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9L0-614 - Mac OS X Server Command and Line Install and Configuration v10.4 - BrainDump Information

Vendor Name : Apple
Exam Code : 9L0-614
Exam Name : Mac OS X Server Command and Line Install and Configuration v10.4
Questions and Answers : 67 Q & A
Updated On : November 19, 2018
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9L0-614 exam Dumps Source : Mac OS X Server Command and Line Install and Configuration v10.4

Test Code : 9L0-614
Test Name : Mac OS X Server Command and Line Install and Configuration v10.4
Vendor Name : Apple
Q&A : 67 Real Questions

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Apple Apple Mac OS X

Apple Brings Mac Mini back From the dead | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Apple’s little computing device pc isn't any longer only a punchline. these days the company took the wraps off a revamped Mac Mini, changing its underpowered elements with new, 8th technology Intel quad- and 6-core processors options, as much as 64GB of memory, up to a 2TB SSD, a T2 protection chip, 10GB ethernet, and four Thunderbolt three ports. With the upgrades, Apple is bumping its longstanding $500 starting expense up to $800—however you won’t discover face-melting specs with out paying even more.

sure, you’ll still need to convey your own reveal, keyboard, and mouse. And sure that you can, uh, get it in space grey now. At $800, the base mannequin will include 8GB of reminiscence, a 3.6GHz quad-core i3 processor, and 128GB of SSD storage.

The Mini changed into originally designed to win over new converts to OS X (now macOS) with the primary sub-$500 Mac. last revamped eons in the past, in October 2014, it grew to become a husk for old-fashioned guts that nobody, absolutely no one in their appropriate mind had any company recommending to a loved one. by the end of its run, the newest incarnation appeared designed to push buyers during this budget faraway from Apple, towards stronger deals from organizations like Dell and HP.

Apple is billing the new Mini as “five instances quicker” ordinary with “60 p.c faster pictures.” It’ll be purchasable on November 7.


Apple broadcasts free OS X Mavericks unlock, new iPads, Mac seasoned | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

At Apple’s “plenty to cover” special adventure nowadays, the enterprise paraded out an hour and a half’s price of new items and updates, including the free up of OS X Mavericks, the new iPad Air and iPad Mini, Mac pro, up to date 13 and 15-inch MacBooks, and an up to date suite of iLife apps.

OS X MavericksThe working equipment is free, and it’s attainable these days. Apple senior vice president of software engineering Craig Federighi prefaced the liberate with, “This one is a doozy.”

obtainable with a single-step improve from Snow Leopard, Lion, Mountain Lion or any MacBook dating lower back to 2007, Mavericks has a slew of new aspects. Its new compressed reminiscence characteristic allocates graphics reminiscence according to utilization to optimize efficiency. The potential allows 6GB of facts to fit into 4GB of system RAM.

(Beta comments and an entire list of points: users poke around OS X ‘Mavericks’)

Mavericks’ OpenCL makes use of memory sharing to circulate tasks running on the CPU to the GPU, taking expertise of the GPU’s greater computing power to comprehensive tasks 1.8x quicker, and 2x faster for photograph projects.

a brand new finder window enables projects and documents to be labeled with multiple tags for easy search and organization. click the title bar of any document to add one or greater tags, or select a tag from an inventory.

In Safari, Mavericks introduces better notifications, permitting users to reply in the pop-up bubble with out leaving an utility. It also provides website notifications when new content material is posted. the new Safari true websites view generates a feed of shared hyperlinks from adopted clients on social networks such as LinkedIn and Twitter.

There’s also a brand new reader view, permitting consumer-accelerated scrolling at once from one article to the next without clicking out.


a way to Revisit each edition of Mac OS X from your Browser | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

The Aqua GUI in Apple’s operating systems has gone through a marvelous evolution in view that March of 2000, when it found its approach into OS X 10.0, and you could be surprised at just how distinctive every thing looks now. thanks to the newly launched Aqua Screenshot Library, that you may revisit every edition of OS X (and macOS) during the years and think about the gradual evolution of Apple’s working device—all out of your browser.

The massive gallery is the newest work by means of 512 Pixels, an online library that attempts to hold tabs on all things Apple (including the Mac’s many wallpapers). The Aqua Screenshot Library, as creator Stephen Hackett notes, provides a finished look on the heritage of Apple’s operating techniques, which covers its start to from bulkier CRTs to compact, LED-backlit displays; Apple’s a variety of font alterations through the years; and Apple’s circulate from disc-based operating techniques to (free) digital downloads.

Let’s take a glance at some of these important Mac milestones.

Mac OS X 10.0 (“Cheetah”)

March 24, 2001, marked the first official unencumber of the Mac OS X working system, following a public beta the year earlier than. Hackett notes that its 128MB reminiscence requirement was “greater than most Mac clients had in their methods on the time.” This result in many complaints in regards to the OS’s slow performance and excessive resource demand. The Cheetah interface retained the pin-striped menu and window design from the beta, however begun the feline-primarily based naming vogue which would final as much as edition 10.eight, “Mountain Lion.”

