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310-013 - Sun Certified System Administrator For Solaris 8, Upgrade - BrainDump Information

Vendor Name : SUN
Exam Code : 310-013
Exam Name : Sun Certified System Administrator For Solaris 8, Upgrade
Questions and Answers : 74 Q & A
Updated On : November 15, 2018
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310-013 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified System Administrator For Solaris 8, Upgrade

Test Code : 310-013
Test Name : Sun Certified System Administrator For Solaris 8, Upgrade
Vendor Name : SUN
Q&A : 74 Real Questions

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Renesas is a component of 1st wave of testing for Wi-sun FAN 1.0 certification | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

07 November 2018

Wi-solar Alliance has adopted Renesas Electronics' sub-gigahertz (Sub-G) instant answer as a candidate of the interoperability check mattress devices (TBUs) for the Wi-solar FAN (box area network) Certification software.

Renesas is a part of the first wave of corporations participating in the Wi-sun FAN 1.0 certification manner with its RAA604S00/RX651 wireless answer. Certifications are deliberate by means of the end of 2018.

The Sub-G instant solution aspects Tessera expertise’s evaluation platform, which includes an comparison board established with Renesas’ RAA604S00 instant communications equipment-on-chip (SoC) and RX651 microcontroller (MCU), as well as conversation handle utility supplied with the aid of Renesas.

“The Wi-solar group has been making huge strides within the development and deployment of wireless communications within the energy administration methods business, and we're pleased to extend our commitment to the smart energy markets and strengthen the newest Wi-solar necessities with our Wi-solar FAN-certified answer and examine mattress devices,” noted Akihiro Kuroda, vice chairman, power Infrastructure company Division, Renesas Electronics organization.

clients who enhance wise meters, smart illumination, infrastructure equipment, and an identical products the use of the Renesas Sub-G instant solution will be in a position to conveniently guarantee interoperability between equipment that makes use of the Wi-solar FAN specification. because of this, they should be in a position to in the reduction of their building duration for Wi-solar FAN-compliant application machine with the aid of approximately one year compared with choice solutions.

The Sub-G band presents points that are resilient to physical obstacles and might transmit statistics even further than supported by way of prior standards, even in urban environments. on the grounds that wide areas will also be covered with good stability via mesh networks, it is appropriate for applications such sensible meter communication, vigor utilization visualisation, monitoring equipment utilisation, and managing quite a few sensors inside a utility, factories and constructions.

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Wi-solar Launches FAN Certification program For large-Scale, outside IoT Networks | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Paves a way to accelerate IoT conclusion equipment Interoperability

SAN RAMON, Calif., Oct. 1, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- The Wi-sun Alliance, a worldwide ecosystem of member corporations in the hunt for to speed up the implementation of open requisites-based field enviornment Networks (FAN) and the internet of things (IoT), today introduced its FAN Certification program. FAN is a communications infrastructure for very giant-scale networks. In the equal manner you employ the web on a smartphone or desktop, a box enviornment network lets gadgets interconnect onto one common community.

the availability of the FAN Certification program is the influence of the imaginative and prescient, collaboration and dedication of a number of Wi-sun Member groups. during the certification software, the Wi-sun Alliance certifies products according to their compliance to a communications profile derived from applicable open standards and their skill to interoperate with other Wi-sun licensed items.

The FAN Certification application will certify devices to be used by using utilities, city builders and different carrier providers to simplify and support massive-scale, out of doors networks for sensible cities, wise utilities and other IoT rollouts – and to assist cut back charges and delays. Wi-solar individuals plan to announce certified items in q4 2018.

Proprietary methods are no longer sufficiently bendy, or as cost-effective as options according to open requisites, and will become much less primary inside just a few years. Adhering to the Wi-sun FAN profile in response to open IEEE and IETF necessities enables service providers, wise cities and utilities to deploy adaptable multi-carrier networks and should help be sure interoperability, now not handiest these days, but additionally for a long time to come back.

"Wi-solar is still at the forefront of IoT innovation, and as cities, utilities and the industry grows their IoT networks, they're increasingly recognizing that business-wide open specifications are simple for interoperability and scalability," says Phil Beecher, President and CEO of the Wi-solar Alliance. "FAN Certification is an endorsement for governments and the trade that our members' products are compliant to those open standards, and safeguards high-quality, interoperability, security, scalability – and finally offers valued clientele a aggressive potential."

