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650-127 - Cisco Connected Grid (Engineer)(R) Knowledge Verification - BrainDump Information

Vendor Name : Cisco
Exam Code : 650-127
Exam Name : Cisco Connected Grid (Engineer)(R) Knowledge Verification
Questions and Answers : 56 Q & A
Updated On : November 9, 2018
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650-127 exam Dumps Source : Cisco Connected Grid (Engineer)(R) Knowledge Verification

Test Code : 650-127
Test Name : Cisco Connected Grid (Engineer)(R) Knowledge Verification
Vendor Name : Cisco
Q&A : 56 Real Questions

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Cisco Cisco Connected Grid (Engineer)(R)

On-field Python for Cisco gadgets – the Why, What, and how | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

As a junior network engineer at a college I wrote loads of administration scripts in Perl.  I had scripts to do issues reminiscent of check switchport configurations and upgrade swap code. times have changed lots considering then. The institution’s internet server now runs within the cloud, as opposed to on my own computer, and Python has surpassed Perl because the scripting language du jour. community automation with Python is now an enormous focal point, making Python an incredibly crucial tool.

today I’m going to demonstrate you a way to use Python scripts hosted on the box and integrated into IOS. here's far more powerful than my earlier-career scripts, and that i have some basic examples for PCI compliance, Dynamic DNS ACL updates, and configuration validation.

As with many issues in IT, we appear to be at all times oscillating between “centralized” and “dispensed.”  On-field hosting of Python scripts is an example of relocating back towards dispensed. My view on the argument is that it’s by no means about the extremes, but more about the stability—a little like a pendulum invariably swinging as expertise advances exchange what’s viable and purposeful.

when it comes to technology advances, there have been many articles these days about Cisco’s new Intuitive networking announcement.   in the event you ignored it, right here is a brief article by means of Jeff McLaughlin that describes one of the vital new things that you may do with the brand new network, and one by means of Chris Oggerino on application hosting.

these days, I are looking to show why Python scripts working on-box can be remarkable.  I also need to clarify how effortless it is, based on the software internet hosting environment we’ve simply released.  furthermore, I’ll give some examples of how Python is much more potent when mixed with one of the vital latest IOS infrastructure reminiscent of Embedded event supervisor (EEM).

Why on-field Python?

There are three main advantages for Python scripts operating on the equipment itself instead of externally.

  • Scale: If I even have a “sanity” script that I should run consistently and it takes six seconds per machine * one thousand contraptions, that would be 6,000 seconds, or one hour and forty minutes.I could run them in parallel, however that nevertheless consumes resources on my management station, processing the records. It additionally probably transports a lot of statistics returned to the administration station, handiest to discard lots of it.  An choice is to distribute the work to the devices and get them to give an update when they’re done.
  • safety: as an alternative of having “utility” logins that join into devices and export tips for external processing, that you could have the device method its information in the neighborhood and simply export the abstract state. records stays on the machine, and less exterior connections are required.
  • Autonomy: The biggest predicament of centralized processing is that it needs a network connection to the gadget. there is a group of use circumstances to adjust equipment behaviour when it loses connectivity to different instruments.  this may most effective be achieved on-field.
  • for example the “what,” I’ve provided some pattern scripts and use circumstances for the three facets above. The code is published @

    To get begun, we’re going to want to make certain Git is put in in your network device, run the following instructions (after you’ve enabled guestshell; see area on the end for particulars).  The reason for using /flash/gs_script is that it’s a persistent listing and may be attainable on a switch stack switchover.

    # set up git [guestshell@guestshell ~]$ sudo yum set up git # now installation scripts into /flash/gs_script [guestshell@guestshell ~]$ git clone /flash/gs_script example 1 – PCI compliance

    right here’s an instance of a use case that I consider you’ll find enjoyable. considered one of our consumers had a PCI requirement to be sure that any switch ports that have been unused for greater than seven days had been disabled. (This changed into to evade individuals from plugging in unauthorized instruments.)The script appears in any respect interfaces on the swap, and those that have been inactive (no site visitors send/acquired) for more than seven days are shutdown. All interfaces that were shut down in a logged in a Cisco sparkroom. The interface description is updated with a message indicating the time/date it changed into shutdown by using the PCI-investigate software.

    To run the script, we’ll use the Embedded adventure manager.  EEM is a really powerful piece of IOS infrastructure that will also be used to agenda the Python script to run.  The EEM cron job runs the Python script at 15 minutes previous the hour, Monday to Friday.

    adventure manager applet PCI-determine adventure timer cron cron-entry "15 * * * 1-5" action 1.0 cli command "enable" motion 1.1 cli command "guestshell run python bootflash:gs_script/src/pci-device/ --observe"

    This script can now be run hourly (as an alternative of weekly). It’s an instance of scaling using on-box Python.

    instance 2 – DNS ACL

    one more client had a requirement to hold an ACL up-to-date with the latest DNS entries. as an instance, they wanted the ACL to reflect the actual IP addresses of and script automatically schedules its subsequent execution based on the minimal Time To live (TTL) of the DNS response. It ensures we don’t try to update more often than vital.The script logs entries which are delivered to the ACL by the use of syslog, but that could be Cisco Spark or another notification mechanism.

    show logging *Jul 12 11:44:eleven.174: %SYS-5-USERLOG_NOTICE: Message from tty4(person identity: ): "searching up" *Jul 12 11:44:11.253: %SYS-5-USERLOG_NOTICE: Message from tty4(consumer identity: ): "searching up" *Jul 12 11:forty four:11.341: %SYS-5-USERLOG_NOTICE: Message from tty4(user id: ): "including IP: seventy two.163.four.161 to ACL: fame: Success" *Jul 12 11:44:eleven.351: %SYS-5-USERLOG_NOTICE: Message from tty4(person identity: ): "adding IP: to ACL: status: Success" *Jul 12 eleven:forty four:eleven.360: %SYS-5-USERLOG_NOTICE: Message from tty4(user identity: ): "including IP: fifty four.239.17.6 to ACL: repute: Success" *Jul 12 eleven:forty four:eleven.370: %SYS-5-USERLOG_NOTICE: Message from tty4(person identification: ): "adding IP: fifty four.239.26.128 to ACL: status: Success" *Jul 12 eleven:44:eleven.379: %SYS-5-USERLOG_NOTICE: Message from tty4(person id: ): "including IP: fifty four.239.17.7 to ACL: status: Success" *Jul 12 eleven:44:11.389: %SYS-5-USERLOG_NOTICE: Message from tty4(consumer identification: ): "including IP: fifty four.239.25.200 to ACL: fame: Success" *Jul 12 11:forty four:eleven.398: %SYS-5-USERLOG_NOTICE: Message from tty4(person identification: ): "including IP: fifty four.239.25.192 to ACL: fame: Success" *Jul 12 11:44:17.605: %SYS-5-USERLOG_NOTICE: Message from tty5(person identification: ): "reschedule in : 557 seconds: popularity: Success"

    right here is the resulting ACL. be aware how the remarks are used to point out the time the ACL modified. The remaining two entries had been added at a later date.

    9300#exhibit run | sec canaryip access-record prolonged canary_ip_inremark added seventy two.163.4.161 @Wed Jul 12 11:44:11 2017permit ip any host seventy two.163.four.161remark introduced fifty four.239.25.208 @Wed Jul 12 11:forty four:11 2017permit ip any host fifty four.239.25.208remark brought @Wed Jul 12 11:forty four:11 2017permit ip any host introduced @Wed Jul 12 11:forty four:11 2017permit ip any host fifty four.239.26.128remark added @Wed Jul 12 11:44:eleven 2017permit ip any host fifty four.239.17.7remark delivered fifty four.239.25.200 @Thu Jul 13 sixteen:34:37 2017permit ip any host fifty four.239.25.200remark brought fifty four.239.25.192 @Thu Jul 13 16:34:37 2017permit ip any host fifty four.239.25.192deny ip any any

    This script uses a unique type of EEM set off, a countdown timer. The script self-updates the trigger according to the TTL of the DNS response. within the case under, it's going to fire in the subsequent 557 seconds.

    9300#display run | sec even experience manager applet DNS_update adventure timer countdown time 557 action 1.0 cli command "enable" action 1.1 cli command "guestshell run python bootflash:gs_script/src/dns-update/"

    here's an example of safety using on-box Python. No external access to the machine is required.

    example three – Configuration alternate

    This instance makes use of an EEM experience to search for a syslog message and execute a Python script. during this case, it appears for a configuration experience, and fires the script.This script will do two things:

  • A sanity investigate. This illustration is a simple examine to see if an IP tackle is reachable, nevertheless it could be extra subtle. If the sanity investigate fails, then the configuration is rolled back.
  • Log the changes to the configuration in a spark room.
  • This screenshow suggests the configuration diff posted to a spark room.

    right here’s an example of the sanity assess:  I have a very essential sanitiy check that is trying to find connectivity to   while this instance is trivial, the sanity assess may well be a great deal extra subtle (checking for OSPF neighours, number of connected hosts, and so on.).

    I shut down the loopback tackle, which is being checked with the aid of the sanity characteristic.  The sanity characteristic fails, triggering configuration rollback, and the latest (working) configuration is restored.

    9300(config)#int loopback 2 9300(config-if)#close9300(config-if)#exit9300(config)#conclusion 9300# Jul 14 12:01:04.859: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console through vty0 ( Jul 14 12:01:15.648: %MLANG-three-LOG: Sanity classification get away sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to, timeout is 2 seconds: ..... Success fee is 0 % (0/5) Jul 14 12:01:15.690: Rollback:bought Configuration lock. Jul 14 12:01:15.690: %SYS-5-CONFIG_R: Config exchange is done Jul 14 12:01:sixteen.579: %MLANG-3-LOG: complete variety of passes: 1 Rollback achieved Jul 14 12:01:18.127: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Loopback2, changed state to up Jul 14 12:01:18.127: %hyperlink-3-UPDOWN: Interface Loopback2, modified state to up

    There are loads of different options for this script, together with checking into a git repository and extra better sanity assessments.This Python script uses EEM in a different means. the primary line of the script embeds an EEM registration. If there is a syslog message with pattern “CONFIG_I” in it, the script should be carried out. (be aware: this is really a Python script, and the general Python code is after this.)

