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310-083 - Sun Certified Web Component Developer for J2EE 5 - BrainDump Information

Vendor Name : SUN
Exam Code : 310-083
Exam Name : Sun Certified Web Component Developer for J2EE 5
Questions and Answers : 276 Q & A
Updated On : February 21, 2019
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310-083 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified Web Component Developer for J2EE 5

Test Code : 310-083
Test Name : Sun Certified Web Component Developer for J2EE 5
Vendor Name : SUN
Q&A : 276 Real Questions

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SUN Sun Certified Web Component

sun certified Java Programmer: profession information & requirements | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

The solar licensed Java Programmer (SCJP) is knowledgeable in regards to the fundamentals of the Java programming language, and certified SCJPs are favourite by using a big range of agencies engaged in application construction. The SCJP examination is also a prerequisite to greater-stage certifications in different Java-related areas, corresponding to internet add-ons, business components, web services and cellular functions.

education gaining knowledge of Paths purchasable via sun, school classes also accessible Job knowledge Programming languages, firm, math talents, realizing of summary concepts Median revenue (2015)* $seventy nine,530 for laptop programmers$98,260 for application functions developers Job increase (2014-2024)* -8% for computer programmers19% for application functions developers

supply: *U.S. Bureau of Labor statistics

training guidance

sun Microsystems presents a couple of 'learning Paths' to certification, for students with minimal prior journey or these commonplace with other programming languages. Many different institutions, from technical colleges to universities, offer practising in Java ideas, techniques and construction programs, and all of those courses put together the pupil to be a superior Java programmer, and take the solar licensed Java Programmer exam. the two-hour examination must be taken at a licensed testing facility, and there aren't any certain must haves.

competencies Required

a company knowing of computer systems, programming languages and advanced programming ideas would put you on the speedy track to a career as a sun certified Java Programmer. college students with little programming experience but respectable math aptitude, organizational advantage and an figuring out of summary concepts should trust taking a beginner's level route in laptop ideas earlier than the SCJP working towards. sun offers sun licensed Java affiliate (SCJA) practising for non-technical college students, and different introductory laptop courseware is greatly attainable.

profession and economic Outlook

according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor statistics (BLS), the median annual income in 2015 for applications software developers became $ninety eight,260. laptop programmers made a median annual salary of $79,530 in the equal yr, but there become no certain records for solar-certified Java programmers. Jobs for laptop programmers will decline by eight% during 2014-2024, whereas utility application developers will see raises of 19% in keeping with the BLS. Programmers and utility builders skilled in a large latitude of applied sciences, peculiarly presently popular ones like Java, may still proceed to have the optimal employment potentialities.


Oracle certified professional (OCP) - Java EE net component Developer | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

connected supplies: Books   

This seller-particular Certification is obtainable through:Oracle CorporationRedwood Shores, CA USAPhone: 800-672-2531

skill degree: Intermediate                          reputation: lively

economical: $300 (shortest track)               

abstract:For developers specializing within the utility of JavaServer Pages and servlet technologies used to present web features and dynamic internet content material. This certification became previously referred to as solar certified web element Developer (SCWCD).

initial requirements:You ought to dangle both an Oracle licensed skilled, Java Programmer certification or a solar licensed Java Programmer certification. You should then circulate the Java enterprise web element Developer certified professional exam ($300). The exam has a one hundred fifty minute cut-off date and consists of 69 questions. A passing rating of seventy two% is required. practicing is attainable but now not required.

continuing requirements:None designated

Offline resources:teacher-led classes and observe questions are available from solar.

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dealer's web page for this certification


GlassFish 5.1 unencumber Marks most important Milestone for Java EE switch | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Eclipse GlassFish 5.1 has been released, and in contrast to the modest increase in version number may indicate, this truly marks a major milestone — no longer only for the GlassFish task itself, but for Java EE and moving Jakarta EE ahead much more.

a glance at the heritage of GlassFish

GlassFish goes back a protracted way. It started with the Kiva commercial enterprise Server, a Java utility server that was launched in January 1996 (for evaluation, Java 1.0 itself become additionally launched in that month!)

A yr later, Netscape obtained Kiva, and the Kiva business Server grew to be called Netscape software Server (NAS), which had its own pre-J2EE proprietary Java web APIs (such because the AppLogic framework, which changed into like Servlets and DAE for DB entry). NAS 2.1, which changed into accessible from early 1998, become a particularly common edition. software servers had been quite pricey again then, as Netscape application Server turned into around $35,000 per CPU.

In 1999, sun and Netscape (later AOL) formed an alliance, and Netscape software Server four, which became launched later that 12 months, protected support for an early edition of J2EE (Servlets, EJBs, JSPs, and JDBC). as an instance, JSP aid changed into for the early edition 0.ninety two. 

Netscape utility Server four was chosen via the alliance to proceed construction on in its place of merging it with the NetDynamics 5.01 software server sun had received prior. The name become as soon as once again changed, this time into iPlanet software Server (iAS). It turned into part of the iPlanet suite of products jointly developed by using sun and AOL (Netscape).  

iAS version 6, from around the year 2000, was a J2EE 1.2-compatible server, aiding issues reminiscent of Servlets 2.2, EJB 1.1, JSP 1.1 (in accordance with Jasper), and JTA 1.0 (based on the Encina transaction video display).

For edition 7, the name turned into once once more changed, now in full to "Stanford university network Open web environment software Server," aka sun ONE software Server (S1AS, or SOAS).  S1AS 7 was made accessible for no charge when it became released in late 2002, even though it was nonetheless closed source. It protected a modified Tomcat 4, which has a long history as neatly. version eight as soon as once more noticed a name trade, when it grew to be sun Java system application Server (SJSAS) eight, which turned into J2EE 1.4 suitable. around this time duration, sun had additionally break up off a derived version known as the J2EE SDK (Reference Implementation, or RI), which turned into essentially the core of the complete application server, however in a while, this grew to become the Platform version of SJSAS and the pure RI was handiest made available for TCK testing.