Mac OS X Leopard (10.5)

The closing months of 2007 introduced some massive alterations to OS X. The liberate of Leopard noticed Aqua tackle a a lot greater streamlined seem to be, with all home windows now defaulting to a single, simple gray design, as well as the debut of a redesigned Finder tool. previous to this, distinctive apps—and diverse models of OS X—had distinct UI designs (for stronger or worse). With Leopard’s liberate, OS X started to look extra uniform. most importantly, it become the first version to encompass these rad, house-primarily based backgrounds.

OS X Mountain Lion (10.8)

Mountain Lion turned into the first edition of OS X to arrive after Steve Jobs’ demise, and it concentrated on aligning Mac computer systems with the late CEO’s other important contribution to the tech business: the iPhone. The 2011 OS X update, Mac OS X Lion (10.7), kicked off Apple’s merging of iOS aesthetics into OS X, and the business doubled down with Mountain Lion. equipment and purposes were renamed after iOS facets, and Apple introduced some small visual and enter adjustments to bridge the two operating methods even closer together—in fashion, as a minimum.

OS X Mavericks (10.9)

Mavericks turned into an important business pivot for Apple, as it become the first edition of the OS the company released without charge, provided to clients as an improve by means of the App keep in October 2013. Apple hasn’t gone back to paid working systems due to the fact that—fortunately. Mavericks become additionally the first edition of OS X to use non-feline nomenclature. It additionally ditched the galactic history theme for California landscapes, which we can all agree turned into an incredible blunder. right?

macOS Sierra (10.12)

edition 10.12 of Apple’s operating equipment for the Mac is most is excellent for its large rebranding. Apple dropped the “OS X” name totally in this release, in its place calling its working device “macOS” to align it the business’s operating techniques on other systems: iOS, watchOS, and tvOS. 

browsing the Aqua Screenshot Library is a enjoyable method to peer just how some distance macOS has come, particularly to see how Apple’s design priorities exchange between the important releases. youngsters, the Aqua Screenshot gallery is just one of 512 Pixels’ many projects to take a look at. be certain to poke around the different Apple-themed collections Hackett has assembled through the years, too, including the staggering 512 Pixels YouTube channel.




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9L0-614 exam Dumps Source : Mac OS X Server Command and Line Install and Configuration v10.4

Test Code : 9L0-614
Test Name : Mac OS X Server Command and Line Install and Configuration v10.4
Vendor Name : Apple
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Mac OS X Server Command and Line Install and Configuration v10.4

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Run OpenVPN on Windows, Mac and Linux/Unix | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

OpenVPN is famously difficult to get up and running, but the truth is that it needn’t be. In this second and concluding OpenVPN article I am going to go through what it takes to get an OpenVPN Ethernet tunnel set up between a laptop computer and an office or home machine acting as an OpenVPN server.

Downloading and Installing OpenVPN

Before you can get OpenVPN running on any computer you need to download and install it:

Creating a Public Key Infrastructure

Once you’ve got OpenVPN successfully installed, it’s time to build the public key infrastructure needed for certificate-based authentication. If you don’t know what this means, don’t worry: just follow the instructions. A fuller explanation can be found at http://openvpn.net/index.php/documentation/howto.html#pki

To get started, you’ll need to use the Easy-RSA PKI suite.

On Windows machines you’ll find it at: C:Program FilesOpenVPNeasy-rsa

On Linux machines this will probably be installed in an easy-rsa directory machines at /usr/share/doc/packages/opevpn or /usr/share/doc/openvpn-2.0, but it’s a good idea to move this to /etc/openvpn to prevent it getting overwritten by future updates.

Generating the Master Certificate Authority (CA) Certificate & Key

Windows: From the Start button select cmd, and in the command window type:

cd "C:Program FilesOpenVPNeasy-rsa

Linux/BSD/UNIX: Open a terminal window and type

cd /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa

(assuming you have moved the easy-rsa directory to this location)

Then type the following commands, followed by return:

Windows:

init-config vars clean-all build-ca

Linux/BSD/UNIX:

./init-config ./vars ./clean-all ./build-ca

Figure 1The last command will invoke a window which will ask for a series of values. You can press the return key to enter the default values for all of these except the value for Common Name. For this, type: TestVPN

Generating the Server and Client Certificates and Keys

Then next step is to generate a server certificate and key, again using the Easy-RSA suite. The command for this is:

  • Windows: build-key-server server
  • Linux/BSD/UNIX: ./build-key-server server
  • In the interactive session that follows, simply press Enter to provide the default value each time, until you are asked for a Common Name. For Common Name enter “server” , then continue entering the default values until prompted to sign the certificate. Answer “y” to this question and to the following one to finish.

    Then generate the certificate and key for your client machine. The process is similar to the one for building the server certificate and key, but this time enter client1 as the common name.