    ::cisco::eem::event_register_syslog pattern "CONFIG_I" maxrun 60 # this is an example of an EEM coverage set off # primarily based of Joe Clarke edition #

    I then tell EEM to search for the registration in the script.

    adventure manager listing person coverage flash: adventure manager coverage

    this is an illustration of autonomy; if the configuration is changed, a sanity investigate is run to make certain the device remains functioning (and connected) to the community. If the sanity check fails, the configuration is rolled again.

    upgrade sanity check

    It’s pretty simple to lengthen the use case above to investigate the repute of the gadget earlier than downloading and installation new utility. as soon as the new code is installed, it is going to re-run the sanity investigate and either remove the ancient version of code or roll lower back depending on the fame of the sanity is an additional illustration of autonomy the usage of on-container Python.

    How does this in fact work?

    Python runs in a guestshell on the gadget.  The guestshell is CentOS or Montevista shell running as an application on the equipment. so as to enable application internet hosting you should use the software internet hosting framework IOX.  To permit IOX is fairly easy:

    9300# conf t 9300(config)#iox

    then you need to permit guestshell. this can take a couple of seconds.

    9300# guestshell allow management Interface should be chosen if configured Please watch for completion

    On switches working 16.8.1 and later, you need to configure a management interface, as proven under. This changed into delivered to allow access to visitor shell from ports other than the mangement interface (GigabitEthernet0/0).

    9300# conf t app-hosting appid guestshell app-vnic management guest-interface 0 conclusion 9300# guestshell permit management Interface can be selected if configured Please stay up for completion

    as soon as it has all started, which you can either run a command or get an interactive shell session.

    9300#guestshell run echo "hello world" hello world 9300#guestshell [guestshell@guestshell ~]$

    The very first component you will do is update the DNS settings. that you could use vi, or simply a simple echo statement.

    echo -e "nameserver eight.eight.eight.eight\ndomain" > /and so on/resolv.conf

    Now to set up some Python modules. here's fairly simple. just use pip install. i am the usage of the “-E” option as my change needs a proxy to get to the internet.

    [guestshell@guestshell ~]$ sudo -E pip install netaddr accumulating netaddr Downloading netaddr-0.7.19-py2.py3-none-any.whl (1.6MB) one hundred% |################################| 1.6MB 257kB/s installing gathered programs: netaddr effectively installed netaddr-0.7.19 DevOps

    The subsequent question you’re asking is how do I retain the scripts on the gadget up to date? it would be a ache to must replica/install new scripts all the time.The solution is fairly elementary. store the scripts in a git repository (so that you have full version control), then use an EEM script to “git pull” constantly to retain them’s an easy git update script:

    [guestshell@guestshell ~]$ cat /flash/gs_script/utils/ #!/bin/bash (cd /flash/gs_script; git pull)

    All that’s required is a different EEM cron job to keep the equipment up to date with the latest git repository.

    event manager applet GIT-sync event timer cron cron-entry "0,30 * * * *" action 1.0 cli command "allow" action 1.1 cli command "guestshell run bootflash/gs_script/src/util/update_git/sh" Conclusion

    This weblog publish looked at some fundamental use cases for working Python scripts on-box in IOS-XE. It builds on earlier posts that mentioned the magnitude of application hosting and equipment programmability.I highlighted three classes of use case, namely:

  • Scale: because of disbursed execution.
  • protection: as “administration” accounts aren’t required to “log in” to a device to perform tasks.
  • Autonomy: because the machine can react to losing community connectivity.
  • The Embedded experience manager is an impressive IOS device that aids the execution of the Python scripts. I confirmed three diverse execution fashions:

  •  “Cron” or pre-scheduled. this is for scripts that should run at a definite time of day, hour, week and many others.
  • Countdown timer. this is for scripts that deserve to run at a definite time into the future
  • experience based. A script that runs when a certain adventure happens.
  • I’ll be putting more particulars concerning the mechanics of the scripts on my blog web site.

    which you can study more about on-container Python and Guestshell on the Cisco DevNet Python community Automation web page.

    Take potential of all that DevNet has to offer. Get your free DevNet account for access to network automation supplies, studying labs, docs, and sandboxes.

    Cisco social initiatives, partnerships to positively affect 50 million beneficiaries in India through 2025 | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Cisco social initiatives, partnerships to positively impact 50 million beneficiaries in India by 2025 Goa, June 27, 2018: at the Cisco India Summit 2018 nowadays, the business highlighted its a number of initiatives and courses to positively have an impact on 50 million beneficiaries in India by way of 2025. This aim is aligned to Cisco’s global imaginative and prescient of impacting 1 billion lives worldwide by 2025 via digital solutions. As a part of its philanthropic and corporate Social responsibility efforts, Cisco highlighted the important function guidance and communique expertise (ICT) and public-private partnerships play to speed up international difficulty fixing and positively have an effect on individuals, society, and the planet. Cisco is also the use of its electricity in connecting americans and issues to the web and dealing to create a strong ecosystem together with govt and community businesses in India to impact actual change within the areas of vital human needs, schooling, financial empowerment, and environmental sustainability.

    growing international issue Solvers & Fostering Entrepreneurship

    Cisco is setting up a network of “Cisco thingQbator” IoT makerspaces or innovation labs in 5 academic associations in India with the objective of digital expertise construction and entrepreneurship enablement among scholar communities. Cisco is collaborating with the NASSCOM foundation for the implementation of the program. The makerspaces will allow college students to get arms on with know-how and conceive digital solutions to local problems. The 5 academic institutions that have been chosen for establishment of ‘thingQbator’ makerspaces are Indian Institute of suggestions technology and management, (IIITMK), Kerala, IIT-BHU Varanasi, Amrita institution Coimbatore, Indira Gandhi Delhi Technical university for girls- Delhi and Trident Academy of technology Bhubaneswar.

    Cisco is also aiding N/Core, an incubator for social sector startups, to launch N/Core tech - an exclusive track concentrated on incubating early-stage nonprofits that leverage digital technology to positively affect society and remedy a few of India’s most pressing social challenges. N/Core tech will basically focus on incubating groups that are developing options within the areas of crucial human needs, training, and financial empowerment. Cisco will help up to twenty companies all through the primary 12 months in two cohorts. every selected startup will acquire an innovation supply of INR 10 Lakhs. moreover, the startup can have access to a group of mentors and technology consultants from Cisco together with N/Core companions.

    With the help of Cisco’s CSR furnish, N/Core will invest in early-stage, tech-led concepts partnering with high-influence social sector startups to create scalable and sustainable solutions. besides offering cash provides, Cisco will additionally aid these startups with mentoring, worker volunteering, and ability building.

    competencies construction & building personnel capacity

    As a part of its efforts to accelerate India’s digital transformation, Cisco is scaling up its Cisco Networking Academy program to create a pool of particularly-expert know-how authorities. via this program schools, faculties, universities and different non-income tutorial associations are supplied Cisco-developed curriculum in computing device networking, security and IoT that will also be integrated with the institution’s personal educational offering. Cisco additionally supports public sector companies like the Telangana Academy for expertise and talents, and the ICT Academy of Kerala, to supply working towards on networking and cybersecurity skills aimed at enhancing employability of engineering graduates in those states. by means of 2020 Cisco aims to create a pipeline of 250,000 professional students in India as well as a market for top-price technology-based mostly careers. Already over a hundred and fifty five,000 college students have efficaciously picked up necessities potential from over 306 academies throughout the country.

    ability Outreach software is a six-month application to give excessive faculty students an early exposure to technical expertise to more desirable put together them as world difficulty solvers. In its second 12 months, 70 college students from 12 colleges had been enrolled for this program. The college students of this software use technologies like HTML, JavaScript, AngularJS, Bootstrap, php, MySQL, Python, IoT (raspberry pi) to create platforms and apps to handle true existence challenges confronted by way of colleges and students. one of the crucial initiatives encompass a college-large e-book sharing app during which students can add books to share, study and gain knowledge of with other college students; and an RFID-based mostly attendance system for classification students. The latter solution eliminates the tedious time- drinking project of manually monitoring attendance and minimizes chance of error.

    Cisco additionally launched the Centre of Excellence (CoE) for information superhighway of things (IoT) at R V faculty of Engineering, Bengaluru to supply the subsequent era of scholars the digital advantage and practicing integral for jobs within the digital economic climate. On completion of the path, students and working authorities obtain credential certificates jointly given by means of RVCE and Cisco. within the ultimate 12 months, one thousand students have benefitted from this CoE.

    ‘Step Up for India – Spoken English program’ is in its fourth yr and has benefitted over 300+ college students from three govt faculties in Bangalore. The application gives you structured spoken English classes to college students in grade four and 5 discovering in executive colleges the place the medium of guideline is the local language. These structured interventions are also accomplished within the house of STEM learning equivalent to in the case of ‘undertaking Smiles via Science’ which endeavors to provide an experiential researching platform for students on the fundamentals of robotics via structured year-lengthy programs leveraging the skills and mentorship of Cisco volunteers. a hundred and twenty+ students from Parikrma Humanity foundation benefitted from the application ultimate 12 months.

    crucial Human needs

    Cisco is additionally assisting the Akshaya Patra foundation, the realm’s biggest (non-earnings) mid-day meal application to assist feed children across the nation and digitize their kitchens across seven places in India. while worker giving, volunteering and enterprise matching grants help feed 35,000 children daily, Cisco’s enterprise-grade network and collaboration suite is connecting Akshaya Patra kitchens and their workplaces to effectively music their kitchen creation, distribution, supply chain and logistics. This digitisation effort is anticipated to enhance Akshaya Patra's operational efficiency with the aid of about five % so that they can assist them prolong the mid-day meal application to over 28,500 students each day and one step nearer to their goal of feeding 5 million toddlers with the aid of 2020.

    Environmental Sustainability

    Cisco is additionally committed to cutting back greenhouse gas emissions and adopting renewable power. It recently signed two photo voltaic energy buy agreements (PPAs) in order to mutually carry 85,000 megawatt-hours of clean, renewable electrical energy each year to the native electric powered grid close its Bangalore campus. These agreements will provide pretty much forty percent of the electrical energy that is required to power Cisco’s Bangalore campus.