Key advantages of FAN Certification consist of:

  • offers utilities, cities and repair providers adaptable multi-service networks that allows you to help be certain interoperability today and for future generations.
  • Reduces the time necessary to evaluate new items, as conduct, performance and interoperability are neatly defined.
  • Eliminates single-vendor lock-in.
  • Encourages the construction of a global ecosystem of requisites-based items, decreasing the possibility and dear affect of stranded belongings.
  • All Wi-solar certified products are fastidiously validated through a licensed Wi-solar appointed third-birthday party test lab to be certain the devices work collectively easily and securely for rapid time to market. certified contraptions include a digital certificates to authenticate entry to a Wi-sun FAN network, enormously cutting back vulnerability to cyber protection threats. beneath a separate settlement, Wi-solar has selected GlobalSign to provide certificate Authority (CA) functions to Wi-sun Alliance member corporations.

    Third party feedback:

    Alex Davies, Senior Analyst, Rethink technology research and Editor of insurrection: "Open necessities are one of the crucial premier how you can ensure mass adoption of a expertise. As with WiFi and the 3GPP mobile protocols, Wi-solar's FAN is supplying varied selections for device and know-how suppliers to facilitate customer interest. power suppliers and grid operators are involved about dealer lock-in, specially due to the long life cycles of their deployments. To this end, Wi-sun should still deliver a solution to their mission-crucial problems that different LPWAN alternatives cannot. It opens the door for them to expand into different IoT markets, with wise cities a tremendous chance."

    Iker Urrutia, supervisor, sensible Grids, Avangrid: "IoT networking options in response to open requisites and certified to the Wi-solar FAN profile can be essential in acquiring proper interoperability for utility applications, such as AMI, accelerating the digitization of the grid in a cost effective manner."

    Colton Ching, Senior vp of Planning & technology at Hawaiian electric: "We continue to see Wi-sun expertise as an enormous enabler for big-scale IoT applications right through Hawaii with the availability of its FAN Certification software. The Wi-sun Alliance and its participants have taken an incredible step forward in bringing multi-vendor, interoperable solutions to fruition." 

    FAN Certification Availability: The FAN Certification program has been developed through the collaboration of Wi-solar member corporations, together with product carriers and collaborators participating in interoperability hobbies to prove the requirements and certification verify program. the following are amongst probably the most agencies who had been actively leading a way to certification: Analog instruments, Cisco, EPRI, Itron, Kyoto institution/Nissin programs, Landis+Gyr, ProCubed, Renesas and ROHM Europe.

    To study extra about the way to submit your products to be licensed, please talk over with http://www.wi-solar.org

    making certain a product is compliant can also be complex so the Wi-solar Alliance is eager to assist and tackle any issues. Please join Wi-sun for an upcoming webinar on Oct 16, 2018 at 8AM PT. in this webinar we will deliver an outline of the significance of certification and how to navigate the manner to achieve FAN Certification. For extra information and to register please click right here https://attendee.gotowebinar.com/register/9187903284805872385.

    in regards to the Wi-solar AllianceThe Wi-sun Alliance is a world non-profit member-based affiliation made of trade main businesses. Its mission is to pressure the global proliferation of interoperable instant options for use in smart cities, smart grids and other information superhighway of issues (IoT) purposes the usage of open global specifications from corporations, similar to IEEE802, IETF, TIA, TTC and ETSI. With more than 180 members worldwide, membership of the Wi-solar Alliance is open to all business stakeholders and comprises silicon vendors, product vendors, services suppliers, utilities, universities, corporations and municipalities and local executive corporations.

    For greater counsel, please seek advice from: www.wi-sun.org.

    Wi-solar Alliance and the Wi-solar Alliance logo are emblems of the Wi-sun Alliance.

    source Wi-solar Alliance

    linked LINKShttp://www.wi-solar.orghttps://www.wi-solar.org




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    310-013 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified System Administrator For Solaris 8, Upgrade

    Test Code : 310-013
    Test Name : Sun Certified System Administrator For Solaris 8, Upgrade
    Vendor Name : SUN
    Q&A : 74 Real Questions

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    Sun Certified System Administrator For Solaris 8, Upgrade

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    Sun Certified System Administrator: Job Description & Requirements | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Certified Solaris system administrators are information technology (IT) professionals who install and maintain network servers running one of the Solaris operating system, currently available through the Oracle Corporation. They are usually employed by businesses and other organizations with computer networks that use the company's open source software products. As systems administrators, they may also supervise other IT staff and respond to questions and maintenance requests from office workers.