    If you think you may want to access the OpenVPN server from more than one laptop, repeat the process, replacing client2 or client3 for client1 each time.

  • Windows: build-key client1
  • Linux/BSD/UNIX: ./build-key client1
  • Generating Diffie-Hellman Parameters

    The final step is to generate Diffie-Hellman parameters for key exchange:

  • Windows: build-dh
  • Linux/BSD/UNIX: ./build-dh
  • Figure 2You’ll find the results of all this work in a subfolder called keys in the easy-rsa folder, and the final task is to move the client key and certificate to your client device. The files in question are client1.key and client1.crt. (If you have created more than one client certificate key and certificate, move the client2.key and client2.crt files to the second machine, and so on.)

  • Windows: place the files in C:WindowsProgram FilesOpenVPNeasy-rsakeys
  • Linux/BSD/Unix: place the files in /etc/openvpn/
  • Your public key infrastructure is now set up.

    Creating the OpenVPN Configuration Files

    When OpenVPN runs it reads a configuration file at c:Program FilesOpenVPNconfig (Windows) or in /etc/openvpn (Linux/BSD/Unix). This text file contains all the information OpenVPN needs to know to make or receive a connection, so it’s crucial that these files are correct.

    The easiest way to get OpenVPN working in the way we want is to edit the highlighted lines in the following config files to match your network setup, save them as a text file and copy them to the appropriate location.

    Server configuration file:

    #server config file start

    local 192.168.1.15 # Change this address to the IP address of the network card attached to your router. To ensure this does not change you need either to have a static local IP address, or to configure your router to always assign this local IP address to your server.

    port 1194 # This is the port OpenVPN will run on. Change it to a different port if you prefer

    proto udp

    mssfix 1400

    push "dhcp-option DNS XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX" # Replace the Xs with the IP address of the DNS server for your network

    push "dhcp-option DNS YYY.YYY.YYY.YYY" # Replace the Xs with the IP address of the secondary DNS server for your network

    dev tap

    ca "C:\Program Files\OpenVPN\easy-rsa\keys\ca.crt" #change this location to /etc/openvpn (without quotation marks) for Linux/BSD/Unix systems

    cert "C:\Program Files\OpenVPN\easy-rsa\keys\server.crt" #change this location to /etc/openvpn for Linux/BSD/Unix systems

    key "C:\Program Files\OpenVPN\easy-rsa\keys\server.key" #change this location to /etc/openvpn for Linux/BSD/Unix systems

    dh "C:\Program Files\OpenVPN\easy-rsa\keys\dh1024.pem" #change this location to /etc/openvpn for Linux/BSD/Unix systems

    server 192.168.10.0 255.255.255.128 # This will be the virtual IP address and subnet of the server’s OpenVPN connection. Change it to something similar like 192.168.11.0 if this subnet is already in use

    ifconfig-pool-persist ipp.txt push "redirect-gateway def1" keepalive 10 120

    cipher BF-CBC # Blowfish (default)If you prefer, you can use one of the two ciphers listed below (which must be the same as the client)

    #cipher AES-128-CBC # AES #cipher DES-EDE3-CBC # Triple-DES comp-lzo max-clients 3 # Change the 3 to the number of client keys you have created persist-key persist-tun status openvpn-status.log # user nobody # remove the # at the start of the line for Linux/BSD/Unix systems # group nobody # remove the first # at the start of the line for Linux/BSD/Unix systems verb 1 #config file ends

    Save this file as server.ovpn, and move it to c:Program FilesOpenVPNconfig (Windows) or /etc/openvpn (Linux/BSD/Unix)

    What to Do If You Don’t Have a Static Public IP Address

    OpenVPN clients connect to the OpenVPN server using a public IP address or host name that needs to be entered into the client config file. If your ISP provides your business or home network with a dynamic IP address that changes each time an Internet connection is reset then your client config will no longer work after a reconnection. To get round this you can get a free hostname from DynDNS which automatically points to your dynamic IP address, even when it changes. To get a dynamic host name (such as myhost.dyndns.org) visit http://www.dyndns.com.


    A review of the Mac mini with Snow Leopard Server | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    A review of the Mac mini with Snow Leopard Server reader comments 116 Share this story
  • Pity the small office when it comes to technology. With anywhere from several to several dozen employees, there's often no budget for an IT director to manage all the network services required for a modern company of any size. Offices may need to handle email, file-sharing, calendar and contacts hosting, collaboration tools, and other matters. Especially in this economy, how can an office of that size—perhaps your office?—afford the technician needed to install and keep a Microsoft Server 2008 installation on the rails, plus the initial cost in per-seat licenses. Unix and Linux distributions may be free or have relatively inexpensive purchase and service contracts, but you pay for that in requiring more expertise in house or on demand.