    Cisco has additionally installed one megawatt of solar panels throughout all of its rooftops on the Bangalore campus. jointly, these onsite photo voltaic installations and two new photo voltaic PPAs will reduce Cisco's Scope 2 greenhouse gas emissions at its Bangalore campus by using over 70,000 metric tonnes per year, which is similar to taking 15,000 vehicles off roads or planting 1.8 million trees

    V C Gopalratnam, Trustee, Cisco groundwork & Senior vp, IT & CIO – foreign mentioned, “according to a Cisco research, via 2030 there will more than 500 billion gadgets linked to the internet. this could have a profound impact on not simply corporations however our typical lives too. with a purpose to take advantage of the plethora of alternatives that lie forward of us, we will need to harness the vigor of expertise to create an inclusive digital economic climate. With our philanthropic and CSR efforts, we are dedicated to positively have an effect on 50 million beneficiaries in India the subsequent seven years. We work with one of the vital most forward considering partners, now not-for-earnings agencies, collaborative governments and rankings of passionate personnel to really make a special to the area that we inhabit.”

    Rola Dagher Named President of Cisco Canada | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    TORONTO, ON--(Marketwired - Jun 5, 2017) - Cisco ( NASDAQ : CSCO ) is happy to announce the appointment of Rola Dagher because the new president of Cisco Canada. Ms. Dagher takes the reins from Bernadette Wightman, who has effectively achieved her contract in Canada and is returning to the united kingdom.

    With over 25-years of know-how event in server, storage, and networking markets, Dagher is a pro professional and a tremendously-revered revenue chief. Dagher joins Cisco from Dell EMC, where she held loads of management roles in sales, channels, and IT. Most lately, she served as vice president and time-honored manager of the Canadian Infrastructure options neighborhood for Dell EMC, liable for leading the server, storage, networking, options, and systems engineering enterprise.

    Dagher replaces Bernadette Wightman, who has led Cisco Canada on the grounds that 2014. below Wightman's management, Cisco Canada launched the Cisco Toronto Innovation Centre and the Cisco ladies's Entrepreneur Circle, concentrated on building an ecosystem to assist innovation in Ontario and across Canada.

    "Cisco Canada isn't only one of our main nation operations globally, however is also a key centre of innovation and R&D for the business," pointed out Alison Gleeson, senior vice chairman, Americas. "We thank Dette for her management, her dedication to riding customer affect, and commitment to impacting range. Congratulations to Rola as she takes over the reins of this outstanding crew."

    About Cisco Cisco ( NASDAQ : CSCO ) is the global know-how chief that has been making the web work on the grounds that 1984. Our individuals, products, and companions support society securely connect and seize day after today's digital possibility these days. discover greater at and follow us on Twitter at @Cisco.

    Cisco, the Cisco emblem, Cisco methods and Cisco IOS are registered logos or logos of Cisco programs, Inc. and/or its associates within the u.s. and likely different countries. All other logos mentioned during this document are the property of their respective homeowners. the use of the be aware companion doesn't suggest a partnership relationship between Cisco and any other business. This document is Cisco Public information.

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    5nm Design Progress | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Activity surrounding the 5nm manufacturing process node is quickly ramping, creating a better picture of the myriad and increasingly complex design issues that must be overcome.

    Progress at each new node after 28nm has required an increasingly tight partnership between the foundries, which are developing new processes and rule decks, along with EDA and IP vendors, which are adding tools, methodologies, and pre-developed blocks to make all of this work. But 5nm adds some new twists, including the insertion of EUV lithography for more critical layers, and more physical and electrical effects that could affect everything from signal integrity and yield to aging and reliability after manufacturing.

    “For logic, the challenge at 5nm is to properly manage the interaction between the standard cells and the power grid,” said Jean-Luc Pelloie, a fellow in Arm’s Physical Design Group. “The days where you could build a power grid without considering the standard cells are over. The architecture of the standard cells must fit with the power grid implementation. Therefore, the power grid must be selected based on the logic architecture.”

    At 5nm, IR drop and electromigration issues are almost be impossible to resolve if this interaction has not been properly accounted for from the beginning.

    “The proper power grid also will limit the impact of the back-end-of-line (BEOL) effects, primarily the simple fact that via and metal resistances increase as we continue to shrink into 5nm,” Pelloie said. “In addition to considering the logic architecture for the power grid, a regular, evenly distributed power grid helps reduce this impact. For designs using power gates, those gates need to be inserted more frequently to not degrade the performance. This can result in an increase of the block area and can reduce the area gain when shrinking from the previous process node.”

    The migration to each new node below 10/7nm is becoming much more difficult, time-consuming and expensive. In addition to the physical issues, there are changes in methodology and even the assumptions that engeers need to make.

    “You’ve got a higher-performance system, you’ve got a more accurate system, so you can do more analysis,” said Ankur Gupta, director of product engineering for the semiconductor business unit at ANSYS. “But a lot of engineering teams still have to move away from traditional IR assumptions or margins. They still have to answer the question of whether they can run more corners. And if they can run more corners, which corners do they pick? That’s the industry challenge. When running EM/IR analysis, it’s a strong function of the vectors that the engineering chooses to run. If I could manufacture the right vectors, I would have done it yesterday, but I can’t.”

    Choosing the right vectors isn’t always obvious. “Technology is quickly evolving here as a combination of voltage and timing that can intelligently pick or identify the weak points,” Gupta noted. “That’s not just from a grid weakness perspective, but from the perspective of grid weakness plus sensitivity to delay, to process variation, to simultaneous switching—sensitivity to a bunch of things that ultimately can impact the path and cause a failure.”

    This changes the entire design approach, he said. “Can the margins be lowered, and can flows be designed so they are convergent throughout the entire process? Could I potentially use statistical voltages instead of a flat guard band IR drop upfront and then potentially go down to these DVD waveforms — really accurate DVD waveforms — and a path to get high levels of accuracy in the signoff space? Could I potentially analyze chip, package and system? Could I potentially do all of this analysis so I don’t waste 5% margin coming from the package into the chip? At 7nm, we were talking about near-threshold compute, as in some corners are at NTC, not the entire chip, because you look at the mobile guys and they’re not always running sub-500. There are some conditions and modes where you’ll be running at sub-500, but at 5nm because of the overall thermal envelope and the overall power consumption budget, the mobile guys are probably going to be running all corners sub-600 millivolts.”

    It’s not just mobile. The same is true for networking, GPUs, or AI chips, because a lot of these designs have the same total power envelope restrictions. They are packaging so many transistors into a small space that the total power consumption will dictate the max operating voltage. “You can’t burn enough power if you’re upgrading, you don’t have enough power to burn at 800 millivolts or so if the entire chip now starts to operate at 600 millivolts or lower,” Gupta said. “Then you take tens of sub-500 millivolt corners and that becomes your entire design, which puts you in the land of ‘must-have these [analysis] technologies.’ Next to 7nm, we are seeing the variation impact at 5nm in early versions of spice models is worse.”

    Many of these technology and design issues have been getting worse for several nodes.

    “There are more challenging pin access paradigms, more complex placement and routing constraints, more dense power-ground grid support, tighter alignment necessary between library architecture and PG grid, more and tighter electromigration considerations, lower supply voltage corners, more complex library modeling, additional physics detail in extraction modeling, more and new DRC rules,” said Mitch Lowe, vice president of R&D at Cadence. “Obviously, EUV lithography is critical, which does reduce but not eliminate multi-patterning challenges and impacts. While some things are simplified by EUV, there are some new challenges that are being addressed.”

    The EDA community has been working on these issues for some time. “We are at the stage to see leading EDA solutions emerge,” Lowe said. “Much more work is ahead of us, but it is clear the 5nm technologies will be successfully deployed.”

    The EDA ecosystem is heavily investing in continuous PPA optimization and tightening correlation through the integration of multiple common engines. One example is combining IR drop impacts with static timing analysis (STA) to manage the increasing risks inherent in using traditional margining approaches at 5nm, Lowe said.

    Other changes may be required, as well. Mark Richards, marketing manager for the design group at Synopsys, noted that 5nm is still immature, with various foundries at different points in their development plans and execution.

    “Outside of the main foundry players, which are aggressively moving to deliver a production ready flow in a very short timeframe, research is being conducted on new architectures for transistors, because to some degree the finFET is being stretched to its limit toward the 5nm node,” Richards said. “This is why there is somewhat of a tailing off in top-line performance benefits, as reported by the foundries themselves. As you deploy fin-depopulation to meet area shrink goals, this necessitates an increase in the height of the fin to mitigate the intrinsic drive reduction. That brings intrinsic capacitance issues and charging and discharging those capacitances is problematic from a performance perspective,” he explained.

    Samsung and GlobalFoundries have announced plans to move to nanosheet FETs at 3nm, and TSMC is looking at nanosheet FETs and nanowires at that node. All of those are gate-all-around FETs, which are needed to reduce gate leakage beyond 5nm. There also are a number of nodelets, or stepping-stone nodes along the way, which reduce the impact of migrating to entirely new technologies.

    Fig. 1: Gate-all-around FET. Source: Synopsys

    At 5nm, a very strong increase in both electrical and thermal parasitics is expected, Dr. Christoph Sohrmann, advanced physical verification at Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS, said. “First of all, the FinFET design will suffer from stronger self-heating. Although this will be taken care of from the technology side, the reduced spacing is a design challenge which cannot entirely be coved by static design rules. The enhanced thermal/electrical coupling across the design will effectively increase to a point where sensitive parts of the chip such as high-performance SerDes may suffer from a limited peak performance. However, this depends strongly on the use case and the isolation strategy. Choosing the right isolation technique — like design-wise and technology — requires more accurate and faster design tools, particularly focused at the parasitics in those very advanced nodes. We expect to see a lot of new physical effects which need to go into those tools. This is not too far away from quantum scale. To get the physics right, a lot of test structures will be required to fit the models of those novel tools. This is a time consuming and expensive challenge. Fewer heuristical models are also expected, with more real physical approaches in the models. On top of that, the foundries will be very cautious about those parameters and models. All future standards in this area need to account for this, too.”

    Then, for 3nm and beyond, there will have to be a move to new transistor structures to continue to achieve the performance benefits that are expected at new nodes, Richards said. “With the increased introduction of stepping-stone nodes, you’re basically borrowing from the next node to some degree. When you throw a node in the middle, you kind of borrow from the next node as far as what the projected benefits will be. That’s what we’re seeing in some of these boutique nodes in between, but they are important given end-customer demand, and they do enable our customers to hit aggressive product-delivery windows.”