    Education Bachelor's degree in information technology or computer science recommended Job Skills Troubleshooting, analytical thinking, multitasking, communication Salary Range (2016)* $87,400 to $104,762 with Sun Certified System Administrator credentials Job Growth (2014-2024)** 8% for network and computer systems administrators

    Source: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

    Required Education

    Most systems administrators have completed a Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, Computer Science or a related field. Core coursework typically includes topics in programming languages and procedures, networking and systems design. Solaris certifications are available through the Oracle Corporation in network, security and systems administration. Requirements include a passing score on an exam, which candidates can prepare for by enrolling in courses at the Oracle Academy or an approved training center, reviewing seminar packages and taking practice exams.

    Skills Required

    Systems administrators are analytical thinkers who are able to troubleshoot issues for large groups of network system users. Stressful situations require clear, fast thinking, and can involve working long hours until the problem is fixed. The ability to multitask can be helpful when managing more than one project at a time. Communication skills are key when working with nontechnical staff members.

    Career and Salary Outlook

    The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) predicted that jobs for system administrators in general will increase by an average pace, 8% from 2014 to 2024. Certified system administrators will enjoy excellent job prospects, as businesses increasingly rely on full-time professionals to maintain their computer operating systems. According to Payscale.com, certified systems administrators for Solaris operating systems earned between $87,400 and $104,762 in May 2016.


    Solaris 8 User Administration Tools | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Peter Gregory discusses user account configuration files; adding, modifying, and deleting user accounts with Admintool and shell commands; user shells; and user account commands in Solaris 8.

    This sample chapter is excerpted from Sun Certified System Administrator for Solaris 8 Study Guide, by Peter Gregory.

    This chapter is from the book 

    After completing this chapter, you'll be able to

  • Identify the following login procedures: log into a system, log out of a system, and change login passwords.

  • State the command used to identify which users are currently logged into the system.

  • State the steps required to create user accounts on the local system using the admintool utility.

  • State the command syntax to add, modify, or delete user/group accounts on the local system with the useradd, groupadd, usermod, groupmod, userdel, or groupdel commands.

  • Given a user's login shell, list the shell initialization files used to set up a user's work environment at login.

  • To fulfill these objectives, this chapter discusses:

  • User account configuration files;

  • Adding, modifying, and deleting user accounts with Admintool;

  • Adding, modifying, and deleting user accounts with shell commands;

  • User shells; and

  • User account commands.

  • Three principal files define the identity of a user account: the password file, the shadow file, and the group file.

    The Password File

    The password file contains the basic identifying information for each user allowed to access a system. The system location of the password file is /etc/passwd. The format of the password file is:

    username:password:uid:gid:gcos-field:home-dir:login-shell

    These fields are:

  • username—the name that identifies the user account.

  • password—in Solaris 8 an "x" in this field signifies that the corresponding shadow file contains the encrypted password string.

  • uid—the unique numerical ID assigned to the account. The maximum value for UID is 2147483647, but administrators are urged to use values less than 60,000 to ensure compatibility with all of the tools that are used to manage accounts or display information that includes usernames.

  • gid—the primary (default) numerical group ID assigned to the account. Like the UID field, the maximum value for GID is 2147483647, but a maximum of 60,000 is preferable.

  • gcos-field—this is the user's real name (the term "gcos-field" is the historical term for this field).

  • home-dir—the directory where the user is placed after logging in; this usually contains the user's own files and directories.

  • login-shell—the initial shell that is started on behalf of the user upon logging in. If this field is blank, then /usr/bin/sh is used.

  • The password file can be read by anyone on the system. There is no information that must be kept secret in this file. A sample password file looks like this:

    root:x:0:1:Super-User:/:/sbin/sh daemon:x:1:1::/: bin:x:2:2::/usr/bin: sys:x:3:3::/: adm:x:4:4:Admin:/var/adm: lp:x:71:8:Line Printer Admin:/usr/spool/lp: uucp:x:5:5:uucp Admin:/usr/lib/uucp: nuucp:x:9:9:uucp Admin:/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/lib/uucp/uucico listen:x:37:4:Network Admin:/usr/net/nls: pete:x:100:4:Peter Gregory:/export/home/pete:/bin/sh nobody:x:60001:60001:Nobody:/:

    Fields in the password file are delimited by colons (":"), and blank fields are signified by two adjacent colons ("::"). For instance, note that the account name field for daemon is blank—just two colons. Also, daemon has no shell entry, so the last character for daemon is the colon delimiter.

