is now manufacturing Force 12 products for the European market at its Canvey Island plant.

    The Grand Junction facility is up and running, manufacturing and shipping antennas. InnovAntennas says it plans to produce updated versions of classic Force 12 antennas as well as all-new models. InnovAntennas Founder Justin Johnson, G0KSC, was at the Colorado facility in late 2013 to assist in setting up and laying out the factory, and the company was expected to be at full production this month. -- Thanks to The ARRL Contest Update

    DX: ARRL DXCC Desk Approves ZD9KX Operations

    The ARRL DXCC Desk has approved the 2012 and 2013 operation of ZD9KX -- Tristan Da Cunha & Gough Islands for DX Century Club credit. If a request for DXCC credit for this operation has been rejected in a prior application, contact ARRL Awards Branch Manager Bill Moore, NC1L, to be placed on the list for an update to your record. Please note the submission date and/or reference number of your application in order to expedite the search for any rejected contacts.

    DXCC is Amateur Radio's premier award that hams can earn by confirming on-the-air contacts with 100 DXCC "entities," most of which are countries in the traditional sense. You can begin with the basic DXCC award and work your way up to the DXCC Honor Roll. Learn more. -- ARRL Awards Branch Manager Bill Moore, NC1L

    Shortwave Listening: Voice of Russia to Continue Shortwave Broadcasting in 2014

    To paraphrase Mark Twain, reports of the demise of the Voice of Russia (VOR) may have been greatly exaggerated. Earlier this year the Voice of Russia -- the former Radio Moscow during the Soviet Era -- appeared poised to cease shortwave broadcasts as of January 1, 2014. In the wake of a December decree signed by Russian President Vladimir Putin that merged the Voice of Russia with several other state-run news agencies, SWL Tom Witherspoon, K4SWL, contacted VOR.

    "We are glad to let you know that the Voice of Russia will stay on the air in 2014, however, considerable changes in our frequency schedule are expected," the broadcaster told Witherspoon and as he reports on his blog.

    The posted VOR schedule, which runs through March, indicates 38 aggregate hours of shortwave broadcasts to all parts of the world, most beamed at the Middle East and Asia. Shortwave broadcasts to Europe, Latin America, Oceania, and Africa account for just 15 aggregate hours. VOR, which claims to be the first radio station to broadcast internationally, also broadcasts online, via satellite, on FM, and via three medium-wave transmitters. In 2003 VOR was among the first major international radio broadcasters to launch daily broadcasts to Europe in Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM).

    Propagation: Solar Flux Record High Could Herald Better Conditions

    The 10.7 centimeter solar flux index (SFI) jumped to a Cycle 24 record of 262 on January 4, suggesting that Cycle 24 has not yet begun drawing to a close and may be approaching or at a "second peak." The previous peak for the current cycle was 190 on September 24, 2011. As NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) explains, the flux of the sun's radio emissions at 10.7 centimeter (2.8 GHz) is another indicator of solar activity levels, since it tends to follow changes in the solar ultraviolet that influence Earth's upper atmosphere and ionosphere.

    "Many models of the upper atmosphere use the 10.7 centimeter flux (F10.7) as input to determine atmospheric densities and satellite drag," NASA/MSFC noted, adding that SFI "has been shown to follow the sunspot number quite closely." The January 6 sunspot count was 225. The Cycle 24 sunspot count peaked at 282 on November 17, 2013, according to WM7D.net.

    Solar flux between 1995 and (predicted) 2020. [NASA/MSFC graphic]

    Canada's Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) indicated an "official" flux of 262 at 2000 UTC on Saturday, January 3. The official figure for Sunday, January 5, was 217.5. ARRL solar observer Tad Cook, K7RA, who reports 10.7 centimeter flux numbers in his weekly "Solar Update" bulletins, suggests that they are not as valuable as sunspot numbers in predicting radio propagation. The solar flux was over the January 4-5 weekend was far higher what was anticipated, judging by predictions Cook reported in his January 3 "Solar Update" for this past weekend and the week ahead. NASA/MFSC indicates a 95 percent predicted flux for the month of January at 146.5, continuing at about the same level through the first half of the year.