    For any new process node, tremendous investment is required by the EDA and IP community to make sure tools, libraries and IP are aligned with the new technical specifications and capabilities. Part of this is the process design kit that design teams must adhere to for that new node.

    Across the industry, there is a lot of development work ongoing for cell and IP development. “In real terms, the biggest amount of change and development work materializes in or before the 0.5-level PDK,” Richards said. “Generally, from 0.5 onward, there is a reduced delta to what the PDK would be expected change. So normally everything’s done. Between pathfinding, 0.1 and 0.5, the big majority is done, then the rest tapers off because by that point you’ve had numerous customers do test chips, so the amount of change required is reduced. Beyond that point it’s really about building out and maturing the reference flows, building out methodologies, and really bolstering those in that 0.5 to 1.0 timeframe to make sure the promise from the scaling and the performance perspective are going to be realizable in real chips.”

    Fig. 2: 5nm nanosheet. Source: IBM

    To move or not to moveAnother consideration many semiconductor companies are currently facing is not to migrate to the next node, or at least not so quickly, or whether to move in completely different directions.

    “New architectures are going to be accepted,” said Wally Rhines, president and CEO of Mentor, a Siemens Business. “They’re going to be designed in. They will have machine learning in many or most cases, because your brain has the ability to learn from experience. I visited 20 or more companies doing their own special-purpose AI processor of one sort or another, and they each have their own little angle. But you’re going to see them in specific applications increasingly, and they will complement the traditional von Neumann architecture. Neuromorphic computing will become mainstream, and it’s a big piece of how we take the next step in efficiency of computation, reducing the cost, doing things in both mobile and connected environments that today we have to go to a big server farm to solve.”

    Others are expected to stay the course, at least for now.

    “Many of our customers are already engaged in 5nm work,” Richards said. “They’re trying to work out what this node shift brings for them because obviously the scaling benefits on paper are very different to the scaling benefits that they can realize in a real design — their own designs with their own specific challenges — and so they’re trying to work out what is a real scaling, what are the real performance benefits, is this tractable, is it a good methodology to use, and a good plan from a product perspective.”

    Today, the expectation for early adoption of 5nm will be mobile applications, he said. “TSMC itself quoted a 20% bump from N7, and, to my knowledge, an unknown bump from 7++ . Realistically, mobile is a good application, where area – slated to be 45% vs. N7 – is really going to provide a big differentiation. You’ll get the power and performance benefits that are also important but with the latest IP cores growing in complexity and area, you need to have the freedom to develop a differentiated cluster and aggressive area shrinks will allow for that.”

    The key metrics are always performance, power and area, and the tradeoffs between all of those are becoming more difficult. Increasing performance brings a subsequent increase in dynamic power, which makes IR drop more challenging. That requires more time to be spent tuning the power grid so designs can deliver enough power, but not kill the design routability along the way.

    “The key thing with power really is how to get power down to the standard cells,” said Richards. “You just can’t put the cells close enough together because it spoils the resources with power grid. This means working early in the flow with power and its implications. On an SoC design you might see very different power grids, depending on the performance requirements of each of the blocks on the SoC. It’s not just a one size fits all. It must be tuned per block, and that’s challenging in itself. Having the analysis and the sign-off ability within the design platform is now going to become more and more important as you make those tradeoffs.”

    Narrower marginAt the same time, the margin between the threshold and the operating voltages is now so small at 5nm that extra analysis is a must.

    TSMC and Samsung both have mentioned extreme low-Vt cells, which are paramount for really pushing performance at 5nm, where the threshold and operating voltage very close together.

    “The nonlinearities and the strange behaviors that happen when you’re in that phase need to be modeled and captured to be able to drop it as low as possible,” he said. “Obviously LVF (Liberty Variation Format) was required at 7nm, for when the operating voltage was getting very, very low and very close to the threshold, but now even when you’re running what you would not consider a extremely low power design with extremely low voltage Vt cells effectively, you’re back in the same position. You’ve closed that gap again, and now LVF and modeling those things is very important.”

    Inductance, electromagnetic effectsIndeed, with the move to 7nm and 5nm, the trends are clear: increasing frequencies, tighter margins, denser integrated circuits, and new devices and materials, stressed Magdy Ababir, vice president of marketing at Helic.

    He noted during the recent Design Automation Conference, a panel discussed and debated such concepts as: where and when should full electromagnetic (EM) verification be included; whether ignoring magnetic effects leads to more silicon failures during development; whether the methodology of applying best practices to avoid EM coupling and skipping the tedious EM verification part should still be a valid practice; if this methodology is scalable to 5nm integrated circuits and below; if the dense matricies resulting from inductive coupling and difficulty of simulations are the main reason why industry did not widely adopt full EM simulations; and what can be done in-terms of tool development, education, and research to lower the barrier for industry to adopt full EM simulation.

    “The panel members all agreed strongly that the full EM analysis is becoming fundamental in at least some key parts of any cutting-edge chip. A panelist from Synopsys was of the opinion that is needed in some key places in a chip such as clocking, wide data busses, and power distribution, but not yet in mainstream digital design. An Intel panelist was of the opinion that for current chips, applying best practices and skipping using full EM simulations still works, however this methodology will not scale into the future. A panelist from Nvidia simply stated that EM simulations is a must with his very high frequency SERDES designs, and a panelist from Helic agreed strongly here, and showed examples of unexpected EM coupling causing failures in key chips. The moderator was of the opinion that magnetic effects are already there strongly and have been very significant in integrated circuits for a while, but the difficulty of including magnetic effects into simulation, and manipulating very large and dense matrices resulting from inductive coupling is the main reason full EM verification is not mainstream yet. Everyone agreed that not including EM effects in verification results in overdesign at best and potential failures,” Abadir offered.

    In the end, the panel agreed that there is a need for significant improvement of tools that handle EM verification, better understanding of magnetic effects, and significant research on how to protect against EM failures or even adopt designs that benefit from magnetic effects. The panel also agreed that current trends of higher frequencies, denser circuits, and scaling of devices combined with the exploding penalty on a chip failure, makes including full EM verification imperative, he added.

    An additional challenge at 5nm is the accuracy of waveform propagation. Waveform propagation is notoriously expensive from a runtime perspective, and as a result needs to be captured throughout the entire design flow. Otherwise, the surprise at sign-off would be that the design is too big to close.

    The typical way to solve these problems is by adding margin into the design. But margining has become an increasingly thorny issue ever since the advent of finFETs, because dimensions are so small that extra circuitry reduces the PPA benefits of scaling. So rather than just adding margin, design teams are being forced to adhere to foundry models and rules much more closely.

    “Foundries do provide models of devices that represent corner models,” said Deepak Sabharwal, vice president of IP engineering at eSilicon. “In the past, you were told the corner models capture the extremes of what would be manufactured, but that is no longer the case. Today, there are still corner models, but there are also variation models, both global and local. Global variation capture the global means of manufacturing, such as when multiple lots are run at a foundry, each lot is going to behave in a certain manner and that is captured as part of my global variation. Local variation models represent when I’m on a die and my die has a Gig of elements. Then I have the middle point of my distribution, and what the outliers are on that distribution.”

    At 5nm, both the global plus the local variation must be considered, because they are incremental.

    “At the same time, these kinds of analysis are experience-driven,” Sabharwal said. “How much margin do you add, and also make sure you do not go overboard? If you design for too much of your sigma, you ended up being uncompetitive. That’s what you have to watch out for, and that’s really where the experience comes in. You have to make sure you put in enough margin that you can sleep at night, but not kill your product by putting in too much extra area that you don’t need to put in.”

    More than ever, 5nm brings together a range of new challenges. “When you think about the billions of components sitting on that chip, it explains why the size of the teams needed to build these chips is now increasing as you flip from one generation to the next. It’s all these challenges that are coming our way. These problems are going to remain, where people will come up with techniques to resolve them and just continue business as usual. Engineering is really that art of building stuff that will work reliably all the time,” Sabharwal said.

    Related Stories7/5nm Timing Closure IntensifiesThe issues may be familiar, but they’re more difficult to solve and can affect everything from performance to yield.Emulation-Driven ImplementationTech Talk: How to improve confidence that designs will work properly in less time.Design Rule Complexity RisingTotal number of rules is exploding, but that’s only part of the problem.Quantum Effects At 7/5nm And BeyondAt future nodes there are some unexpected behaviors. What to do about them isn’t always clear.

    General Electric's (GE) CEO John Flannery Hosts Investor Update Conference Call (Transcript) | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    No result found, try new keyword!And so just in the time I have been speaking, those scanners have generated about 50,000 scans and so we think all the families, all the information, all the knowledge that come ... much more connecte...

    50 grand challenges for the 21st Century | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Over the past month, Future Now has been covering the “grand challenges” we face as a society in a series of articles, videos and graphics. We polled a panel of people from various fields about the vital issues they believe deserve more attention – you can browse 50 of those responses below, which we’ll continue to draw on throughout this year. There’s a lot to digest in one sitting – so dip in, reflect, come back...

    You can also catch up on the stories inspired by these responses that we’ve published to date here: The Grand Challenges.

    * * *


    danah boyd, Principal Researcher at Microsoft ResearchData-driven technologies are increasingly being integrated into many different parts of society, from judicial decision-making processes to automated vehicles to the dissemination of news. Each of these implementations raises serious questions about what values are being implemented and to whom these implementations are accountable. There is increasing desire by regulators, civil society, and social theorists to see these technologies be “fair” and “ethical,” but these concepts are fuzzy at best. Meanwhile, there are significant trade-offs and local decisions that technical actors face on a day-to-day basis that shape the very structure of these systems. Developing responsible sociotechnical systems will require bridging the social-technical gap that can easily emerge as social actors and technical actors speak past one another.

    Missy Cummings, Professor, Humans and Autonomy Lab, Duke UniversityI think one of the most important challenges faced by robotic systems of the future, which include driverless cars, drones, surgical and manufacturing robots, is how will we be able to certify these systems as safe, particularly those that embed artificial intelligence? By their very nature, artificial intelligence algorithms reason probabilistically and as uncertainty increases in the world, uncertainty increases in an algorithm’s ability to successfully and safely come to a solution. Presently we have no commonly-accepted approaches and without an industry standard for testing such stochastic systems, it is difficult for these technologies to be widely implemented.