    The colon delimiter is also used in the shadow and group files, which are discussed in a later section.

    It is possible and permissible to create more than one username in the password file with the same UID. Each username will have its own unique password. However, tools such as ls and ps, when used with options displaying username, will display the first username found in the password file matching the UID.

    When a new account is added, changed, or removed with the useradd, usermod, or userdel commands (which are discussed later in this chapter), the system creates a backup copy of the password file, called /etc/opasswd.

    The Shadow File

    The shadow file contains each user account's encrypted password, as well as specific per-account parameters governing "password aging." The system location of the shadow file is /etc/shadow. The format of the shadow file is:

    username:password:lastchg:min:max:warn:inactive:expire:flag

    These fields are:

  • username—this is the same username found in the password file.

  • password—a 13-character encrypted password. If this field contains a lock string (e.g., "locked" or "NP"), the account is inaccessible; if blank, the account has no password.

  • lastchg—date of last password change (literally the number of days between January 1, 1970, and the date the password was last changed).

  • min—minimum number of days allowed before the password can be changed.

  • max—maximum number of days allowed before the password expires.

  • warn—the number of days prior to expiration that the user is warned.

  • inactive—the number of days of inactivity allowed for the account before the account is automatically locked.

  • expire—the date when the user account is deactivated.

  • flag—a field reserved for future use.

  • The shadow file is restricted so that only the system administrator can read it. This is because an intruder could perform a "dictionary attack," using guessable passwords in an attempt to determine the passwords for one or more accounts. Programs that "crack" account passwords are available for this purpose; thus, the shadow file is not publicly readable.

    A sample shadow file looks like this:

    root:Pe0iQfp2LcAig:10528:::::: daemon:NP:6445:::::: bin:NP:6445:::::: sys:NP:6445:::::: adm:nIP3GPx2FIZYQ:11053:::::: lp:NP:6445:::::: uucp:NP:6445:::::: nuucp:NP:6445:::::: listen:*LK*::::::: pete:GSSUYVrJ8EKyA:11055:::::: nobody:NP:6445::::::

    Note that some of the accounts in the example shadow file have "NP" ("no password") or "*LK*" (locked) in them. These are just two ways of signifying that the accounts are locked against login. There is nothing really magic about "NP" or "*LK*"—they are just one way of easily showing that these accounts are locked and going to stay that way. You could put other text in the password field to suit your needs; for instance, a helpdesk ticket number or a date.

    When a user changes his or her password, the system creates a backup copy of the shadow file, called /etc/oshadow. This also occurs if root changes a user's password.

    Exam Notes

    Think About It . . .

    Why are encrypted passwords found in /etc/shadow and not in /etc/passwd?

    For many commands (ps, ls, etc.) to work properly, /etc/passwd must be world readable. Prior to the use of /etc/shadow, all users' encrypted password strings were also publicly readable. This gave people with "password cracking" programs an opportunity to discover other users' passwords. By moving the encrypted password strings to /etc/shadow (which can be read only by root), the ability to access encrypted passwords is eliminated.

    First, a bit of history. Older versions of UNIX did not have a shadow file; instead, the encrypted password string was found in the password file, in the second field that is usually filled with an "x" in Solaris. Solaris still supports the encrypted password appearing in the password file, although this is not advisable, since the password file is publicly readable.

    Older versions of UNIX with no shadow file also had no password-aging capability.

    The Network Information System (NIS) subsystem was designed around the old shadow-less architecture; this explains why NIS has no shadow map, nor does it support password aging.

    The Group File

    The group file contains a listing of all of the groups on the system, along with each group's numeric groupid and a list of each of the usernames that are secondary members of each group. The location of the group file is /etc/group. The format of the group file is:

    groupname:password:gid:user-list

    These fields are:

  • groupname—this is the name of the group.

  • password—this is an optional password for the group.

  • gid—the unique numerical ID assigned to the group. The maximum value for GID is 2147483647, but administrators are urged to use values less than 60,000 to ensure compatibility with all of the tools that are used to manage accounts or display information that includes group names.