Open-supply GlassFish mission

In 2005, the open-source GlassFish mission changed into begun, which was nearly formed by the donation of the source code for SJSAS 9 by using sun and the TopLink persistence supply code via Oracle (for the brand new JPA implementation in EE 5). In might also 2006, the Java EE 5-suitable and wholly open-supply GlassFish 1.0 turned into released. After some intermediate models, an important re-architectured version of GlassFish become launched in December 2009, GlassFish three.0. in the GlassFish source code internally, there are still many references to "V3," which refers to this most important milestone.

Payara Server Is Born

After Oracle got solar, it still released a edition three.1 of GlassFish in early 2011 with construction features equivalent to clustering and cargo balancing, however after that release, it received exceedingly silent. In November 2013, Oracle announced they might nevertheless aid the open supply GlassFish however ended industrial help. In authentic open-supply fashion, this resulted in the Payara Server, which started as a fork of GlassFish and delivered commercial assist, general computer virus fixes, and commonplace part updates. GlassFish 4 became launched to assist Java EE 7, however from a server structure aspect of view, it become a comparatively minor replace, with basically the add-ons being updated to their EE 7 models. 

GlassFish Is Transferred to the Eclipse foundation

Late 2015/early 2016, it becomes quieter on the GlassFish front, and a number of articles regarded questioning Oracle's hobby in Java EE, principally GlassFish. In August 2017, Oracle indeed introduced that they did not are looking to be basically chargeable for Java EE and GlassFish anymore. a little later, Oracle announced that Java EE and all of the GlassFish code (GlassFish itself and all its constituent accessories) may be transferred to the Eclipse basis. The identify of the undertaking would develop into "EE4J," and in early 2018, the supply code starts transferring to the "eclipse-ee4j" repo on GitHub.

As a part of the deal between Oracle and Eclipse, it has decided to release GlassFish 5.1, which is absolutely developed via the Eclipse organization from the transferred and relicensed accessories that's thoroughly Java EE 8 certified.

Payara features Involvement

Altogether, this transfer has taken lots of work. Payara services (the business in addition to individuals working for Payara) have supported this procedure from its early tiers. It included aid from the preliminary cleansing of a couple of projects for the vetting of the transfer. as an instance, within the Mojarra project, there turned into fairly a bit of of historical code and other artifacts that were removed one by one, as they might have been intricate to vet. After the naked source code switch, several alterations were needed to make the projects cleanly build and afterward to make them work on the Eclipse Jenkins circumstances (https://jenkins.eclipse.org). For this to occur, a large number of jobs needed to be created, for each and every venture to build, stage, and at last to unlock them to Maven principal. The component tracker at https://wiki.eclipse.org/Eclipse_GlassFish_5.1_Components_Release_Tracker offers some concept of which initiatives were involved.

Payara notably contributed to the transfer of here API tasks and their linked implementations:

#

main

EE4J Impl

JSF

☑️

Mojarra

Expression Language

☑️

EL-RI

EE security

-

Soteria

JACC

☑️

GlassFish

JASPIC

☑️

GlassFish

Interceptors

☑️ (shared)

-

JAX-RS

Jersey

JMS

OpenMQ

JSP

GlassFish

Servlet

GlassFish

WebSocket

Tyrus

EE Concurrency

☑️

Concurrency RI

Altogether, it became an excellent experience working on this transfer, however now and then, it turned into also somewhat a little of labor, certainly when, within the starting, it wasn't clear at all a way to proceed with definite issues.

Now, despite the fact, this work is at last carried out! GlassFish is completely developed on the Eclipse infrastructure, and modern day release by means of Eclipse marks a further primary step in GlassFish's lengthy adventure, beginning at Kiva, passing via NetScape, starting to be up at solar, passing through Oracle, and now touchdown at Eclipse.

One Step closer to Jakarta EE 9 

however it's no longer most effective about GlassFish itself. With this switch achieved, and both GlassFish and its accessories available via the Jakarta Maven coordinates, we're one most important step closer to beginning the work for Jakarta EE 9.

GlassFish 5.1 may also be downloaded right here: https://projects.eclipse.org/tasks/ee4j.glassfish/downloads

The implementation accessories can be found from the org.glassfish Maven coordinates as before: https://repo1.maven.org/maven2/org/glassfish/main/distributions/glassfish/5.1.0

The API jars now live below the brand new Jakarta Maven coordinates: https://repo1.maven.org/maven2/jakarta/

We at Payara would like to thank all companions from Jakarta EE who helped with the transfer. particular thanks go to Dmitry Kornilov for his tireless volume of assist and assistance on every occasion we received stuck on whatever. Thanks, Dmitry! 


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GlassFish 5.1 Release Marks Major Milestone for Java EE Transfer | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Eclipse GlassFish 5.1 has been released, and unlike the modest increase in version number might suggest, this truly marks a major milestone — not just for the GlassFish project itself, but for Java EE and moving Jakarta EE forward even more.

A Look at the History of GlassFish

GlassFish goes back a long way. It started with the Kiva Enterprise Server, a Java application server that was released in January 1996 (for comparison, Java 1.0 itself was also released in that month!)

A year later, Netscape acquired Kiva, and the Kiva Enterprise Server became known as Netscape Application Server (NAS), which had its own pre-J2EE proprietary Java web APIs (such as the AppLogic framework, which was like Servlets and DAE for DB access). NAS 2.1, which was available from early 1998, was a particularly popular version. Application servers were quite pricey back then, as Netscape Application Server was around $35,000 per CPU.

In 1999, Sun and Netscape (later AOL) formed an alliance, and Netscape Application Server 4, which was released later that year, included support for an early version of J2EE (Servlets, EJBs, JSPs, and JDBC). For example, JSP support was for the early version 0.92. 