    Kate Darling, Research Specialist at MIT Media Lab. Fellow at the Harvard Berkman Klein Center for Internet & SocietyCompanies are going to follow their market incentives. That’s not a bad thing, but we can’t rely on them just to be ethical for the sake of it, for the most part. It helps to have regulation in place. We’ve seen this in privacy, or whenever we have a new technology, and we figure out how to deal with it.

    Ezekiel Emanuel, Vice Provost for Global Initiatives and chair of the Department of Medical Ethics and Health Policy at the University of PennsylvaniaI think one of the big issues is going to be unemployment: automation, artificial intelligence, virtual reality. It seems pretty inevitable it’s going to create displacement of workers, ie unemployment. If you look at what gives people meaning in their lives, it’s three things: meaningful relationships, passionate interests, and meaningful work. Meaningful work is a very important element of someone’s identity.

    Viktor Mayer Schonberger, Professor of Internet Governance and Regulation, Oxford Internet InstituteMy #1 issue is not the future of democracy (or related issues such as fake news, Trump, social networking bubbles, or even cybersecurity), but the future of humanity. As we are developing more and more ways to let computers take over reasoning through adaptive learning, we are faced with an existential question: what is it – long term – that makes us human? It used to be doing calculus, playing Chess (or Go), flying airplanes, driving cars, having a conversation, playing Jeopardy, or cooking (to name a few). What if data-driven, learning algorithms can do all that? What’s the essence of being human – is it radical creativity, irrational originality, craziness and illogicality? And if so, are we then shaping our learning institutions to help humans develop and nurture exactly these skills (our competitive advantages). In short, for me 2017 marks the year, when intra-human problems slowly begin to pale when compared to this more fundamental and existential one.

    Peter Norvig, Director of Research, GoogleArtificial intelligence has proven to be quite effective at practical tasks – from labeling photos, to understanding speech and written natural language, to helping identify diseases. The challenge now is to make sure everyone benefits from this technology. It's important that machine learning be researched openly, and spread via open publications and open source code, so we can all share in the rewards.

    Richard Alan Peters, Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt UniversityIn my opinion, the most important breakthrough in robotics and AI to come is the learning of concepts by learning sensory-motor coordination. An intelligent agent (animal or robot) that can manipulate the physical world while sensing the results of said manipulation forms one half of a complex dynamical system. The other half is the world. Complex dynamical systems form patterns in nature. In the case of an animal (including humans) that pattern occurs in the brain and spinal cord system. It relates sensing to action and vice-versa. In a robot, I like to call this “natural intelligence” to distinguish it from artificial intelligence which is usually acquired by a disembodied computer. Among other things this approach solves the symbol grounding problem (how an agent’s internal symbols relate to the physical world. This has been puzzled over since Aristotle.) And it solves the “frame problem” by providing a physical context for deliberative thought.

    AI, although very useful, will never approach human intelligence until it is embodied. That is, of course, a hypothesis, a conjecture that has yet to be proven. But I believe we are close. These ideas were first set down by Rodney Brooks at MIT in the 1980’s. Brooks hypothesis isIntelligence is an emergent phenomenon that is the result of embodiment, situatedness, development and interaction.

    Bruce Schneier, international security technologistThe Internet of Things is giving computers the ability to affect the world in a direct physicalmanner. As this happens to more and more things, the particular ways in which computers fail will become the way everything fails. This means more catastrophic failures, as bugs and vulnerabilities affect every instance of a piece of software. This will completely change how wethink about the risks of computerised cars, computerised appliances, computerised everything.

    Tomotaka Takahashi, founder of Kyoto University’s Robo GarageIn 2017, cloud funding and hardware start ups are going to collapse. Because of the fake demo videos, people’s expectations to technology is getting too high, and no product can satisfy them. Only a few strong companies and products, such as Amazon Echo, can survive. I believe people are going to demand Echo with more humanity and portability, and social robots like RoBoHoN will find its market in five years.

    Jonathan Zittrain, Professor of International Law at Harvard Law School and the Harvard Kennedy School of Government, Professor of Computer Science at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Director of the Harvard Law School Library, and Faculty Director of the Berkman Klein Center for Internet & SocietyI'm concerned about the reduction of human autonomy as our systems -- aided by technology -- become more complex and tightly coupled. Artificial intelligence is making some real progress right now, and our work is less to worry about a science fiction robot takeover, and more to see how technology can be used to help with human reflection and decisionmaking rather than to entirely substitute for it. If we "set it and forget it," we may rue how a system evolves, and that there is no clear place for an ethical dimension to be considered.


    Mary Barra, CEO, General MotorsThe auto industry stands at an inflection point where rapidly advancing technology and evolving customer needs offer a unique opportunity to transform our relationship with customers, communities and the environment. Thanks to connectivity, electrification, autonomous vehicles and car- and ridesharing, the way customers interact with our vehicles is going to change in a way that hasn't happened since the industry was born more than 100 years ago. Some view this as a disruption – we believe it represents a tremendous opportunity to make people’s lives safer, simpler and better. Realising these changes demands the ability to recruit from a talented pool of diverse candidates with Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) expertise. Today, there is more demand for some STEM areas than there is available new talent and the demand continues to grow. It’s one of the reasons we are committed to doing all we can to encourage young people to pursue careers in STEM, particularly in Technology and Engineering.

    Nootan Bharani, Lead Design Manager, Place Lab – ‎Place Lab, University of ChicagoA pivot from just climate change to segregation. Specifically, the widening gap between wealthy and impoverished people, worldwide. Climate change is a causal factor in the increased(ing) disparity. So too are racism and classism.

    Climate change exacerbates the challenges thrust upon impoverished people. The use and habitation of spaces demonstrates this clearly – the quantity, quality, and increasingly, the ability of one’s space to protect from harsher and unexpected elements.

    Solutions should be structural as well as grass roots. Sound policy as well as micro-local community-based. Intentional systems got us into this pickle, and intentional systems will need to be part of the process to reach toward common vision and goals.

    Scratching the surface are programmes offered by governments and utilities, to assist homeowners to weatherise their structures. Impoverished communities still lack the resource/capacity to capture full use of technologies – methods are already known and commonplace in sustainable new construction. The most robust and innovative energy efficiency programs are yet to benefit those that would feel the greatest impact from the captured savings.

    Culture is intersectional, is an arbiter. Culture is part of the solution to finding common ground between wealthy and impoverished (and all in-between).

    Vernacular architectures are expressions of the people and culture in a particular locale, in particular climates. My “dream” of seeing more vernacular architecture overlapped with contemporary design is a desire to see cultural identities expressed as much as it is a desire to see climate adaptive solutions for space.

    Larry Burns, former corporate vice president of Research and Development for General MotorsAccording to the World Health Organisation, over 1.2 million people a year die from crashes on the world’s roadways. This is epidemic in scale. Traffic safety experts predict that over 90% of roadway fatalities can be eliminated when driverless vehicle technology reaches its full potential. Regulators, police organisations and liability experts responsibly caution that we cannot let driverless technology get in front of safety. However, like with all epidemics, we also have a responsibility to realise the full potential of cures as soon as possible. While we must be prudent, we also must not let those with vested interests in human driven cars slow progress. We must work together to safely accelerate the realisation of driverless vehicles. Reaching this imperative one-day sooner could save over 3,000 lives!

    Vishaan Chakrabarti, Associate Professor of Practice at Columbia Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and PreservationThe major new challenge for the fields of architecture and urbanism will be to build what I call the "Public Metropolis," which means cities that are more ecologically sound, more equitable, more humane in their deployment of technology, more intense in their creation of new infrastructure, and more fervent in their roles as beacons for a free, diverse and open global society in a time when nativism and fascism are on the rise. The debate of whether to build dense, transit-based cities as the most environmentally sound growth model in a world in which billions are reaching the middle class is largely settled: the question that remains is not whether to build better cities, but how. Great civic architecture for both public and private projects will be pivotal to this question by enabling the creation of new cultural buildings, commercial projects, and infrastructures that read and write with the specifics of a place, so that we maintain local identities in a global world.

    Lucy Jones, Science Advisor for Risk Reduction for the United States Geological SurveyWe do a great job as a society of funding and supporting innovative research – we really admire that aspect of it. What we do a very bad job at is making the interface between that esoteric research and how people can actually use the information.

    People want predictions (for earthquakes). But people have to understand the scientific process. That’s problem number one: The communication phase. People on the outside turn to us (researchers) for answers, and we are so caught up in the scientific process that we know no answer that we’re talking about is final. There’s this gap that we’re not helping people understand, and it’s actively discouraged – if you have a young scientist who’s brilliant on TV explaining earthquakes, they may say no, I’m not going to do this because it’s going to hurt my career.

    Rochelle Kopp, founder and Managing Principal of Japan Intercultural CounselingI would say that one of the biggest challenges for the 21st Century as relates to Japan and Asia, and indeed the rest of the world, is related to questions of immigration (which includes refugee issues). These have of course received a lot of attention in the media, but the discussions are often stuck at a basic level, and governmental policies and programs are often not sufficiently addressing the issues.

    Specifically as for Asia: Japan, as well as Korea and China, are rapidly ageing and thus there will be increasing demand for labor in those countries, whereas many surrounding countries have surplus amounts of labour. Already we see Japan is very dependent on foreign labor in sectors like agriculture and construction, although not through formal immigration but rather through exploitative “trainee” programs.

    Part of the debate around immigration and acceptance of refugees, both in Japan and other countries, relates to how to integrate people from another culture into a society. This is my field, of cross-cultural communication and understanding. There is a lot of room for further application of the lessons of the cross-cultural field in areas outside of business (where they are most often being utilised today), to help countries address issues related to immigrants and refugees.

    Chris Leinberger, Nonresident Senior Fellow – Metropolitan Policy Program, Brookings InstituteThe real political and societal changes I’m seeing are taking place at the micro-local level: the biggest sociopolitical movement has been the organisation at the “place” level of the neighbourhood level, at least in this country. It’s under the radar screen – we are fundamentally inserting a new level of governance in society, and it’s taking the form of neighbourhood associations at the super local level, taking the form of improvement districts, special assessment districts, like in Midtown Manhattan. All of these places are becoming organised.