    That may lead firms to Google's door, turning to Web hosted services via Google Apps. But the $50 per-user, per-year fee can add up, and Google Apps doesn't offer everything a small business needs. Some companies may not want to go this route, or may be subject to regulatory issues that prevent proprietary or confidential data from being located offsite with Google—or anyone. That seems to leave a large niche in which companies want an affordable product that runs on commodity hardware and doesn't need the constant ministrations of an IT expert, even if one's required to set it up.

    Apple has such a product, Mac OS X Server, but has been weak at exploiting this niche despite the server's long history. Apple has focused instead on support for large corporations' enterprise networks, data center and cluster use, and academic deployments. Releases before version 10.6 (Snow Leopard) had numerous difficulties for those who couldn't quickly fire up a command line and start entering commands from memory. Further, OS X Server was often too focused on providing services for networks mostly comprised of Macs; a lot of lip service was paid to Windows support, but it's only seemingly fully matured in 10.6.

    But what makes OS X Server 10.6 a perfectly reasonable choice for small-to-medium-sized businesses is new pricing coupled with a custom Mac mini configuration. For $999, you can buy a perfectly speedy office server with a full, unlimited-seat license.

    In this review, I look at a few specific aspects of the Mac mini server model and OS X Server as they relate to sub-enterprise-scale networks, especially where IT staff help isn't assumed. I also offer you two key tips for fixing problems in OS X Server that tripped me up during testing.

    (This is not a full review of OS X Server, which would take many tens of thousands of words and months of testing, much like John Siracusa's in-depth OS X client reviews.)

    Hardware, OS, and Pricing

    The Mac mini server—its full name is the Mac mini with Snow Leopard Server—brings together two separate developments: a substantial price cut for OS X Server and increasingly powerful Mac mini models that have the gumption to work as servers.

    Before 10.6, Apple charged $999 for its unlimited user license, and $499 for a 10-user version. The 10-user limit, however, applied only to simultaneous logins for certain kinds of services, including AFP (Apple Filing Protocol), Apple's native file-sharing service. The 10.6 release threw that pricing out the window. There's one version of OS X Server 10.6: $499 for an unlimited user version. OS X Server can be installed on nearly any system capable of running the regular version of Snow Leopard (which itself costs $29 for a 10.5 Leopard upgrade version that could be used for a full installation). OS X Server since 10.5 can also be virtualized with one paid license per virtualization; the $499 price makes virtualization cheaper, too.

    By comparison, Windows Small Business Server 2008 comes in two editions (naturally) for either $1,089 (standard) or $1,899 (premium) with five client licenses, and charges $77 or $189 respectively for each additional client license. The premium version includes Microsoft SQL Server 2008 for small businesses, and, because MySQL is included with OS X Server, one could argue the premium version is most comparable.

    The Mac mini Server ($999) is the other development. Before this particular model, Apple shipped only one standard server system in multiple configurations with a full software license included: its rack-mounted Xserve (starting at $2,999), designed for server rooms and data centers. Until an update in March 2009, the Mac mini was too underpowered to handle multiple server tasks, although the mini was often found in data centers.

    If you're weren't racking your server, then an iMac or Mac Pro could serve, but both models can be overkill. The Mac Pro can be purchased in a build-to-order configuration starting at $2,999 with OS X Server installed, but the Mac Pro has a strong graphics orientation, designed to be best used by 2D, 3D, and video professionals. An iMac can handle OS X Server, too, but you're paying for a built-in monitor you likely don't need.

    The March 2009 Mac mini update gave the tiny desktop real performance, bringing it reasonably close to iMac system specs. The October 2009 Mac mini update bumped specs and made the server pricing work with Mac mini server.

    For $999, you get a 2.53 GHz Intel Core Duo, 4GB of 1066 MHz DDR3 RAM, two 500GB drives, one FireWire 800 port and five USB 2.0 ports, gigabit Ethernet, Bluetooth 2.1+EDR, and Wi-Fi (802.11n).

    The server flavor omits an internal CD/DVD drive, which Apple sells as a USB attachment for $99; the second 500GB hard drive fills the optical drive's space. Instead of the external optical drive, you can use the networked CD/DVD feature—Remote Disc—that was added for the MacBook Air. Mount a disc on computer elsewhere on the network with CD/DVD sharing enabled—separate software for Windows or via the Sharing system preference pane in Mac OS X—and the mini can mount it and even install a new operating system from it.

    Two mistakes

    Apple made only two missteps on system specs. First, a server nearly always does better with more memory, and while 4GB isn't unreasonable, an 8GB top limit would have been better if it were possible. Several Mac tech sites have tested putting in 8GB without any trouble, but Apple doesn't support such a configuration, which means future versions of Snow Leopard could unintentionally cause trouble. (The worst trouble I have had in 9 years of running OS X has been with system updates and incompatible third-party RAM.)

    The second stumble is by limiting the Mac mini to 5400 rpm drives, the same as are used on the low end in laptops, instead of widely available 7200 rpm drives. Servers benefit from faster drives because disk i/o runs continuously with many different sizes and types of file operations.