Netscape Application Server 4 was chosen by the alliance to continue development on instead of merging it with the NetDynamics 5.01 application server Sun had acquired earlier. The name was once again changed, this time into iPlanet Application Server (iAS). It was part of the iPlanet suite of products jointly developed by Sun and AOL (Netscape).  

iAS Version 6, from around the year 2000, was a J2EE 1.2-compatible server, supporting things such as Servlets 2.2, EJB 1.1, JSP 1.1 (based on Jasper), and JTA 1.0 (based on the Encina transaction monitor).

For version 7, the name was once again changed, now in full to "Stanford University Network Open Net Environment Application Server," aka Sun ONE Application Server (S1AS, or SOAS).  S1AS 7 was made available for no cost when it was released in late 2002, although it was still closed source. It included a modified Tomcat 4, which has a long history as well. Version 8 once again saw a name change, when it became Sun Java System Application Server (SJSAS) 8, which was J2EE 1.4 compatible. Around this time period, Sun had also split off a derived version called the J2EE SDK (Reference Implementation, or RI), which was essentially the core of the full application server, but later on, this became the Platform Edition of SJSAS and the pure RI was only made available for TCK testing.

Open-Source GlassFish Project

In 2005, the open-source GlassFish project was started, which was essentially formed by the donation of the source code for SJSAS 9 by Sun and the TopLink persistence source code by Oracle (for the new JPA implementation in EE 5). In May 2006, the Java EE 5-compatible and fully open-source GlassFish 1.0 was released. After some intermediate versions, a major re-architectured version of GlassFish was released in December 2009, GlassFish 3.0. In the GlassFish source code internally, there are still many references to "V3," which refers to this major milestone.

Payara Server Is Born

After Oracle acquired Sun, it still released a version 3.1 of GlassFish in early 2011 with production features such as clustering and load balancing, but after that release, it got relatively silent. In November 2013, Oracle announced they would still support the open source GlassFish but ended commercial support. In true open-source fashion, this led to the Payara Server, which started as a fork of GlassFish and added commercial support, regular bug fixes, and regular component updates. GlassFish 4 was released to support Java EE 7, but from a server architecture point of view, it was a relatively minor update, with mostly the components being updated to their EE 7 versions. 

GlassFish Is Transferred to the Eclipse Foundation

Late 2015/early 2016, it becomes quieter on the GlassFish front, and several articles appeared questioning Oracle's interest in Java EE, specifically GlassFish. In August 2017, Oracle indeed announced that they did not want to be primarily responsible for Java EE and GlassFish anymore. A little later, Oracle announced that Java EE and all the GlassFish code (GlassFish itself and all its constituent components) will be transferred to the Eclipse Foundation. The name of the project would become "EE4J," and in early 2018, the source code starts transferring to the "eclipse-ee4j" repo on GitHub.

As part of the deal between Oracle and Eclipse, it has decided to release GlassFish 5.1, which is completely built by the Eclipse organization from the transferred and relicensed components that is fully Java EE 8 certified.

Payara Services Involvement

Altogether, this transfer has taken a lot of work. Payara Services (the company as well as individuals working for Payara) have supported this process from its early stages. It included help from the initial cleaning of several projects for the vetting of the transfer. For instance, in the Mojarra project, there was quite a bit of ancient code and other artifacts that were removed one by one, as they would have been difficult to vet. After the bare source code transfer, several adjustments were needed to make the projects cleanly build and later on to make them work on the Eclipse Jenkins instances (https://jenkins.eclipse.org). For this to happen, a large number of jobs had to be created, for each project to build, stage, and finally to release them to Maven central. The component tracker at https://wiki.eclipse.org/Eclipse_GlassFish_5.1_Components_Release_Tracker gives some idea of which projects were involved.

Payara specifically contributed to the transfer of the following API projects and their associated implementations:

#

Leading

EE4J Impl

JSF

☑️

Mojarra

Expression Language

☑️

EL-RI

EE Security

-

Soteria

JACC

☑️

GlassFish

JASPIC

☑️

GlassFish

Interceptors

☑️ (shared)

-

JAX-RS

Jersey

JMS

OpenMQ

JSP

GlassFish

Servlet

GlassFish

WebSocket

Tyrus

EE Concurrency

☑️

Concurrency RI

Altogether, it was a great experience working on this transfer, but at times, it was also quite a bit of work, especially when, in the beginning, it wasn't clear at all how to proceed with certain things.

Now, however, this work is finally done! GlassFish is fully built on the Eclipse infrastructure, and today's release by Eclipse marks another major step in GlassFish's long journey, starting at Kiva, passing through NetScape, growing up at Sun, passing through Oracle, and now landing at Eclipse.

One Step Closer to Jakarta EE 9 

But it's not only about GlassFish itself. With this transfer completed, and both GlassFish and its components available via the Jakarta Maven coordinates, we are one major step closer to starting the work for Jakarta EE 9.

GlassFish 5.1 can be downloaded here: https://projects.eclipse.org/projects/ee4j.glassfish/downloads

The implementation components are available from the org.glassfish Maven coordinates as before: https://repo1.maven.org/maven2/org/glassfish/main/distributions/glassfish/5.1.0

The API jars now live under the new Jakarta Maven coordinates: https://repo1.maven.org/maven2/jakarta/

We at Payara would like to thank all partners from Jakarta EE who helped with the transfer. Special thanks go to Dmitry Kornilov for his tireless amount of help and advice whenever we got stuck on something. Thanks, Dmitry! 


Naming on JBoss | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter discusses the JBoss JNDI-based naming service, JBossNS, and the role of JNDI in JBoss and J2EE. It also provides an introduction to the basic JNDI API and common usage conventions.