  • user-list—a comma-separated list of users allowed in the group. These groups are users' secondary group IDs.

  • A sample group file follows.

    root::0:root other::1: bin::2:root,bin,daemon sys::3:root,bin,sys,adm adm::4:root,adm,daemon uucp::5:root,uucp mail::6:root tty::7:root,tty,adm lp::8:root,lp,adm nuucp::9:root,nuucp staff:GSSUYVrJ8EKyA:10:pete daemon::12:root,daemon sysadmin::14: nobody::60001: noaccess::60002: nogroup::65534:

    Note the password field in the group "staff." Groups can be password protected by putting a password string into the password field. Note, though, that this is a completely manual process; there are no tools provided to put the group password in for you.

    Hint: You can take a password string from the shadow file and use the vi editor to splice it into the group file. The group password will be the same as the account password from the shadow entry where you took the password string.

    When a group is password protected, anyone who is not a member of the group will be challenged for the group's password when they have entered the newgrp command.

    Primary and Secondary Groupids

    Each user account has one primary groupid—this is the group defined in the password file. When a user logs on, this is his or her associated groupid.

    Each user account also has zero or more secondary groupids. A user's secondary groups are those group entries that include the username in their lists of members.

    There are some useful limitations of groupids. For example, each user account can be in no more than 16 groups, and a line in the group file cannot exceed 512 characters (including the newline character).

    What happens if you need to add so many members to a group that you exceed the 512-character entry limit? You simply create another duplicate group entry—same name and group number—and list the additional members there.

    The primary and secondary groupids directly impact file system access permissions, which is explored fully in Chapter 10.

    Exam Notes

    Think About It . . .

    What would be the effect if a username were added to a group file entry when that group was the user's primary group?

    The additional entry would have no effect, since the user is already configured for the primary group membership in the /etc/passwd file.

    The Root Account

    The root account has special privileges on a system: Root is permitted to read and write every file on a system, regardless of the file's ownership and permission settings. System administrators log in with the root account so that they can perform administrative tasks.

    The root account gets its power and privilege from the value of its user number: Root is user number zero, defined in the password file.

    Exam Notes

    Think About It . . .

    What would be the effects of changing an ordinary user's user number to zero? What advantage might there be of putting root's entry at the end of the passwd file (instead of the beginning)?

    Changing an ordinary user's user number to zero gives the user root privileges.

    One advantage of putting root at the end of the password file is that if an intruder is able to modify the password file to give another user root privilege (see the first question here), then output from commands such as ls and ps would show that other user as the owner of root processes and files.


    Logical Domains migration tips for VARs in Oracle Solaris 10 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Jeff Victor, Jeff Savit, Gary Combs, Simon Hayler and Bob Netherton, Prentice Hall publishing

    Solution provider’s takeaway: Knowing how to move Logical Domains between CMT Servers can be valuable to VARs who need to find the best fit for their customer’s environment. In this chapter excerpt, find out how to use the Logical Domains Physical to Virtual (P2V) tool and Configuration Assistant.

    3.5 Domain MobilityDomains can be installed on one CMT server (the source host) and migrated to a different, compatible CMT server (the target host) for planned workload migration. Doing so can free up memory and CPUs on a server, or vacate it for planned maintenance. At the time of this writing, Logical Domains supported two forms of domain migration, both invoked by the ldm migrate command. The following command migrates a domain to the host at the specified address. The command will prompt for the root password of the control domain on the target system.

    # ldm migrate ldg1 root@192.168.1.12

    The ldm migrate command can be issued with the option -n to request a dry run that tests whether the migration is possible but does not actually migrate the domain.

    In cold migration, the domain must be stopped. It must also be in the bound or inactive state on the source machine. Cold migration consists of verifying access to the domain’s I/O resources. In particular, the virtual disks must be accessible to both the source and the target. This step also ensures there are sufficient resources to bind the domain after migration, and then transmits the domain’s description to the target machine. Once the domain is migrated, the domain on the source machine is unbound (if it is currently bound to resources) and removed from the source domain configuration. Cold migration applies only to domains that are not running, but can be very helpful for planned migration of workloads that can tolerate an outage with a shutdown and reboot. It is very fast, as only descriptive information is transmitted between servers.

    In warm migration, a running domain is suspended on the source machine and resumed on the target machine without a reboot. Domain execution is suspended while it is being migrated. This process may take a number of seconds or a few minutes, depending on domain memory size and network speed, and on whether the control domain has access to a cryptographic accelerator.