    It may have been a heat issue, because the retail difference in price can be as little as $20 to $30 per drive, and Apple would pay some fraction of that. However, it likely would have boosted the mini's street price by $50 to $100, and that may have been seen as unacceptable.

    The issue of RAM and drive speed are interrelated. More RAM would increase caching and reduce disk accesses; a faster drive would make a system with less RAM work more efficiently.

    Apple should consider offering a higher-end mini for what would likely be $1,299 to $1,399 with two 7200 rpm drives and 8GB.

    When I spoke to Apple about drive performance, product managers noted that the unit includes a FireWire 800 port. Several of my colleagues who have tested similar configurations say that external FireWire 800 drives could outperform an internal drive. Apple is offering the Promise SmartStor DS4600 RAID system alongside the mini for $799 with four 7200-rpm 1 TB drives, and two FireWire 800 ports. The device can be hardware-configured for mirroring, performance, or redundancy.

    For networked Time Machine backups across an office network, this add-on might solve two problems reasonably affordably. Four 1TB drives purchased separately can cost as much as $350 to $450 with no cases and without hardware RAID support.

    Booting up for the first time

    I have the advantage in this review of testing two separate Mac mini servers. One I purchased days after the release of the model when it appeared as if a Mac mini I use for handling backups of Linux servers via Retrospect—don't ask—had given up the ghost. I had wanted to consolidate mail service, DNS, and a handful of other services onto a newer system, moving the functions from a Linux server, so I took the plunge. (My older Mac mini wasn't dead, only resting.)

    How Apple Tries to Make It Easy

  • Simplified server settings via Server Preferences
  • Automatic generation of self-signed SSL/TLS certificate
  • Automatic configuration of a variety of networked software for 10.6 (Snow Leopard) client systems
  • Creates a custom PDF on the Desktop with details on next steps, such as MX records for DNS to get outside mail delivery
  • The other system was a short-term loan from Apple, which let me compare and contrast a machine I'd configured to run with a pristine installation. In both cases, I didn't migrate any files from other systems, just test functions.

    The Mac mini server is precisely like its non-server brethren. It's a squat square. You unpack it, plug in a power supply and an included mini-DVI to DVI adapter, hook up a monitor, keyboard, and mouse, and you're ready to go.

    Set-up for a preinstalled copy of OS X Server is very much like the first boot for a client OS X system. You walk through a very small number of settings, enter registration information, and create an account that can be used to administer the system. OS X Server, like all of Apple's business and professional products, has a serial number that must be entered; it's then confirmed with Apple over the Internet. As part of setup, you answer a very few questions about what services you want to use, but you can change those choices later.

    It's most likely that a server won't have a permanent "head" or monitor, so after the initial start up, I activate my MobileMe account in system preferences and turn on Back to My Mac, as well as Screen Sharing in the Sharing preference pane. (Back to My Mac only works with a single MobileMe account, so it's not ideal for situations in which you have multiple people who need remote access. Screen Sharing otherwise requires a publicly reachable IP address or port mapping that connects a public IP on a router to your server's screen-sharing port.)

    Server Preferences

    Mac OS X Server has always been a bit of a bear to manage. Apple uses largely open-source and free software packages which the firm overlays with what can sometimes be a thin layer of graphical interface. OS X Server splits management between Server Admin, which handles software services, log files, and the like, and Workgroup Manager, which controls users and groups, and the policies that relate to them.

    In the 10.5 server release, Apple tried to make simple server setup even more straightforward by offering a control panel interface for all the basics, called Server Preferences. You could start with Server Preferences, and graduate to Server Admin if simple wasn't enough. But there was a catch: once you started using the more sophisticated management interface, you could never use Server Preferences again.

    This cousin of System Preferences provides simple options for configuring powerful services. But it may not be enough.

    In 10.6, Apple remedied this. You can use either configuration tool interchangeably. The bigger difference between the two is that Server Preferences works only locally on the computer on which it's running; Server Admin and Workgroup Manager connect via an IP address or hostname regardless of the machine on which they operate.

    To use Server Preferences, just click the icon in the dock. Server Admin is in the Server folder also located on the dock to the right. You can download server tools separately for any computer from Apple, or install from a disk included with the server. Launch Server Admin, enter the server's IP or domain name, and an administrative username and password to connect, while optionally storing the data for later use.

    Server Preferences requires that you trust Apple on its default settings, especially regarding security, although that may not be a bad bet to make. For local network iChat, Address Book, iCal, and other settings, that's not a terrible idea. For Mail, it can be a problem, and firewall settings of any real scope can't be set within Server Preferences.

    I do, however, recommend setting up accounts and groups via the Users and Groups preferences in Server Preferences. The alternative is to use Workgroup Manager, which I still find difficult to use and which generates unpredictable results years after I've been wrestling with it. Workgroup Manager provides access to more varied and deep settings that most humans never need see, but it also works erratically.