This chapter is from the book 

In This Chapter

  • An Overview of JNDI
  • The JBossNS Architecture
  • This chapter discusses the JBoss JNDI-based naming service, JBossNS, and the role of JNDI in JBoss and J2EE. It also provides an introduction to the basic JNDI API and common usage conventions. In this chapter, you'll also learn about the JBoss-specific configuration of J2EE component-naming environments defined by the standard deployment descriptors. The final topic in this chapter is the configuration and architecture of the JBoss naming service.

    The JBoss naming service plays a key role in J2EE because it provides a naming service that allows a user to map a name to an object. This is a fundamental need in any programming environment because developers and administrators want to be able to refer to objects and services by recognizable names. A good example of a pervasive naming service is the Internet's Domain Name System (DNS). DNS allows you to refer to hosts by using logical names rather than their numeric Internet addresses. JNDI serves a similar role in J2EE by enabling developers and administrators to create name-to-object bindings for use in J2EE components.

    JNDI is a standard Java API that is bundled with JDK 1.3 and higher. JNDI provides a common interface to a variety of existing naming services: DNS, LDAP, Active Directory, RMI registry, COS registry, NIS, and file systems. The JNDI API is divided logically into a client API that is used to access naming services and a service provider interface (SPI) that allows the user to create JNDI implementations for naming services.

    The SPI layer is an abstraction that naming service providers must implement to enable the core JNDI classes to expose the naming service, using the common JNDI client interface. An implementation of JNDI for a naming service is referred to as a JNDI provider. JBoss naming is an example of JNDI implementation, based on the SPI classes. Note that J2EE component developers do not need the JNDI SPI.

    For a thorough introduction and tutorial on JNDI, which covers both the client and service provider APIs, see Sun’s tutorial at http://java.sun.com/products/jndi/tutorial/.

    The JNDI API

    The main JNDI API package is the javax.naming package. It contains 5 interfaces, 10 classes, and several exceptions. There is one key class, InitialContext, and there are 2 key interfaces, Context and Name.

    Names in JNDI

    The notion of a name is of fundamental importance in JNDI. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. The syntax of the naming system allows the user to parse string representations of names into its components. A name is used with a naming system to locate objects. In the simplest sense, a naming system is just a collection of objects that have unique names. To locate an object in a naming system, you provide a name to the naming system, and the naming system returns the object store under the name.

    For example, consider the Unix file system’s naming convention. Each file is named from its path, relative to the root of the file system, with each component in the path separated by the forward slash character (/). The file’s path is ordered from left to right. The pathname /usr/jboss/readme.txt, for example, names the file readme.txt in the directory jboss, under the directory usr, located in the root of the file system. JBoss naming uses a Unix-style namespace as its naming convention.

    The javax.naming.Name interface represents a generic name as an ordered sequence of components. It can be a composite name (one that spans multiple namespaces) or a compound name (one that is used within a single hierarchical naming system). The components of a name are numbered. The indexes of a name with N components range from 0 up to, but not including, N. The most significant component is at index 0. An empty name has no components.

    A composite name is a sequence of component names that span multiple namespaces. An example of a composite name is the hostname and file combination commonly used with Unix commands such as scp. For example, the following command copies localfile.txt to the file remotefile.txt in the tmp directory on host ahost.someorg.org:

    scp localfile.txt ahost.someorg.org:/tmp/remotefile.txt

    A compound name is derived from a hierarchical namespace. Each component in a compound name is an atomic name—that is, it is a string that cannot be parsed into smaller components. A file pathname in the Unix file system is an example of a compound name. ahost.someorg.org:/tmp/remotefile.txt is a composite name that spans the DNS and Unix file system namespaces. The components of the composite name are ahost.someorg.org and /tmp/remotefile.txt. A component is a string name from the namespace of a naming system. If the component comes from a hierarchical namespace, that component can be further parsed into its atomic parts by using the javax.naming.CompoundName class. The JNDI API provides the javax.naming.CompositeName class as the implementation of the Name interface for composite names.

    Contexts The javax.naming.Context interface is the primary interface for interacting with a naming service. The Context interface represents a set of name-to-object bindings. Every context has an associated naming convention that determines how the context parses string names into javax.naming.Name instances. To create a name-to-object binding, you invoke the bind method of a context and specify a name and an object as arguments. You can later retrieve the object by using its name, via the Context lookup method. A context typically provides operations for binding a name to an object, unbinding a name, and obtaining a listing of all name-to-object bindings. The object you bind into a context can itself be of type Context. The Context object that is bound is referred to as a subcontext of the context on which the bind method was invoked.

    For example, consider a file directory that has a pathname /usr and is a context in the Unix file system. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (commonly referred to as a subdirectory). A file directory with the pathname /usr/jboss names a jboss context that is a subcontext of usr. As another example, a DNS domain, such as org, is a context. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is another example of a subcontext. In the DNS domain jboss.org, the DNS domain jboss is a subcontext of org because DNS names are parsed right to left.

    Obtaining a Context by Using InitialContext All naming service operations are performed on some implementation of the Context interface. Therefore, you need a way to obtain a Context for the naming service you are interested in using. The javax.naming.InitialContext class implements the Context interface and provides the starting point for interacting with a naming service.

    When you create an InitialContext, it is initialized with properties from the environment. JNDI determines each property’s value by merging the values from the following two sources, in order:

  • The first occurrence of the property from the constructor’s environment parameter and (for appropriate properties) the applet parameters and system properties

  • All jndi.properties resource files found on the classpath

  • For each property found in both of these two sources, the property’s value is determined as follows. If the property is one of the standard JNDI properties that specify a list of JNDI factories, all the values are concatenated into a single colon-separated list. For other properties, only the first value found is used. The preferred method of specifying the JNDI environment properties is through a jndi.properties file, which allows the code to externalize the JNDI provider-specific information so that changing JNDI providers will not require changes to the code or recompilation.