    First, the domain managers on both source and target machines verify that sufficient capacity to bind the domain on the target is available. Then, the target system creates and binds a single-CPU version of the guest domain, and the source machine removes all but one CPU from the running domain. Next, the source machine suspends the domain and removes its last CPU. The domain’s memory contents and state are then compressed, encrypted (using the cryptographic accelerator if one is associated with the control domain), and transmitted from the source to the target.

    Processing is multithreaded and takes advantage of the CPU threads in the control domain; it also exploits the cryptographic accelerator to ensure better performance. Domain memory contents are always encrypted before transmission, as it would be a significant security exposure to transmit a domain’s memory contents (which might include passwords or private information) as cleartext. The domain is then restored on the target system and its remaining CPUs added. The Oracle Solaris instance continues execution on the target machine with the same disk storage, IP addresses, and MAC addresses as before, and applications resume processing. Finally, the domain is unbound and removed from the source host’s domain configuration.

    Warm migration is suitable for planned migration of any workload that can be paused for a number of seconds.

    A live migration capability is anticipated, in which a migrating domain will be unresponsive for only a very small interval.

    3.6 Physical to Virtual ConversionLogical Domains provides a Physical to Virtual (P2V) tool to automate conversion of physical Oracle Solaris systems into guest Logical Domains. This tool moves file system contents from a physical server to a Logical Domain on the CMT server, and if necessary, replaces packages geared toward the sun4u architecture platform (all UltraSPARC and SPARC64 systems) with packages for thesun4v architecture provided by the CMT platform. The physical system can be running Solaris 8 or later on a sun4u system, or Solaris 10 running outside of a domain.

    P2V migration consists of three phases, which are carried out under the control of the ldmp2v command:

  • Collection: Runs on the physical machine and collects a file system image and configuration data using ufsdumpM or flarcreate. The resulting file can be transmitted to the target system’s control domain or stored on an NFS server that is available to both the physical system and the control domain.
  • Preparation: Runs on the control domain of the target platform. It creates a guest domain, and restores the contents of the collected file system into virtual disks.
  • Conversion: Runs on the control domain of the target platform. It upgrades the guest domain to prepare it to run as a domain. This process removes packages, replacing sun4u packages with their corresponding sun4v versions.
  • If the physical system is running Solaris 8 or Solaris 9, the P2V process installs the system image in a Solaris Container using a Solaris 8 Container or Solaris 9 Container under the guest domain’s Solaris 10 kernel. That practice lets the migrated image appear to be the same Solaris version as on the physical machine. The P2V process can optionally preserve the physical system’s network identity by reusing its MAC address.

    The P2V process requires Solaris 10 system images to be available in either Solaris installation DVD or network install format, with the package SUNWldmp2v being installed in the control domain. The file /etc/ldmp2v.conf must be populated with variables indicating the names of the default virtual switch and virtual disk servers, and the type of disk back-ends to use for virtual disks. The P2V command must be made available to the physical system, either by NFS mount or by copying the command to a local disk.

    Once these setup tasks are complete, a set of commands can be executed like those shown in the following example. In this case, sparcules indicates the login session on the physical server, and primary indicates the control domain login session. The collect phase writes a collected image to an NFS-mounted directory that is also accessed by the control domain. The preparation phase creates a domain and imports the collected file system image into virtual disks. The conversion phase boots the guest domain with an Oracle Solaris installation image to upgrade the system image to a software level that is compatible with the Logical Domains technology.

    Once this process is complete, the guest domain has the same system identity and applications as it did on the original physical server. The amount of time to complete the process depends on the size of the file systems being copied and the network bandwidth available for its transmission to the control domain. The amount of administrator effort is dramatically reduced, with only a few commands needed to carry out a complete system migration.

    3.7 Ease-of-Use EnhancementsThe preceding examples manage Logical Domains with a command-line interface. This strategy is traditional and scriptable—but also requires prerequisite skills, can be error-prone, and is intimidating for the occasional user. It also does not scale well when many machines are involved.

    These limitations can be addressed by using scripts and by making appropriate use of standards and automation in an enterprise. They are also addressed by the Logical Domains Configuration Assistant, which provides a graphical user interface (GUI) for the initial installation and configuration of Logical Domains software and guest domains on a server. The Configuration Assistant is a Java application that is provided with the Logical Domains install software. To start it, issue the following command:

    $ java -jar /path/Configurator.jar

    This command launches a GUI that steps the user through a set of panels, such as the one shown in Figure 3.4.