    OS X Server requires you to use Open Directory, a way of confederating accounts across systems and offering LDAP-based directory information to Address Book and other applications. You can also set up the system to work on a standalone basis, where account information is stored in a local directory. After my experiences, I'd suggest going with the Apple flow, even though it may appear overkill.

    Here's my first tip that will save you heartache should it happen to you. I had switched to use standalone local Open Directory authentication on my co-lo Mac mini server. After a restart when installing updates to Java and Safari, accounts other than the one set up at startup no longer accepted password authentication.

    Fast forward four hours after consulting as many experts and sources as I could, and using Workgroup Manager to change passwords and check authentication settings. I had my hair pulled out when I decided to try the lowly System Preferences, because local account information is shown there as well. Sure enough, changing the password there reset authentication systemwide.

    Setting up clients

    When first setting up client Macs, OS X Server 10.6 has a neat trick. You can match identical account names that you add on the server to those of clients on the network. With the server active, a Mac OS X 10.6 client on startup or login with the same name as any server account will be prompted to accept an invitation.

    OS X 10.6 automatically recognizes a server invite for same-named accounts, and can offer to set up several services.

    If the client does accept, 10.6 configures itself with information from the server for all local services, like Address Book, iCal, Mail, iChat, and others. This can also be done manually by sending an invitation to a user from the Users pane in Server Preferences. Older Macs and Windows systems will need to enter values manually in many cases; Apple's Mail software can often configure itself, however.

    (Another tip: This auto-configure option will fail if you haven't given a real domain name—one that resolves via DNS from your local DNS servers or global DNS servers—to your Mac mini when you first set it up. Either set up a real name and enter it while configuring the Mac mini, or use the OS X Server as the DNS server for client computers to avoid this problem.)

    Security

    I'm not a paranoid guy, but I have grown to believe that every service available for remote connection should be secured by SSL/TLS. That's nearly always possible these days, and—with the exception of FTP—OS X Server lets you quite simply use a single server certificate to protect everything it offers over a local network and the Internet.

    This starts with OS X Server generating a self-signed certificate as part of the setup process after you give the server a local or fully qualified domain name. (A local name would be put into the local side of a DNS server for local resolution; a fully qualified name can be found in public DNS, and looked up from anywhere. As noted above, I recommend you figure this out before the initial OS X Server setup.)

    A self-signed cert has a lot of limitations, of course, because it requires that every client connection from every program that uses SSL/TLS has to accept that the certificate is valid. Third-party certificate authority (CA) signed certificates are automatically validated because the CA authority certificate signatures are built into the operating system or client software.

    A self-signed certificate has to be trusted since there's no third party that's validating whether it's what it claims to be.

    However, for local networks, that may not be that big of a bar. Apple has long offered system-wide trust of self-signed certificates. Once a cert is trusted, it can be used throughout Mac OS X. You can also get a free valid certificate from StartSSL, if you don't want to pay a recurring yearly fee for a LAN server's certificate.

    You can add as many certificates as you want to OS X Server, installing and managing them in a limited fashion in Server Preferences, and with much greater ease in Server Admin. It's safe to say that if you want to use two or more certificates, you need to use Server Admin to configure the secure portions of services like Mail.

    Apple made it vastly easier to import certificates in OS X Server 10.6 with improvements on the back-end and the graphical presentation in Server Admin and Server Preferences. In 10.5, you had to navigate file paths. I've never cursed as much as when trying to get OS X Server 10.5 to accept certificates. Here's an actual log entry I made in progress report for a publication site I help manage: "GAAAAAAAA! Server Admin!!! GAAAAH."

    Apple tweaked this process to make it work as a drag-and-drop operation in 10.6, where it also conveniently doesn't fail. An SSL/TLS certificate comprises your private key (which must be unencrypted for import), the server certificate provided by the CA, and sometimes a chain certificate for CAs that have authority provided from another organization.

    With those three files on hand, you simply drag the items in. In Server Preferences, click Information, click the Edit button to the right of SSL Certificate, and select the pop-up menu item Certificate Import > Import Certificate. In Server Admin, click the server's name, click the Certificates icon at top, click the + sign below the certificate list, and choose Import a Certificate Identity. Drag the appropriate items into the box. The elements light up as you add them. Click Import. Voila.

    OS X Server 10.6's simplified certificate import is a huge improvement over the previous version, and easy for those without certificate knowledge to use.

    All your SSL/TLS certificates are available for selection from all the services which allow certificate-based tunneling for security. This includes Address Book, Web, and Mail, among others.

    FTP and firewalls

    One omission is FTP. Apple supports plain FTP and Secure FTP (SFTP). Plain FTP servers accept a user name and password in the clear along with all data, but a server administrator can limit access to specific directories by user login, much as with AFP (Apple Filing Protocol) and Samba file sharing. SFTP is related to SSH (Secure Shell), and it allows secure file access, but to any file to which a user logging in over SSH would have access. This can be quite insecure on some systems. (I recommend limiting SSH access, too, only to those who need it. Per-service account restrictions are set by clicking the server's name in Server Admin, then selecting Access.)