    The Context implementation used internally by the InitialContext class is determined at runtime. The default policy uses the environment property java.naming.factory.initial, which contains the classname of the javax.naming.spi.InitialContextFactory implementation. You obtain the name of the InitialContextFactory class from the naming service provider you are using.

    Listing 3.1 gives a sample jndi.properties file that a client application would use to connect to a JBossNS service running on the local host at port 1099. The client application would need to have the jndi.properties file available on the application classpath. These are the properties that the JBoss JNDI implementation requires. Other JNDI providers have different properties and values.

    Listing 3.1 A Sample jndi.properties File ### JBossNS properties java.naming.factory.initial=org.jnp.interfaces.NamingContextFactory java.naming.provider.url=jnp://localhost:1099 java.naming.factory.url.pkgs=org.jboss.naming:org.jnp.interfaces J2EE and JNDI: The Application Component Environment

    JNDI is a fundamental aspect of the J2EE specifications. One key usage of the JNDI is to isolate J2EE component code from the environment in which the code is deployed. Use of the application component’s environment allows the application component to be customized without the need to access or change the application component’s source code. The application component environment is referred to as the enterprise naming context (ENC). It is the responsibility of the application component container to make an ENC available to the container components in the form of the JNDI Context interface. The participants involved in the life cycle of a J2EE component utilize the ENC in the following ways:

  • The component provider uses the standard deployment descriptor for the component to specify the required ENC entries. The entries are declarations of the information and resources the component requires at runtime. Application component business logic should be coded to access information from its ENC.

  • The container provides tools that allow a deployer of a component to map the ENC references made by the component developer to the deployment environment entity that satisfies the reference.

  • The component deployer utilizes the container tools to ready a component for final deployment.

  • The component container uses the deployment package information to build the complete component ENC at runtime.

  • The complete specification regarding the use of JNDI in the J2EE platform can be found in section 5 of the J2EE 1.4 specification, which is available at http://java.sun.com/j2ee/download.html.

    An application component instance locates the ENC by using the JNDI API. An application component instance creates a javax.naming.InitialContext object by using the no argument constructor and then looks up the naming environment under the name java:comp/env. The application component’s environment entries are stored directly in the ENC or in its subcontexts. Listing 3.2 illustrates the prototypical lines of code a component uses to access its ENC.

    Listing 3.2 ENC Access Sample Code // Obtain the application component’s ENC Context iniCtx = new InitialContext(); Context compEnv = (Context) iniCtx.lookup("java:comp/env");

    An application component environment is a local environment that is accessible only by the component when the application server container thread of control is interacting with the application component. This means that an EJB Bean1 cannot access the ENC elements of EJB Bean2 and vice versa. Similarly, web application Web1 cannot access the ENC elements of web application Web2—or Bean1 or Bean2, for that matter. Also, arbitrary client code, whether it is executing inside the application server VM or externally, cannot access a component’s java:comp JNDI context. The purpose of the ENC is to provide an isolated, read-only namespace that the application component can rely on, regardless of the type of environment in which the component is deployed. The ENC must be isolated from other components because each component defines its own ENC content. Components A and B, for example, may define the same name to refer to different objects. For example, EJB Bean1 may define an environment entry java:comp/env/red to refer to the hexadecimal value for the RGB color for red, while web application Web1 may bind the same name to the deployment environment language locale representation of red.

    There are three commonly used levels of naming scope in JBoss: names under java:comp, names under java:, and any other names. As discussed, the java:comp context and its subcontexts are available only to the application component associated with that particular context. Subcontexts and object bindings directly under java: are visible only within the JBoss server virtual machine and not to remote clients. Any other context or object binding is available to remote clients, provided that the context or object supports serialization. You’ll see how the isolation of these naming scopes is achieved in the next section.

    An example of where restricting a binding to the java: context is useful is a javax.sql.DataSource connection factory that can be used only inside the JBoss server where the associated database pool resides. On the other hand, an EJB home interface would be bound to a globally visible name that should be accessible by remote clients.

    ENC Usage Conventions

    JNDI is used as the API for externalizing a great deal of information from an application component. The JNDI name that the application component uses to access the information is declared in the standard ejb-jar.xml deployment descriptor for EJB components and the standard web.xml deployment descriptor for web components. Several different types of information can be stored in and retrieved from JNDI, including the following:

  • Environment entries, as declared by the env-entry elements

  • EJB references, as declared by ejb-ref and ejb-local-ref elements

  • Resource manager connection factory references, as declared by the resource-ref elements

  • Resource environment references, as declared by the resource-env-ref elements

  • Each type of deployment descriptor element has a JNDI usage convention with regard to the name of the JNDI context under which the information is bound. Also, in addition to the standard deploymentdescriptor element, there is a JBoss server-specific deployment descriptor element that maps the JNDI name as used by the application component to the deployment environment JNDI name.

    Environment Entries Environment entries are the simplest form of information stored in a component ENC, and they are similar to operating system environment variables, like those found on Unix or Windows. An environment entry is a name-to-value binding that allows a component to externalize a value and refer to the value by using a name.

    You declare an environment entry by using an env-entry element in the standard deployment descriptors. The env-entry element contains the following child elements:

  • An optional description element that provides a description of the entry

  • An env-entry-name element that gives the name of the entry relative to java:comp/env

  • An env-entry-type element that gives the Java type of the entry value, which must be one of the following:

  • java.lang.Byte

  • java.lang.Boolean

  • java.lang.Character

  • java.lang.Double

  • java.lang.Float

  • java.lang.Integer

  • java.lang.Long

  • java.lang.Short

  • java.lang.String

  • An env-entry-value element that gives the value of the entry as a string

  • Listing 3.3 shows an example of an env-entry fragment from an ejb-jar.xml deployment descriptor. There is no JBoss-specific deployment descriptor element because an env-entry is a complete name and value specification. Listing 3.4 shows a sample code fragment for accessing the maxExemptions and taxRate env-entry values declared in the deployment descriptor.