    Every neighbourhood in this country has a neighbourhood organisation – 30 years ago this didn’t exist. Today, virtually every neighbourhood is organised. Business improvement districts in particular are making leaps and bounds in the management of our society and they are recognising and working with technology firms to far better understand how these places work. The next big technological jump is a software jump: we now have the hardware. The issue is coming up with software that will create the mega database that will understand every part of the built environment at the place level, and eventually, the metropolitan level.

    Right now, nobody knows what’s in Midtown [Manhattan]. We don’t know what percentage of that is office; what percentage of that is retail. We didn’t have those data sets 15 years ago, and we didn’t have the software, and we certainly didn’t have the computing capability.

    So when a city or when a business improvement district makes a major capital investment in the future, you could foresee the time that we’ll be able to say, ‘okay, let’s build the Second Avenue subway. It’ll cost us $5bn and this is the expected economic and tax revenues we will get from that based on this data set, and we will then decide what to do – and we will look at secondary consequences like gentrification and see how we’re going to address that based upon those future projects we make.’ We will learn much better how to plan, build, and pay for these places; invest in the right thing. Right now conclusions are based on guestimations, like ridership. We’re getting closer to saying this is going to be the economic and fiscal benefit of doing that, and here are the unintended consequences we need to be concerned about: congestion, gentrification, displacement, whatever. All those tools will help place managements. This is a new field of place management.

    Edward Paice, Director, Africa Research InstituteIn Africa, very rapid urban growth – spatial and demographic – is occurring without adequate planning (or, in many locations, any planning at all). Even where master plans have been drawn up, these tend to be either ‘fantasy designs’ drawing on wholly inappropriate models such as Dubai or Singapore; or they mimic equally inappropriate plans drawn up for cities in Europe or the US. Urbanisation in Africa is occurring in its own distinctive fashion and there are significant variations within and between countries. But one common feature is that the economies of nearly all towns and cities are predominantly informal. The creation of long-term, decent jobs by the state and private enterprise is woefully inadequate; industrialisation remains for the most part absent. For African urbanisation to become a positive economic and social development, as opposed to a ticking time-bomb, urban planning needs to incorporate total populations, not simply the rich and middle classes; this is the only way that the economic potential of the majority can be harnessed for the national good. How can this be done? Firstly, citizens have to be involved. Community participation in slum redevelopment initiatives has proven to be a far more productive and cheaper way of going about things than imposing ill-conceived, expensive schemes from above. Secondly, the technology exists to facilitate the rapid planning required – for example, data collection with mobile phones and satellite imagery have already been beneficial. Thirdly, urban-dwellers everywhere – voters – can mobilise even more effectively to ensure that their elected representatives deliver more. We are seeing this occurring in more and more towns and cities and it is a very positive development for cities, for infrastructure development and for democracy. Even in autocracies there is always room for citizens to organise and thereby secure services or rights that they have been denied. The final, essential, component is political will. This has been conspicuously lacking, but more determined and competent mayors and city leaders are emerging and the power of example is considerable.

    The majority of Africans will live in towns and cities by 2050. Management consultancies and international financiers routinely claim that rapid urbanisation is one of the great pluses in the investment case for Africa. As things stand, this is hyperbolic nonsense. For towns and cities to drive economic growth and livelihood improvement, more imaginative and effective urban planning and management are imperative; and the provision of public goods must replace a narrow focus on the wellbeing of elites.

    Nick Reed, Academy Director at the Transport Research LaboratorySafety of travel – by that I mean not just the 1.3m that die on the roads each year (clearly unacceptable) but also the broader implications (effects on mental health and respiratory illness through poor air quality; need to move sustainable travel – walking and cycling to tackle obesity, diabetes etc)

    Automation – as we move towards automated, electric vehicles, need to consider the effect on employment and wider implications of how we access mobility. Travelling on busy roads at peak hours could become the preserve of those who can afford to pay – how does that affect commuting etc; how will this change urban planning etc.

    AI – automated vehicles are one application of AI but what are the wider implications for employment (need for universal basic income?), privacy and security

    Shin-pei Tsay, ‎Executive Director, Gehl InstituteWithin urban areas, a significant constraint today and into the future will be how people move around the city. Many extoll the potential of technology to overcome that problem. Whatever technology may accomplish, we will still need to think about how space is used: automated and ride-sharing vehicles take up as much room as regular cars, whether they're on the road or parked off the street. Going into the future, urban space still needs to be designed to maximize places for people to congregate, which are key to building social connections, fostering a sense of belonging, and encouraging community efficacy. Space for human connection is often not considered at all against technological solutions in cities.

    Without the design of places to support a social dimension, cities will not thrive regardless of how much technology we attempt to integrate, design for, and adopt. Public health outcomes increase when isolation diminishes and people connect. We save billions in environmental costs if we plan for places that encourage people to spend time outside. We even reduce economic limitations in labor markets when we plan for places that allow people to shorten their commute distances and have access to stores, schools, and other daily services.

    It's always fun to consider panaceas that can theoretically solve age-old problems (in this case, growing populations with increasing travel needs). However, not nearly enough attention is given to the social impacts of these new solutions. We must carefully consider how they may change the physical shape and design of our cities in the future. Most importantly, we must be aware of how they might isolate us. After all, by limiting our ability to socialize, technology may only generate new problems to replace the ones it "solved."


    Nicholas Agar, professor of ethics at the Victoria University of WellingtonRecent advances in gene editing suggest a future in which we can radically upgrade human genomes. We might use tools including CRISPR to rewrite genes that influence traits such as intelligence and lifespan. We should bear in mind when we contemplate this enhanced future that the obvious answers aren’t always the right ones. The human genome isn’t something we should seek to build a wall around, protecting it from all change. But a rush to enhance ourselves may erase aspects of our humanity that proper reflection reveals as valuable. More IQ points aren’t better than fewer in the straightforward way that more money is better than less. We risk oversimplifying what’s involved in enhancement. Proper reflection on what about us we might want to preserve takes time – it should draw on a wide range of perspectives about what it means to be human. It’s difficult to set aside this time for ethical reflection when new technological possibilities seem to be coming thick and fast.

    Luke Alphey, visiting professor, Department of Zoology, University of OxfordAgricultural pest insects, and mosquitoes transmitting diseases, are long-standing problems for which we still have no satisfactory solution, indeed the problems are becoming more pressing. Modern genetics can potentially provide powerful new means for controlling these ancient enemies with greater effectiveness and precision – for example minimal off-target effects on the environment – than currently-used methods. Gene drives are just one aspect of this, but perhaps encapsulate some of the issues. One gene drive system, involving inserting into mosquito cells a large amount of foreign (to the mosquito) DNA in the form of an intracellular bacterium (Wolbachia), has entered field trials in several countries. This specific system has avoided the “genetic” or “GMO” label and regulatory system by adroit marketing and some technicalities and perhaps illustrates what could be done if the field were not caught up in the baggage and polarised politics of the GM crops “debate”. Potential applications of genetic methods in public health and conservation biology, for example, have very little in common with GM crops; lumping them together risks poor debate, poor policy and – in my view – potential delay or loss of huge human and environmental benefits.

    Elizabeth Bradley, Professor of Grand Strategy, Head of Branford College, Professor of Public Health and Faculty Director of the Yale Global Health Leadership InstituteThe tremendous impact that social, environmental and behavior factors have on our health overall. Recent research has shown that a country’s ratio of health to social service spending is predictive of some key health outcomes, like life expectancy, infant mortality, and maternal mortality. Genetics and health care play a role, but social, environmental, and behavioral factors have far greater impact on the whole health of a population.

    Some examples of social service investments include job training, supportive housing, and nutritional support – all of which have traditionally had an underestimated focus of attention. Health and social services should be better integrated toward the achievement of common metrics, like lower rates of smoking, obesity, and depression. More research is needed, to measure the health care cost savings of early childhood education or income support programs, and to identify the most sustainable integrated models. Meaningful change in our world’s health may come less from investing in medical care than in addressing the social determinants of health.

    Chelsea Clinton, Vice Chair, Clinton FoundationRead Clinton’s extended response about the US opioid epidemic.

    Jennifer Doudna, Professor of Molecular and Cell Biology and Chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley, co-inventor of CRISPR-Cas9 technologyAs ​a​ co-inventor of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology, I am delighted to see that this groundbreaking ability to “cut and paste” genes so efficiently is being harnessed ​as ​a strategy to create new food, therapeutics, materials and ​methods for controlling the spread of diease​.​

    A challenge moving forward is how to best engage the public with this fundamental science that really can positively impact human life and the world we live in. I believe that we must continue to discuss and consider the profound societal and ethical impact​s​ of CRISPR​ technology​ and ensure that ​it is not abused.c

    Joel Garreau, author, journalist, Professor of Law, Culture and Values, Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law, Arizona State UniversityThe major challenge consuming me is that the wheels are coming off the Enlightenment right now, on our watch, and it’s our own damn fault.

    The GRIN technologies – the genetics, robotics, information and nano revolutions – are advancing on a curve. Meanwhile, we humans are trying to process this exponential change with our good old v. 1.0 brains. With precious little help at all from those creating this upheaval.

    Folk are not stupid. They can clearly detect the ground moving beneath their feet, and that of their children and jobs and futures. When the ground moves beneath her feet, any sane primate looks for something apparently solid to hold onto. Anybody with apparently simple stories about what’s going on, forcefully told, *will* get attention.

    You’ve doubtless seen the data about how the most common job in the vast majority of states is truck driver. So what are we doing? We’re obsoleting these jobs as fast as we can, with a hand wave about how, “Oh, they’ll find better jobs.” While, meanwhile, the rate of suicide and drug addiction and protest voting among the solid middle-aged former middle-class soars. These guys are not stupid. They know they’ve been had. And we’re going to pay for it. And don’t tell me the solution is to have the robots just give them a guaranteed income. Humans require meaning as surely as food.

    The days when scientists could not [care] about the impact of their work on cultural, values and society are over. If they ever existed, which they didn’t, but that’s water over the dam.