    The Daily DX said the SFI was expected to remain above 200 for this week. As Ian Poole, G3YWX, explained solar flux in his article, "Understanding Solar Indices" in the September 2002 edition of QST, "[H]igh values generally indicate there is sufficient ionization to support long-distance communication at higher-than-normal frequencies." He pointed out, though, that it can take a few days of high values for conditions to show improvement. "Typically values in excess of 200 will be measured during the peak of a sunspot cycle, with high values of up to 300 being experienced for shorter periods," Poole wrote. Read more.

    ARRL Centennial: W100AW Hits the Airwaves!

    At the stroke of midnight Eastern Time on January 1, Hiram Percy Maxim Memorial station W1AW at ARRL Headquarters in Newington took to the air to debut its special ARRL Centennial call sign, W100AW. ARRL Chief Executive Officer Dave Sumner, K1ZZ and Membership and Volunteer Programs Manager Dave Patton, NN1N, and ARRL Station Manager Joe Carcia, NJ1Q, were at the helm into the wee hours of New Year's Day.

    ARRL Station Manager Joe Carcia, NJ1Q, makes the very first W100AW QSO just after midnight local time on January 1, 2014. [Sean Kutzko, KX9X, photo]

    Daylight hours saw ARRL Chief Operating Officer Harold Kramer, WJ1B; Membership and Volunteer Programs Assistant Manager Norm Fusaro, W3IZ; Public Relations Manager Sean Kutzko; KX9X and QST Editor in Chief Steve Ford, WB8IMY, taking their turns at the operating positions. By mid-afternoon, several thousand contacts were in the log on SSB, CW and RTTY.

    "This is just the beginning," said Kutzko. "Hams will hear W100AW throughout 2014 on every mode possible. When you hear us, spot us on the cluster!"

    Not surprising, 20 meter SSB yielded the most contacts -- 1121 of the 3700 logged -- during the 19 hours of New Year's Day operation from W100AW. Ten meter phone was in second place with 639 contacts.

    W100AW contacts will be uploaded to Logbook of The World (LoTW). QSL cards sent by mail will be acknowledged as well.

    W1AW Portable Operations, ARRL Centennial QSO Party

    The ARRL Centennial "W1AW WAS" operations are taking place throughout 2014 from each of the 50 states, relocating each Wednesday (UTC) to a new pair of states (this week, South Carolina and Utah. Listen for W1AW/4 and W1AW/7). During 2014 W1AW will be on the air from every state at least twice and from most US territories, and it will be easy to work all states solely by contacting W1AW portable operations.

    In conjunction with the 100th anniversary of the ARRL, the ARRL Centennial QSO Party also kicked off January 1 for a year-long operating event in which participants can accumulate points and win awards. The event is open to all, although only ARRL members and appointees, elected officials, HQ staff and W1AW are worth ARRL Centennial QSO Party points. Working W1AW/x from each state is worth 5 points per contact.

    To earn the "Worked all States with W1AW Award," work W1AW operating portable from all 50 states. (Working W1AW or W100AW in Connecticut does not count for Connecticut, however. For award credit, participants must work W1AW/1 in Connecticut.) A W1AW WAS certificate and plaque will be available (pricing not yet available).

    Some Statistics

    As of today (January 9), more than 6700 stations have earned points in the Centennial QSO Party by uploading qualifying QSOs to Logbook of The World (LoTW). Operating from North Carolina and West Virginia during the first week of the W1AW portable operations, W1AW/4 and W1AW/8 logged approximately 33,000 contacts.

    "The second week is off to a roaring start from South Carolina and Utah," reported ARRL Membership and Volunteer Programs Manager Dave Patton, NN1N.

    ARRL Centennial: A Century of Amateur Radio and the ARRL

    Editor's note: "A Century of Amateur Radio and the ARRL" will be a weekly feature as the ARRL celebrates its Centennial in 2014.