    Listing 3.3 An Example of an ejb-jar.xml env-entry Fragment <!-- ... --> <session> <ejb-name>ASessionBean</ejb-name> <!-- ... --> <env-entry> <description>The maximum number of tax exemptions allowed </description> <env-entry-name>maxExemptions</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.lang.Integer</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>15</env-entry-value> </env-entry> <env-entry> <description>The tax rate </description> <env-entry-name>taxRate</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.lang.Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>0.23</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </session> <!-- ... --> Listing 3.4 An ENC env-entry Access Code Fragment InitialContext iniCtx = new InitialContext(); Context envCtx = (Context) iniCtx.lookup("java:comp/env"); Integer maxExemptions = (Integer) envCtx.lookup("maxExemptions"); Float taxRate = (Float) envCtx.lookup("taxRate");

    EJB References It is common for EJBs and web components to interact with other EJBs. Because the JNDI name under which an EJB home interface is bound is a deployment time decision, a component developer needs to have a way to declare a reference to an EJB that will be linked by the deployer. EJB references satisfy this requirement.

    An EJB reference is a link in an application component-naming environment that points to a deployed EJB home interface. The name used by the application component is a logical link that isolates the component from the actual name of the EJB home in the deployment environment. The J2EE specification recommends that all references to Enterprise Beans be organized in the java:comp/env/ejb context of the application component’s environment.

    An EJB reference is declared using an ejb-ref element in the deployment descriptor. Each ejb-ref element describes the interface requirements that the referencing application component has for the referenced Enterprise Bean. The ejb-ref element contains the following child elements:

  • An optional description element that provides the purpose of the reference.

  • An ejb-ref-name element that specifies the name of the reference relative to the java:comp/env context. To place the reference under the recommended java:comp/env/ejb context, you use the form ejb/link-name for the ejb-ref-name value.

  • An ejb-ref-type element that specifies the type of the EJB. This must be either Entity or Session.

  • A home element that gives the fully qualified classname of the EJB home interface.

  • A remote element that gives the fully qualified classname of the EJB remote interface.

  • An optional ejb-link element that links the reference to another Enterprise Bean in the same EJB JAR or in the same J2EE application unit. The ejb-link value is the ejb-name of the referenced bean. If there are multiple Enterprise Beans with the same ejb-name, the value uses a pathname that specifies the location of the ejb-jar file that contains the referenced component. The pathname is relative to the referencing ejb-jar file. The application assembler appends the ejb-name of the referenced bean to the pathname, separated by #. This allows multiple beans with the same name to be uniquely identified.

  • An EJB reference is scoped to the application component whose declaration contains the ejb-ref element. This means that the EJB reference is not accessible from other application components at runtime and that other application components may define ejb-ref elements with the same ejb-ref-name without causing a naming conflict. Listing 3.5 provides an ejb-jar.xml fragment that illustrates the use of the ejb-ref element. Listing 3.6 provides a code sample that illustrates accessing the ShoppingCartHome reference declared in Listing 3.5.

    Listing 3.5 An Example of an ejb-jar.xml ejb-ref Descriptor Fragment <description>This is a reference to the store products entity </description> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/ProductHome</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>org.jboss.store.ejb.ProductHome</home> </ejb-ref> <remote> org.jboss.store.ejb.Product</remote> </session> <session> <ejb-ref> <ejb-name>ShoppingCartUser</ejb-name> <!--...--> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/ShoppingCartHome</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Session</ejb-ref-type> <home>org.jboss.store.ejb.ShoppingCartHome</home> <remote> org.jboss.store.ejb.ShoppingCart</remote> <ejb-link>ShoppingCartBean</ejb-link> </ejb-ref> </session> <entity> <description>The Product entity bean </description> <ejb-name>ProductBean</ejb-name> <!--...--> </entity> <!--...--> Listing 3.6 An ENC ejb-ref Access Code Fragment InitialContext iniCtx = new InitialContext(); Context ejbCtx = (Context) iniCtx.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb"); ShoppingCartHome home = (ShoppingCartHome) ejbCtx.lookup("ShoppingCartHome");

    EJB References with jboss.xml and jboss-web.xml The JBoss-specific jboss.xml EJB deployment descriptor affects EJB references in two ways. First, the jndi-name child element of the session and entity elements allows the user to specify the deployment JNDI name for the EJB home interface. In the absence of a jboss.xml specification of the jndi-name for an EJB, the home interface is bound under the ejb-jar.xml ejb-name value. For example, the session EJB with the ejb-name of ShoppingCart-Bean in Listing 3.5 would have its home interface bound under the JNDI name ShoppingCartBean in the absence of a jboss.xml jndi-name specification.

    The second use of the jboss.xml descriptor with respect to ejb-refs involves the setting of the destination to which a component’s ENC ejb-ref refers. The ejb-link element cannot be used to refer to EJBs in another enterprise application. If an ejb-ref needs to access an external EJB, you can specify the JNDI name of the deployed EJB home by using the jboss.xml ejb-ref/jndi-name element.

    The jboss-web.xml descriptor is used only to set the destination to which a web application ENC ejb-ref refers. The content model for the JBoss ejb-ref includes the following:

  • An ejb-ref-name element that corresponds to the ejb-ref-name element in the ejb-jar.xml or web.xml standard descriptor

  • A jndi-name element that specifies the JNDI name of the EJB home interface in the deployment environment

  • Listing 3.7 provides an example jboss.xml descriptor fragment that illustrates the following usage points:

    Listing 3.7 An Example of a jboss.xml ejb-ref Fragment <!-- ... --> <session> <ejb-name>ProductBeanUser</ejb-name> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/ProductHome</ejb-ref-name> <jndi-name>jboss/store/ProductHome</jndi-name> </ejb-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>ProductBean</ejb-name> <jndi-name>jboss/store/ProductHome</jndi-name> <!-- ... --> </entity> <!-- ... -->

    EJB Local References EJB 2.0 added local interfaces that do not use RMI call-by-value semantics. These interfaces use a call-by-reference semantic and therefore do not incur any RMI serialization overhead. An EJB local reference is a link in an application component-naming environment that points to a deployed EJB local home interface. The name used by the application component is a logical link that isolates the component from the actual name of the EJB local home in the deployment environment. The J2EE specification recommends that all references to Enterprise Beans be organized in the java:comp/env/ejb context of the application component’s environment.