    I can’t tell you how many times I’ve talked to guys working on, oh, something like massively increasing the number and power of mitochondria in human cells. And I’m like, you know that if you massively increase the amount of energy creation in cells, you’re talking about changing what it means to be human, right? Are you intentionally trying to create supermen? And the answer every time is “Wow, what a fascinating question, I never thought of that.”

    It’s not that these scientists are stupid, obviously. It’s that they’re tunnel-vision. They don’t wake up thinking about how they can change the human race. They wake up thinking about how they’re going to wire the goddamn monkey. That’s just the way these guys are.

    Fix it. Get out of your silo. If you can’t figure out the societal and cultural implications of what you’re doing, start seeking out people who might, and start systematically having lunch with them. And then invite the most interesting ones into your lab with the goal of them becoming partners.

    One example of this was the scientist who was spending her life finding the biomarkers for a disease for which there was no cure. Mercifully, her lab was among the first to start systematically bringing in partners from entirely outside. One of them asked, “What’s the point of creating despair? Might it be possible for you to find it interesting to search for a biomarker for a disease to which there is a cure?” To which she replied, of course, “Wow, what a fascinating question, I never thought of that.” But once it was pointed out to her, she happily did find another interesting biomarker problem that was culturally useful.

    Culture moves slower than does innovation. That’s just what humans are like. Deal with it, or watch the collapse of the Enlightenment as they ever increasingly come at you with torches and pitchforks – and correctly so. Mary Shelley knew her humans.

    My wife and I used to raise border collies. Border collies make terrible pets. You can not give an intelligent species nothing to do. If you don’t give them sheep, or something comparably interesting, they will come up with something to occupy their great minds. And you may not like it.

    Laurie Garrett, Pulitzer Prize-winning science journalist, senior fellow for global health at the Council on Foreign Relations1. Greatest frustration: It is deeply annoying and vexing that CRISPR-cas9 and other gene editing techniques are being applied to treatment of rare diseases and a host of pharmacology development, but little investment is directed toward application of state-of-the-art gene editing or metagenomic sequencing and detection for point-of-care diagnostics creation. There are many exciting developments at the lab bench level that could translate into "Star Trek"-like abilities to wade into epidemic hysteria and swiftly identify who is infected, and with what organism. There are even innovations that allow identification on-the-spot of infections with previously unknown microbes, based on conserved genetic regions found in classes of viruses or bacteria. But nobody seems interested in bankrolling such game-changing innovations for production on a mass scale. It's a market failure issue – a where's-the-profits problem. If Ebola broke out somewhere tomorrow we are better off today in that some methods for quickly identifying the virus in blood samples exist, but even now they remain noncommercial, require a laboratory and have no relevance to real-world conditions.

    2. In 2009-10 some in the national security community were obsessed with concern about gain-of-function research, mainly on flu viruses. Researchers were deliberately creating forms of H5N1 and H7N9 and H1N1 that could be passed mammal-2-mammal, probably human-to-human. The goal on researchers' parts was to understand what genetic switches had to occur to turn a bird flu into a potentially catastrophic human airborne transmissible pandemic strain. But of course the work was very dangerous – especially if it got into the wrong hands.That was then, this is now: The technology of gene modification is far more advanced, and application of cutting edge gene excision and incision techniques makes gain-of-function work potentially far easier, and more dangerous. The two governments that were taking the lead on dual-use research of concern issues (UK and US) are both preoccupied now with very different problems and new leadership. And the WHO was the lead global agency – it is facing a major leadership change. So we have no guidance regarding how governments are likely to view these issues.

    Tim Jinks, Head of Drug Resistant Infections at Wellcome TrustModern medicine depends on doctors having effective drugs to treat infections. But many common infections are becoming more difficult to treat because bacteria are becoming resistant to the drugs available. Drug-resistant infection – or antimicrobial resistance – is a very serious health threat to us all. Already it results in around 700,000 deaths a year globally. Within a generation it could be 10 million; it could mean we can no longer safely carry out not only complex, lifesaving treatments such as chemotherapy and organ transplants but also more routine operations like caesareans and hip replacements. More needs to be done to improve our ability to diagnose, treat and prevent drug resistant infections and to speed up development of new antibiotics to replace those no longer effective in protecting us against deadly infections.

    Anit Mukherjee, policy fellow at the Center for Global DevelopmentTechnological innovation is progressing rapidly not only in the digital sphere but also in areas such as health, education, nutrition, food safety and life-saving/enhancing drugs. However, the gains of these new technologies are being captured by a minority of the population both domestically and internationally. While the digital divide has received more attention (and being bridged significantly), inequality is manifesting in other sectors that ultimately affect peoples’ well being. One outcome is human migration which is not only political but also economic and social. The other is the more frequent outbreaks of diseases, epidemics and pandemics such as ebola, MARS and Zika. In a world where there is a sentiment against movement of goods and people, how can developing societies adapt to increasing inequalities and build systems of governance to ensure human security?

    Pardis Sabeti, Associate Professor of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology and of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard UniversityThe recent Ebola and Zika epidemics exposed our global vulnerabilities to deadly microbial threats and highlighted the need for proactive measures in advance of outbreaks and swift action during them. At the same time it shows our ability to prevent, diagnose, and treat deadly infectious diseases through new technologies. It is a time of great potential for devastation or advancement for one of the greatest challenges of our lifetimes.

    Robert Sparrow, adjunct professor, Centre for Human Bioethics, Monash UniversityWhat does justice require of wealthy Northern states when confronted by mass migration from increasingly impoverished Southern countries as a result of accelerating climate change?

    How should we respond, both ethically and emotionally, to the knowledge that we are living through one of history’s fastest periods of extinction and that this catastrophe is the result of humankind’s activities?

    As technological developments increasingly drive social change, how can democratic societies empower ordinary people to have a say in the decisions that shape the technological trajectories that will in turn determine what the future looks like?

    How can the public have meaningful input into the character of the algorithms that will increasingly determine both the nature of their relationships with other people on social media and their access to various important social goods?

    How can we prevent an underwater arms race involving autonomous submersibles over the coming decades?

    Should we use “gene drives” to try to eliminate disease vectors in nature?

    How can we ensure that questions about meaning and values, and not just calculations of risks and benefits, are addressed in decisions about human genome editing?

    Eric Topol, Scripps Transatlantic Science InstituteOur major challenge is related to our new capability of digitizing human beings. That is, via biosensors, DNA sequencing and imaging, we can define each individual’s medical essence. But the problem is that this generates many terabytes of data, which includes real-time streaming of key metrics like blood pressure. Aggregating and processing the data, derived from many sources, with algorithms and artificial intelligence (particularly deep learning) is a daunting task. Once we can do this, we’ll be on our way to a virtual medical coach – your smartphone providing instantaneous feedback on all your health and medical metrics to help prevent you from getting sick.

    Mike Turner, Head of Infection and Immunobiology at Wellcome TrustInfectious disease outbreaks are a growing threat to health and prosperity in our modern world. Vast amounts of international travel, increasing urbanisation and a changing climates means that viruses can cross borders and spread around the globe faster than ever before. Recent outbreaks like Sars, Ebola and Zika have all shown how unprepared the world is to deal with epidemics. To stand any chance of tackling this threat, we need new vaccines, stronger healthcare systems and a better coordinated global response.

    At Wellcome, we’re working to address this threat in a variety of ways; we are a founding partner of the Coalition for Epidemics Preparedness Innovations (Cepi) that will develop new vaccine candidates against infections we know could cause a serious epidemic. The WHO also needs to be much better funded and have the mandate to respond swiftly and effectively when diseases do begin to spread. Only by investing, coordinating and working together can we expect to prepare the world for the next inevitable epidemic.

    Watch our animation with words by Bill Gates on Cepi’s vaccine plans.

    Gavin Yamey, professor of the practice of global health, Duke University Global Health InstituteI believe one of the most urgent global issues that we face in 2017 and beyond, and one that we are woefully ill-prepared for, is the threat of epidemics and pandemics. We have three enormous gaps in the global system of preparedness. First, many countries have weak national systems for detecting and responding to outbreaks. Second, we have too few vaccines, medicines, and diagnostics for emerging infectious diseases with outbreak potential. Third, at the international level, we simply don’t yet have a robust, joined-up approach to providing the essential components of a preparedness and response system – like surge capacity in producing vaccines in a crisis, an inter-connected global surveillance system, or a global reserve corps of emergency responders. Closing these three gaps is one of the most urgent global priorities if we are to avert a potential world catastrophe. For example, if we suffer another flu pandemic similar to the 1918 “Spanish flu,” the World Bank estimates that there could be 71 million deaths and a global recession costing over $3 trillion.


    Homi Kharas, senior fellow and deputy director of Brookings Institute’s Global ProgramThe battle for sustainable development will be won or lost in cities. 150 million people are moving to cities each year. By 2050, over 7 billion people will live in cities (80% of the world), and cities will be responsible for 75% of global carbon emissions. Cities are places where infrastructure gets locked in for decades, if not centuries, but city planners must make investments now in a world where technology is changing rapidly where people live, work and play, and how they access buildings, transport, energy and waste management. The fastest growth is happening in thousands of secondary cities where mayors and city managers are not well schooled in technical urban planning. Often, these secondary cities must collaborate with each other to deliver services effectively across boundaries within larger metropolitan areas.

    Carey King, assistant director, University of Texas at Austin Energy InstituteWe need a discussion as to what political leaders, business leaders, and citizens think is an appropriate distribution of wealth across the entire population. This focuses on the real question (how many people have what, independent of the size of the economy, though the two are linked) instead of discussing how to shape policies and taxes to achieve an unspecified growth target independent of wealth distribution. Trump, Brexit, and Le Pen are representations that people understand growth only for the elite in the West is no longer tenable.An issue that has not received enough attention in the media and popular understanding is that the Earth is finite and this fact will have real world physical, economic, social, and political implications. Neoclassical economics ignores this obvious fact, yet it is used to guide most policy (eg, economic projections and scenarios), including that for climate change mitigation. Thus, we are using an economic theory that is simply incapable and inapplicable for informing an unprecedented transformation of the economy.