    Apple should support FTP over SSL/TLS, which wraps normal FTP within a secure tunnel, and is well supported by FTP client software on every platform. It's an odd omission, and I confirmed with Apple's server team that the company doesn't include it. FTP can seem like a fussy old great-aunt of a protocol, but it's still commonly used.

    In addition to using certificate-based security, I believe that every server should have an active firewall to prevent accidental access to resources that weren't intentionally made widely available. One could call this the Google index problem, after all the documents that Google has snarfed for its index through carelessly exposed Web servers.

    Unfortunately, Apple's firewall service is difficult to use except for advanced users who may need to resort to the command line for more information or configuration.

    From Server Preferences, you can enable a quite simple version of the Firewall via the Security pane. Apple lets you take control of one of its models of Wi-Fi base station on the network if you're using that as your path to the Internet, setting up port-based restrictions there with little fuss. Or you can use its firewall security where the servers locally set firewall parameters.

    The simplified firewall probably isn't enough for robust protection, while Server Admin's controls are too confusing for those without deep expertise.

    Switching to Server Admin is more satisfying, but also more complicated. If you've never had any low-level firewall experience, figuring out which services to allow open access to using ports and interface numbers, the interface doesn't provide enough cues to set things up correctly.

    After turning on the firewall for my co-lo mini server, I found that Retrospect 8 backups from clients at the co-lo failed. An ancient entry in the simplified Services tab—which shows a long list of services with descriptions and checkboxes to turn on and off—was labeled Dantz Retrospect (the Dantz name is years out of date as owners have changed). It seemed to open the correct port—497—but clients still couldn't connect.

    I enabled logging for denied packets, and saw that the server was rejecting inbound packets on the right port. That meant I had to go to the Advanced tab and use a special dialog to configure inbound access. This dialog has long been a problem because it features popup menus which, after you set all values and click OK, show different values or no values at all when edited, even though the entry is apparently correct and functioning. (This can be confirmed via the command line.)

    Apple has quite a bit of room for improvement here to lock down a server well, allow better entry and editing, and make it clearer precisely what's happening—perhaps with a way to test a rule live or automatically troubleshoot failing operations without resorting to a log file.

    With a bit of extra knowledge, you can use DHCP, NAT, and the Firewall service to set up the Mac mini as a real firewall, too. While the mini server only includes a single gigabit Ethernet port, Apple sells a $29 USB 10/100Mbps Ethernet adapter, which works nicely in one of the five USB ports on the back.

    The 10/100Mbps port could be connected to the broadband connection, and have restrictive firewall policies on that interface, while routing data through to the gigabit built-in port connected to your office network.

    This would require a firewall savant, however, with perhaps a few hours of consulting time to set up, and some detailed instructions on making changes without breaking your network later.

    Mail Handling Common Business Hosted Services in Mac OS X Server
  • Email server directly accepting email
  • File sharing for Mac and Windows systems
  • Shared contacts and calendars
  • Internal Web site with blogs and wikis
  • VPN for remote secure access
  • Networked backup
  • WPA/WPA2 Enterprise for secure office Wi-Fi access
  • DNS to provide internal hostname resolution
  • DHCP + NAT for private network addressing
  • Network border firewall between broadband and office
  • Here's what I and every company want out of an email server. We want it to block spam and viruses, even when Macs are clients. We want secure connections without much fuss. We want it to work every time. Apple has achieved some of these goals, and I've worked out a solution for some others.

    The heavy lifting on a server for any moderately sized business is going to be incoming and outgoing email. Snow Leopard Server definitely improves on its predecessors for GUI-based email configuration, although you must use Server Admin for the full benefits.

    Apple packages together ClamAV for anti-virus, Spamassassin for spam filtering, Spamhaus for real-time blacklisting, Postfix as a mail delivery agent, Dovecot for IMAP and POP3, and, as a hidden option, Squirrelmail for Webmail.

    For the most part, this combination is fine, and works well. Apple's client Mail application, along with most modern email software, has no trouble talking to the Mail service through any means. I recommend bypassing Server Preferences and going straight to Server Admin for configuration even if you never use Server Admin for any other purpose.

    What's nice about the Mail service's setup is that you don't need to enter or change values for the most part; you can pick and choose a few critical changes. Your ISP or a consultant can provide specific settings for such things as the values for the Relay tab. (Apple automatically includes zen.spamhaus.org in the "junk mail rejection servers" list; that exquisite service lets your mail server not receive email from constantly changing lists of IPs that spew gunk.)

    Where I would focus particularly is in the Filters tab and the Advanced tabs' Security pane. Filters control the spam-filtering and virus-checking behavior; Security sets encryption and authentication options for connections.