    In Amateur Radio, as in all fields, 100 years has brought about amazing progress and changes. During 2014, we will give you a sense of the ARRL's and Amateur Radio's history by looking through the issues of QST from its humble beginning to the present. We'll examine the important topics and events of interest to amateurs, such as technology, operating tips and events, ARRL's doings, and FCC actions. Because of the limited space available here, the comments will be brief, but they will provide citations to original QST articles for your further reading.

    The next century will bring about changes that will be mind-boggling to us, because technology advances at an exponential rate. Being aware of the past 100 years of ham-related events is valuable to us for historical reasons, and it also makes us consider what might lie ahead. Next time: A look at the earliest years of Amateur Radio and the ARRL. -- Al Brogdon, W1AB

    Milestones: Founder and President Emeritus of 4U1UN, Max de Henseler, HB9RS, SK

    Max de Henseler, HB9RS. [Clin d'Ailes Swiss Air Force Museum, HB4FR, photo]

    Max de Henseler, HB9RS, the founder and president emeritus of 4U1UN at United Nations headquarters in New York, died December 30. He was 80. A ham since 1955, de Henseler had been a short-wave listener since the late 1940s. In 1976, while in New York as the UN's chief cartographer, de Henseler reactivated the United Nations Radio Club station K2UN at its new home in midtown Manhattan. As Jack Troster, W6ISQ, explained in the July 1989 issue of QST, "Through his efforts, the Secretary General approved the operation of a specifically designated UN amateur station using the call 4U1UN in early 1978."

    De Henseler introduced the new call sign on February 4, 1978, during the first weekend of the then two-weekend ARRL International DX phone contest, surprising many contesters. 4U1UN was approved for DXCC credit, due to the efforts of "Mister UN Radio."

    The 4U1UN United Nations Headquarters Station was dismantled in 2010 due to the extensive renovation project on the Secretariat Building. Read more. -- Thanks to The Daily DX

    Milestones: QST Author, CW Key Maker Jerry Pittenger, K8RA, SK

    QST author and CW key crafter Jerry Pittenger, K8RA, of Powell, Ohio, died January 2 of pancreatic cancer. He was 66. Licensed in 1960, Pittenger was a retired systems engineer. He earned a bachelor's degree at Miami University and an MS in systems engineering from Ohio State.

    Jerry Pittenger, K8RA, at Dayton Hamvention 2013. [Joe Eisenberg, K0NEB, photo]

    Pittenger enjoyed building his own equipment, and some of his amplifier projects were featured in QST, The ARRL Handbook, and RF Amplifier Classics. More recently he manufactured a line of solid-brass iambic and single-lever CW keys sold worldwide, until illness forced him to quit.

    "Making my CW keys fills much of my time, but it is a labor of love," Pittenger said in his online profile. "I can get lost in time machining metals and making things in the shop for the radio." His friends Mike Freeman, NT8O, and Fred Freeman, N8BX, have taken over the production of the K8RA line. Read more.

    Milestones: Austin Amateur Radio Supply Owner Johnny Paul, WA5BGO, SK

    The owner of Austin Amateur Radio Supply, John E. "Johnny" Paul, WA5BGO, of Austin, Texas, died December 10. He was 74. Paul was the proprietor of Austin Amateur Radio for 45 years. First licensed in 1960, Paul was a past president of the Austin Amateur Radio Club and was an avid photographer of nature and landscapes. Services were December 16.

    Solar Update

    Tad Cook, K7RA, in Seattle, reports: A big storm is brewing! At 2324 UTC on January 8 the Australian Space Forecast Centre issued this geomagnetic disturbance warning: "Increased geomagnetic activity expected due to coronal mass ejection from 09-10 January 2014."

    NOAA forecasters estimate a 90 percent chance of geomagnetic storms on January 9. The predicted planetary A indices for January 9 through January 13 are 73, 41, 15, 8 and 5. While an emblematic number for hams, 73 is a huge value for the planetary A index. One has to look way, way back to find a value like this. The planetary A index was 67 on both March 9, 2012, and September 26, 2011, but nothing exceeds what is predicted for January 9 except the planetary A index of 104 on December 15, 2006, and 105 on September 11, 2005.