    Vijay Padmanabhan, Asian Development Bank, Technical Advisor (Urban)The one major challenge we will face due to urbanisation will be 'water security'. We are already grappling with this problem across our developing member countries and with deteriorating river or surface water quality, lack of sufficient ground water sources and increasing dependence on sea water as a supply source, we have to bring in innovations in water management. Treatment technology, water aquifer mapping, recycling and reuse of wastewater, etc. are areas of R&D investment.

    ADB is working with a large number of utilities to address these issues and as we engage on a long term basis with many cities and utilities, we will be actively exploring opportunities to bring in value for money propositions so that the utility benefits in the long term. We are also connecting with industry leaders to understand market trends so that we can bring the best to our developing member countries.

    William Ryerson, founder and president, the Population Institute and Population Media CenterPerhaps a summary is that the human enterprise has outgrown the long-ability of the planet’s renewable resources to support us at our current numbers and our current rates of consumption and waste generation. Climate change is just one piece of evidence of this fact. Technological improvements, while potentially important in reducing per capita impact, are not sufficient to make us sustainable unless we also stop growth in human numbers and reduce average consumption, while simultaneously lessening the gap between the richest and the poorest people on the planet. Sustainability is a term that is not well understood and is misused, but the reality is that any activity that is not sustainable will stop. So far, non-renewable resources are what are primarily driving our economic engine. But by definition, non-renewables are being depleted and for the most part will stop being economically available in this century. So we must plan rapidly for the day when humanity can live using just renewable resources, while maintaining the biodiversity that makes the planet habitable. In truth, sustainability is the ultimate environmental issue, the ultimate health issue, and the ultimate human rights issue.

    Strategies that help to bring about changes in societal behaviour, including reproductive behavior, are critically important in achieving sustainability. Use of entertainment media is a key component of such strategies, since a large share of humanity consume entertainment mass media during free time. For that reason, Population Media Center utilises long-running serialised dramas in various countries to create characters that gradually evolve into positive role models for the audience to bring about changes in social norms on a broad array of critical issues. Attached are three documents that describe this work and its effects.

    Jim Watson, Director of the UK Energy Research CentreWe need to think about how the system will fit together as our energy systems change.Globally speaking there is still a lot of people – 1.5 billion or so – who do not have access to modern energy services. There is going to be a lot of rising demand from regions like Africa.

    One of the big challenges of deploying new energy technologies, particularly these intermittent renewables like wind and solar, is the impact they have on the system. It used to be that in the summer it was a really quiet time for the grid operator compared to the winter, but now they are having this peak in generation in summer due to solar energy when demand is low. They are having to juggle this as we cannot store electricity in large quantities yet. This is a new way of operating for them.

    With the sort of changes we are seeing in energy systems around the world, cheaper and better storage is going to be a big part of the solution. When it comes to heating for somewhere like the UK, you might need storage that lasts several months. You get a lot of energy generated in the summer and you might need it in the winter to heat homes. This is an area that is really ripe for innovation and we are really only at the start of deploying and trailing those. It is a critical part of this new system we are trying to create.


    Peter Barron, VP Communications, EMEA, GoogleGoogle was built on providing people with high-quality and authoritative results for their search queries. We strive to give users a breadth of diverse content from variety of sources and we’re committed to the principle of a free and open web. Judging which pages on the web best answer a query is a challenging problem and we don’t always get it right. When non-authoritative information ranks too high in our search results, we develop scalable, automated approaches to fix the problems, rather than manually removing these one-by-one. We recently made improvements to our algorithm that will help surface more high quality, credible content on the web. We’ll continue to change our algorithms over time in order to tackle these challenges.

    Rohit Chandra, VP Engineering, YahooSearch providers face a confluence of human and technology challenges. While we provide the portal for users to find information, we depend on content creators and distributors to apply journalistic discipline to what they are creating. The scale of popular social networks has democratized publishing, which effectively lets anyone – regardless of their intentions or qualifications – produce content that can appear journalistic.

    Another challenge is that technology-driven online engines like ours learn through click-feedback or “crowd-sourcing.” That runs the risk of perpetuating a “herd-mentality” – in which if lots of users start chasing a particular news source (maybe based on shock value rather than credibility), our AI-systems could accidentally “learn” and treat that source as highly valued or credible.

    I do see a need in the market to develop standards, perhaps from an organization like Nielsen. Facebook and others are working on this, too. The answer has to be a combination of technology and editorial; we can’t fact-check every story, but there must be enough human eyes on the content that we know the quality bar stays high.

    Eddie Copeland, director of government Innovation at Nesta, a UK charity that has looked at the future of democracy in the digital worldRather than waiting for politicians to make decisions and then we all argue over whether what they say reflects reality, we could have tools that engage people much earlier in the process so they can be involved in formulating ideas and drafting legislation, following the course of how ideas go from concept to becoming laws and how effective they are in reality. It might just give you a fighting chance of making people feel part of a system rather than observing it from the outside.

    Nonny de la Pena, virtual reality journalist and CEO of Emblematic GroupCall me idealistic, but I really believe if you have an informed global citizenry, then people are going to make better decisions. We are going through the pain of, how do we convey information that’s accurate? People may not be looking at traditional media for their solutions. I think for audiences, VR is a totally different type of story. There is nothing in print or radio or broadcast that can let you walk around in actual space. That kind of effort, of making those kinds of pieces, is going to get easier and easier. You’ll be walking around the scene, not looking at flat screen or video.

    When you walk around, it’s a whole other level. Now your body can engage. Now when I go to the movies, I find the frames so artificial – I can see the box. I see the square. When I put on a headset, I see the world. The fact that audiences are going to be engaged with this kind of storytelling make sit a very important opportunity for journalism to embrace.

    Ben Fletcher, senior software engineer at IBM Watson Research who worked on a project to build an AI fact checkerWe got a lot of feedback that people did not want to be told what was true or not. At the heart of what they want, was actually the ability to see all sides and make the decision for themselves. A major issue most people face, without knowing it, is the bubble they live in. If they were shown views outside that bubble they would be much more open to talking about them.

    Kevin Kelly, founding executive editor of Wired MagazineThe major new challenge in reporting news is the new shape of truth. Truth is no longer dictated by authorities, but is networked by peers. For every fact there is a counterfact. All those counterfacts and facts look identical online, which is confusing to most people. The only way a fact becomes accepted as true is to be networked with other facts consider to be true. Like in Science, all truth is provisional, although some is more provisional than others. The Truth is really a network of truths, and each of these true facts is probabilistic. The probability of a fact being true is increased by the degree it is networked with other true facts and the reliability of truthfulness by its source. So the challenge before us is to begin to construct a truth signaling layer into the fabric of facts, particularly online. This will be a multi-generational effort that will resemble the construction of wikipedia, but goes far beyond it.

    Stephan Lewandowsky, a psychologist at University of Bristol who studies persistence of misinformation in societyHaving a large number of people in a society who are mis-informed and have their own set of facts is absolutely devastating and extremely difficult to cope with.

    There are solutions available – using the technology that has given rise to this problem. Turning it upside down by changing the algorithms in Facebook or on Google to nudge people into sharing or consuming news that are slightly outside their normal comfort zone. What is happening now is that the cookies you gather as you browse the web will tell the website what it is you like.

    The way to get out of this polarisation is for these algorithms to suggest something that I might not like or agree with but is not so offensive to me that I wouldn’t look at it. That way you can keep people from self-radicalising in these ecological bubbles. That sort of technological solution is one good way forward. I think we have to work on that.

    Alexios Mantzarlis, chair of the International Fact Checking NetworkI see a challenge in the flood of reasonable-looking information out there making it harder to distinguish between sources of information. Search algorithms are as flawed as the people who develop them. We should think about adding layers of credibility to sources. We need to tag and structure quality content in effective ways.

    Will Moy, director of Full Fact, an independent fact checking organisation based in the UKEven if we have structures that impose constraints on people in power and we put pressure on powerful people to be honest with us, in a sense, all of that is being circumvented by social media. On Facebook, political bodies can put something out, pay for advertising, put it in front of millions of people, yet it is hard for those not being targeting to know they have done that. They can target those people based on how old they are, where they live, what skin colour they have, what gender they are.

    These messages are so common and so targeted, they are capable of having a massive influence on public decisions. We have never had a time when it has been so easy to advertise to millions of people and not have the other millions of us notice. You can’t take out an advert in a newspaper and not have the people you are not targeting not notice. that is a really profound change. We shouldn’t think of social media as just peer to peer communication – it is also the most powerful advertising platform there has ever been.We need a more equipped environment - we need watchdogs that will go around and say hang on, this doesn’t stack up and ask them to correct the record. There is a role for watchdogs and there is also a role for all of us.

    Paul Resnick, professor of information at the University of Michigan who developed a tool for identifying rumours on social media called RumourLensThe fundamental challenge we now face is how to handle a setting where anybody can get their views disseminated without intermediaries to prevent the distribution. Somehow there still has to be some process of collectively coming to some agreement of what we are going to believe and what we think are consensual facts.

    A lot of what I have seen in terms of approaches to deal with that are trying to do things that are focused on assessing the content of factual claims to try to verify whether they are true or not.

    I don’t think that at its heart will be the mechanism. I think that it is going to be not figuring what to believe but who to believe.

    Most individuals can’t personally verify most factual claims that we hear. If you think about some of the things you personally believe that are fact, there are many that you have not personally verified. It would be tremendously inefficient for all of us to try to personally verify all of these things. We have to have a setting where we trust other people.

    Victoria Rubin, director of the language and information technology research lab at Western University, Ontario, CanadaIf there are people who are willing to blatantly refuse to believe that something is a lie, no matter how hard you try, they won't listen. I'm not sure what amount of evidence is needed in this new paradigm of journalism to get newsreaders out of their new bubbles. Human psychology is the main obstacle, unwillingness to bend one's mind around facts that don't agree with one's own viewpoint.

    We're studying how news framing affects attribution of blame for events described in the news, and whether there is mitigating effect of partisan beliefs. The second newer misleading type of fakes that's gaining traction is native ads (specifically, in news), or sponsored content that's disguised as editorials, or what's formerly known as advertorials. Such misleading practice constitutes an internal threat to the profession of journalism and may further deteriorate mainstream media trust. If information users are unaware of the Native Ads original promotional nature, they may find themselves insufficiently informed or misled by its content.

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    CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Citrix [47 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fortinet [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HP [746 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBM [1530 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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