    You declare an EJB local reference by using an ejb-local-ref element in the deployment descriptor. Each ejb-local-ref element describes the interface requirements that the referencing application component has for the referenced Enterprise Bean. The ejb-local-ref element contains the following child elements:

  • An optional description element that provides the purpose of the reference.

  • An ejb-ref-name element that specifies the name of the reference relative to the java:comp/env context. To place the reference under the recommended java:comp/env/ejb context, you use an ejb/link-name form for the ejb-ref-name value.

  • An ejb-ref-type element that specifies the type of the EJB. This must be either Entity or Session.

  • A local-home element that gives the fully qualified classname of the EJB local home interface.

  • A local element that gives the fully qualified classname of the EJB local interface.

  • An ejb-link element that links the reference to another Enterprise Bean in the ejb-jar file or in the same J2EE application unit. The ejb-link value is the ejb-name of the referenced bean. If there are multiple Enterprise Beans with the same ejb-name, the value uses the pathname that specifies the location of the ejb-jar file that contains the referenced component. The pathname is relative to the referencing ejb-jar file. The application assembler appends the ejb-name of the referenced bean to the pathname, separated by #. This allows multiple beans with the same name to be uniquely identified. An ejb-link element must be specified in JBoss to match the local reference to the corresponding EJB.

  • An EJB local reference is scoped to the application component whose declaration contains the ejb-local-ref element. This means that the EJB local reference is not accessible from other application components at runtime and that other application components may define ejb-local-ref elements with the same ejb-ref-name without causing a naming conflict. Listing 3.8 provides an ejb-jar.xml fragment that illustrates the use of the ejb-local-ref element. Listing 3.9 provides a code sample that illustrates accessing the ProbeLocalHome reference declared in Listing 3.8.

    Listing 3.8 An Example of an ejb-jar.xml ejb-local-ref Descriptor Fragment <!-- ... --> <session> <ejb-name>Probe</ejb-name> <home>org.jboss.test.perf.interfaces.ProbeHome</home> <remote>org.jboss.test.perf.interfaces.Probe</remote> <local-home>org.jboss.test.perf.interfaces.ProbeLocalHome</local-home> <local>org.jboss.test.perf.interfaces.ProbeLocal</local> <ejb-class>org.jboss.test.perf.ejb.ProbeBean</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Bean</transaction-type> </session> <session> <ejb-name>PerfTestSession</ejb-name> <home>org.jboss.test.perf.interfaces.PerfTestSessionHome</home> <remote>org.jboss.test.perf.interfaces.PerfTestSession</remote> <ejb-class>org.jboss.test.perf.ejb.PerfTestSessionBean</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/ProbeHome</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Session</ejb-ref-type> <home>org.jboss.test.perf.interfaces.SessionHome</home> <remote>org.jboss.test.perf.interfaces.Session</remote> <ejb-link>Probe</ejb-link> </ejb-ref> <ejb-local-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/ProbeLocalHome</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Session</ejb-ref-type> <local-home>org.jboss.test.perf.interfaces.ProbeLocalHome</local-home> <local>org.jboss.test.perf.interfaces.ProbeLocal</local> <ejb-link>Probe</ejb-link> </ejb-local-ref> </session> <!-- ... --> Listing 3.9 An ENC ejb-local-ref Access Code Fragment InitialContext iniCtx = new InitialContext(); Context ejbCtx = (Context) iniCtx.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb"); ProbeLocalHome home = (ProbeLocalHome) ejbCtx.lookup("ProbeLocalHome");

    Resource Manager Connection Factory References Application component code can refer to resource factories by using logical names called resource manager connection factory references. Resource manager connection factory references are defined by the resource-ref elements in the standard deployment descriptors. The deployer binds the resource manager connection factory references to the actual resource manager connection factories that exist in the target operational environment, using the jboss.xml and jboss-web.xml descriptors.

    Each resource-ref element describes a single resource manager connection factory reference. The resource-ref element consists of the following child elements:

  • An optional description element that provides the purpose of the reference.

  • A res-ref-name element that specifies the name of the reference relative to the java:comp/env context. (The resource type–based naming convention for which subcontext to place the res-ref-name into is discussed shortly.)

  • A res-type element that specifies the fully qualified classname of the resource manager connection factory.

  • A res-auth element that indicates whether the application component code performs resource sign-on programmatically or whether the container signs on to the resource based on the principal mapping information supplied by the deployer. It must be either Application or Container.

  • An optional res-sharing-scope element. This currently is not supported by JBoss.

  • The J2EE specification recommends that all resource manager connection factory references be organized in the subcontexts of the application component’s environment, using a different subcontext for each resource manager type. The recommended resource manager type-to-subcontext name mapping is as follows:

  • JDBC DataSource references should be declared in the java:comp/env/jdbc subcontext.

  • JMS connection factories should be declared in the java:comp/env/jms subcontext.

  • JavaMail connection factories should be declared in the java:comp/env/mail subcontext.

  • URL connection factories should be declared in the java:comp/env/url subcontext.

  • Listing 3.10 shows an example of a web.xml descriptor fragment that illustrates the resource-ref element usage. Listing 3.11 provides a code fragment that an application component would use to access the DefaultMail resource declared by the resource-ref.