    This has been an exciting week for sun watchers. The daily sunspot number reached 245 on January 6, and solar flux was 237.1 on January 8. The GOES-15 X-ray background flux has also been high, and that may be more significant for enhanced HF propagation than a high solar flux. NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center maintains an archive of X-ray flux, solar flux, and sunspot numbers (check the links marked "DSD.txt." The links marked "DGD.txt" will give you daily geomagnetic indicators).

    Over the past week, average daily sunspot numbers rose more than 80 points to 188.1, and average daily solar flux was up by more than 62 points to 201.6. Predicted solar flux for the near term is 195 on January 9-12, 190 on January 13, 160 on January 14, 155 on January 15-16, and 150 on January 17-19. It then rises to a peak of 190 on January 29 through February 3.

    Predicted planetary A index values are 73, 41, 15 and 8 on January 9-12, 5 on January 13-22, 10 on January 23, 8 on January 24, 5 on January 25-27, then 10, 18 and 8 on January 28-30, then 5 again until February 6.

    For the Friday, January 10, "Solar Update," look for an update on the latest disturbance and forecast, as well as reports from readers. I welcome your reports and observations via e-mail.

    Getting It Right!

    In The ARRL Letter, December 19, 2013, we inadvertently omitted 20 meters from the list of bands available for the ARRL Centennial QSO Party.

    Just Ahead in Radiosport

  • Jan 10 -- QRP Fox Hunt

  • Jan 10 -- NCCC Sprint Ladder

  • Jan 11 -- Old New Year Contest

  • Jan 11-12 -- UK DX BPSK63 Contest

  • Jan 11-12 -- MI QRP January CW Contest

  • Jan 11-12 -- SKCC Weekend Sprintathon

  • Jan 11-12 -- North American QSO Party, CW

  • Jan 12 -- NRAU-Baltic Contest, CW (0630-0830 UTC)

  • Jan 12 -- NRAU-Baltic Contest, SSB (0900-1100 UTC)

  • Jan 12 -- DARC 10-Meter Contest

  • Jan 12 -- Midwinter Contest

  • Jan 15 -- QRP Fox Hunt

  • Upcoming ARRL Section, State and Division Conventions and Events

  • January 17-18 -- North Texas Section Convention, Fort Worth, Texas

  • January 19-26 -- Quartzfest Convention, Quartzsite, Arizona

  • January 24-25 -- Mississippi State Convention, Jackson, Mississippi

  • January 25 -- Georgia ARES Convention, Forsyth, Georgia

  • January 25-26 -- Puerto Rico State Convention, Hatillo, Puerto Rico

  • January 31-February 1 -- Southern Florida Section Convention, Miami, Florida

  • February 1 -- Virginia State Convention (Frostfest), Richmond, Virginia

  • February 1 -- South Carolina State Convention, North Charleston, South Carolina

  • February 7-9 -- Northern Florida Section Convention (Orlando HamCation® -- Regional ARRL Centennial Event), Orlando, Florida

  • February 14-15 -- Arizona Section Convention, Yuma, Arizona

  • February 22 -- Vermont State Convention, South Burlington, Vermont

  • March 1-2 -- Alabama Section Convention (BirmingHAMfest 2014), Birmingham, Alabama

  • March 7-8 -- North Carolina Section Convention (Charlotte Hamfest), Concord, North Carolina

  • March 7-8 -- West Gulf Division Convention, Claremore, Oklahoma

  • March 14-15 -- Delta Division Convention, Rayne, Louisiana

  • March 15 -- Nebraska State Convention, Lincoln, Nebraska

  • March 15 -- West Texas Section Convention, Midland, Texas

  • March 22 -- South Texas Section Convention (Greater Houston Hamfest), Rosenberg, Texas

  • March 22-23 -- Communications Academy, Seattle, Washington

  • April 19 -- Roanoke Division Convention, Raleigh, North Carolina

  • April 25-27 -- Idaho State Convention, Boise, Idaho

  • April 26 -- Aurora '14 Conference, White Bear Lake, Minnesota

  • Find conventions and hamfests in your area.

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