    The GUI steps through a series of panels that let the user specify the number of domains to be created and the paths to their virtual disks. The last step lets the user save a script to run at a later time on one or more servers or, if the appropriate host name and password are provided, to run on a target CMT server. The Logical Domains package also includes the ldmconfig command, a text-mode tool that prompts the administrator for information about the domains and then generates the commands to build those domains according to best-practice naming conventions and a template of where the virtual disk back-ends are stored.

    A more comprehensive solution is based on the Oracle Enterprise Manager Ops Center licensed product, described at http://www.sun.com/software/ products/opscenter/. This product provides full life-cycle support for provisioning, and managing systems in a data center from a single user interface and screen, for both real and virtual systems. Ops Center can create, delete, configure, boot, and shut down Logical Domains. It also provides monitoring and management, showing utilization charts for CPU, memory, and file systems. In addition, the Ops Center manages resource pools, permitting dynamic reallocation of resources based on policies, and provides a graphical interface for controlling domain migration. Figure 3.5 shows several physical nodes that are visible in the assets tab of the Ops Center, with details illustrating resources used by several domains.

    Figure 3.4: Logical Domains Configuration Assistant

    Figure 3.5: Oracle Enterprise Manager Ops Center Display for Logical Domains

    3.8 Comparison with Oracle Solaris ContainersOracle Solaris Containers and Logical Domains provide alternative and complementary methods to virtualize Solaris systems, so it is natural to compare them.

    Solaris Containers provide ultra-lightweight OS virtualization with excellent isolation, security, observability, fast deployment, resource granularity, and native performance. However, because many Containers run on a single Solaris instance, they do not permit multiple kernel patch levels to be used. Solaris Containers also have a few restrictions, such as the inability to run an NFS server.

    In contrast, Logical Domains are more like “business as usual” for system administrators and application planners. They are individually installed, patched, used, and managed, much like physical servers. Oracle Solaris can be installed in a domain via a JumpStart or by booting from a DVD device, just like on a physical server. Like Containers, domains can also be cloned from previously installed and customized instances. However, unlike Containers, a running domain can be migrated from one server to another even without rebooting the domain.

    Logical Domains are available only on CMT servers, whereas Containers are available on any platform that supports Solaris. Also, because domains host full OS instances on dedicated CPUs and RAM, they have a larger resource footprint than Containers. Many more virtualized instances can be hosted on the same platform by using Containers than by using domains.

    Solaris Containers and Logical Domains are complementary virtualization technologies. They can be combined without adding overhead by running Containers within domains to achieve the highest degree of flexible virtualization. Separate OS instances can be configured when different OS kernel levels are required, with each OS instance hosting many lightweight, virtualized Container environments.

    3.9 SummaryLogical Domains provide low-cost, efficient virtualization on UltraSPARC T1, T2, and T2 Plus processors. Each domain is a separate, independent virtual machine with its own OS instance. Hardware resources are dedicated to each domain through a highly granular and dynamic resource allocation scheme.

    Compared to other virtualization technologies, Logical Domains provide an extremely efficient hypervisor implementation that avoids the overhead inherent in traditional hypervisors, and avoids the license costs of commercial virtualization products.

    Logical Domains is an ideal technology for migrating from older platforms to current hardware in a consolidated, energy-efficient platform. Oracle Solaris systems can be easily moved to a domain using the Logical Domains P2V tool, thereby leveraging Solaris and SPARC binary compatibility. Workloads from other operating systems and platforms can also be migrated to provide an efficient virtualized solution that reduces both energy costs and server sprawl.

      Oracle VM Server for SPARC

    Configuring, implementing Logical Domains in Oracle Solaris 10

    Creating, viewing and installing Oracle Solaris 10 into a domain

    Logical Domains migration tips for VARs in Oracle Solaris 10

    This excerpt is from the book, ‘Oracle Solaris 10 System Virtualization Essentials’ by Jeff Victor, Jeff Savit, Gary Combs, Simon Hayler, Bob Netherton, published by Pearson/Prentice Hall Professional, Sept. 2010, ISBN 0-13-708188-X, Copyright 2011; for a complete list of contents, please visit the publisher site: www.informit.com/title/013708188X.



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