    Listing 3.10 A web.xml resource-ref Descriptor Fragment <web> <!-- ... --> <servlet> <servlet-name>AServlet</servlet-name> <!-- ... --> </servlet> <!-- ... --> <!-- JDBC DataSources (java:comp/env/jdbc) --> <resource-ref> <description>The default DS</description> <res-ref-name>jdbc/DefaultDS</res-ref-name> <res-type>javax.sql.DataSource</res-type> <res-auth>Container</res-auth> </resource-ref> <!-- JavaMail Connection Factories (java:comp/env/mail) --> <resource-ref> <description>Default Mail</description> <res-ref-name>mail/DefaultMail</res-ref-name> <res-type>javax.mail.Session</res-type> <res-auth>Container</res-auth> </resource-ref> <!-- JMS Connection Factories (java:comp/env/jms) --> <resource-ref> <description>Default QueueFactory</description> <res-ref-name>jms/QueueFactory</res-ref-name> <res-type>javax.jms.QueueConnectionFactory</res-type> <res-auth>Container</res-auth> </resource-ref> </web> Listing 3.11 An ENC resource-ref Access Sample Code Fragment Context initCtx = new InitialContext(); javax.mail.Session s = (javax.mail.Session) initCtx.lookup("java:comp/env/mail/DefaultMail");

    Resource Manager Connection Factory References with jboss.xml and jboss-web.xml

    The purpose of the JBoss jboss.xml EJB deployment descriptor and jboss-web.xml web application deployment descriptor is to provide the link from the logical name defined by the res-ref-name element to the JNDI name of the resource factory, as deployed in JBoss. This is accomplished by providing a resource-ref element in the jboss.xml or jboss-web.xml descriptor. The JBoss resource-ref element consists of the following child elements:

  • A res-ref-name element that must match the res-ref-name of a corresponding resource-ref element from the ejb-jar.xml or web.xml standard descriptors

  • An optional res-type element that specifies the fully qualified classname of the resource manager connection factory

  • A jndi-name element that specifies the JNDI name of the resource factory, as deployed in JBoss

  • A res-url element that specifies the URL string in the case of a resource-ref of type java.net.URL

  • Listing 3.12 provides a sample jboss-web.xml descriptor fragment that shows sample mappings of the resource-ref elements given in Listing 3.10.

    Listing 3.12 A Sample jboss-web.xml resource-ref Descriptor Fragment <jboss-web> <!-- ... --> <resource-ref> <res-ref-name>jdbc/DefaultDS</res-ref-name> <res-type>javax.sql.DataSource</res-type> <jndi-name>java:/DefaultDS</jndi-name> </resource-ref> <resource-ref> <res-ref-name>mail/DefaultMail</res-ref-name> <res-type>javax.mail.Session</res-type> <jndi-name>java:/Mail</jndi-name> </resource-ref> <resource-ref> <res-ref-name>jms/QueueFactory</res-ref-name> <res-type>javax.jms.QueueConnectionFactory</res-type> <jndi-name>QueueConnectionFactory</jndi-name> </resource-ref> <!-- ... --> </jboss-web>

    Resource Environment References A resource environment reference is an element that refers to an administered object that is associated with a resource (for example, JMS destinations), using a logical name. Resource environment references are defined by the resource-env-ref elements in the standard deployment descriptors. The deployer binds the resource environment references to the actual administered object’s location in the target operational environment by using the jboss.xml and jboss-web.xml descriptors.

    Each resource-env-ref element describes the requirements that the referencing application component has for the referenced administered object. The resource-env-ref element consists of the following child elements:

  • An optional description element that provides the purpose of the reference.

  • A resource-env-ref-name element that specifies the name of the reference relative to the java:comp/env context. Convention places the name in a subcontext that corresponds to the associated resource factory type. For example, a JMS queue reference named MyQueue should have a resource-env-ref-name of jms/MyQueue.

  • A resource-env-ref-type element that specifies the fully qualified classname of the referenced object. For example, in the case of a JMS queue, the value would be javax.jms.Queue.

  • Listing 3.13 provides an example resource-ref-env element declaration by a session bean. Listing 3.14 provides a code fragment that illustrates how to look up the StockInfo queue declared by the resource-env-ref.

    Listing 3.13 An Example of an ejb -jar.xml resource-env-ref Fragment <session> <ejb-name>MyBean</ejb-name> <resource-env-ref> <description>This is a reference to a JMS queue used in the processing of Stock info </description> <resource-env-ref-name>jms/StockInfo</resource-env-ref-name> <resource-env-ref-type>javax.jms.Queue</resource-env-ref-type> </resource-env-ref> <!-- ... --> </session> Listing 3.14 An ENC resource-env-ref Access Code Fragment InitialContext iniCtx = new InitialContext(); javax.jms.Queue q = (javax.jms.Queue) envCtx.lookup("java:comp/env/jms/StockInfo");

    Resource Environment References with jboss.xml and jboss-web.xml The purpose of the JBoss jboss.xml EJB deployment descriptor and jboss-web.xml web application deployment descriptor is to provide the link from the logical name defined by the resource-env-ref-name element to the JNDI name of the administered object deployed in JBoss. This is accomplished by providing a resource-env-ref element in the jboss.xml or jboss-web.xml descriptor. The JBoss resource-env-ref element consists of the following child elements:

  • A resource-env-ref-name element that must match the resource-env-ref-name of a corresponding resource-env-ref element from the ejb-jar.xml or web.xml standard descriptors

  • A jndi-name element that specifies the JNDI name of the resource, as deployed in JBoss

  • Listing 3.15 provides a sample jboss.xml descriptor fragment that shows a sample mapping for the StockInfo resource-env-ref.

    Listing 3.15 A Sample jboss.xml resource-env-ref Descriptor Fragment <session> <ejb-name>MyBean</ejb-name> <resource-env-ref> <resource-env-ref-name>jms/StockInfo</resource-env-ref-name> <jndi-name>queue/StockInfoQueue</jndi-name> </resource-env-ref> <!-- ... --> </session>

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