    In Filters, you check Enable Junk Mail Filtering to turn on spamassassin, an open-source effort to score attributes of email for spamminess, which OS X Server then uses to block or accept email. You set a threshold score using a slider from Cautious (where little mail is bounced) to aggressive. Apple lets you delete, archive, or label messages over the threshold.

    In my years of using spamassassin on a Linux box, I find that the gray area are scores from 5 to 7; mail with a score of 7 is extraordinarily unlikely to be "ham" instead of "spam."

    You can focus spamassassin by specifying which languages and countries are most typical that you receive email from. This scores messages outside of those values as much more likely to be spam. I never receive email in, say, Russian or Mandarin, and thus it's nearly 100-percent likely for me that such messages are spam.

    After setting up filtering, as well as enabling the simpler checkbox for virus filtering, I turned the firehose that is my personal mailstream at the mini server. I receive tens of thousands of messages daily, largely spam, because some of my addresses have been in use for more than 10 years. That means every spammer tries to send me email. Some of my domains receive dictionary spam, where endless combinations of potential accounts names are emailed.

    I immediately discovered that I was receiving 20 times more spam through spamassassin in OS X Server than on my Linux box. This was unacceptable, of course. I found one problem and one bug with Apple's approach in making it all work.

    Spamassassin does best when it's trained, which you do by feeding the program good email (ham) along with unsolicited mail. Apple offers two approaches, neither ideal. You can create accounts called junkmail and notjunkmail, and the server software will nightly scan the contents of each for training purposes. However, forwarding individual emails is an ugly approach, and I found that OS X Server wouldn't accept certain email because of bad formatting in the spam message. Further, you must manually delete messages each night, or they accumulate (although they aren't used again for scoring).

    The other approach, clearly described by Apple in the manual, is to train the filter by hand, as it were, using the command line. Given that so much of OS X Server lets non-administrators avoid the command line, this is a shame. Apple clearly needs to add a GUI training method, possibly tying in the Junk Mail feature used in training its client Mail program to talk directly to the server. This is a critical part of modern mail serving, and Apple has shirked simplicity here.

    I use Mailsmith as my mail client, and it lets me save sets of email in the standard Unix mbox format, which spamassassin can read. I used AFP to save these mailboxes to a directory on the server in order to train the spam filter. The command to use with mbox files is:

    sa-learn —spam —mbox _filename_

    Substitute -ham for -spam to train good messages. I trained thousands of spams and thousands of hams, and still had way too much spam coming through. SpamSieve, the Mac OS X program that works with many client email programs, was catching well over 99 percent of the spam slipping through, so it wasn't a problem with training. (I've been training SpamSieve for years, too, of course.)

    The bug was in a misconfigured spamassassin setup file, true still in OS X Server 10.6.2, and to which I've alerted Apple through its bug-reporting system.

    In /etc/mail/spamassassin/, where the system's configuration files live, the configuration file for version 3.2.0 of spamassassin had disabled the TextCat plug-in which activates scoring rules by language, particularly the UNWANTED_LANGUAGE_BODY rule.

    In the v320.pre file, I removed the # (hash sign) from in front of the line containing:

    loadplugin Mail::SpamAssassin::Plugin::TextCat

    This fixed the problem. I also tweaked my own rules from years of using spamassassin on the local.cf file in the same directory, to score mail that was rejected by Spamcop and various spam-tracking indexes higher than the default values:

    score RCVD_IN_BL_SPAMCOP_NET 3.000 score RCVD_IN_SORBS_WEB 3.000 score URIBL_SBL 1.500

    I also boosted the scores on three rules affecting how well Russian spam was being filtered, which I was seeing in vast quantities:

    score MIME_CHARSET_FARAWAY 1.500 score UNWANTED_LANGUAGE_BODY 3.000 score BAYES_00 -1.000

    After changing these rules and restarting the Mail service—in Server Admin, choose Server > Restart Service, and click OK—my spam dropped down to just a little bit higher than I was used to. This may seem involved, but it's the explanation that's complicated; the configuration files changes need be applied once, and are worth the effort.

    It's a relief, by contrast, to switch to the Advanced tab's Security pane. I prefer to disable all non-secure methods of login, and thus check the top two entries for SMTP and the top three for IMAP/POP. I make sure Login and PLAIN are unchecked. In the SSL section, I choose Use for SMTP and IMAP/POP certificates, and pick the certificate I created with StartSSL and installed earlier.

    Apple did a lovely job making security settings for email connections a breeze in Server Admin.

    The selection of Use instead of Require for SSL/TLS certificates can save you some grief with certain mail clients. Some mail clients use a negotiation process in which it's asked whether a secure connection can be made. If you set the certificate option to Require, this negotiation is bypassed, and the client will fail. With Login and PLAIN unchecked, and only secure connection available, the Use option allows clients of varying kinds to connect without failure.

    Apple also includes Webmail, but has hidden away the option, and didn't configure its default to work correctly. First, you have to turn on the Web service, of course. Without getting too bogged down in details here, I set up a secure website from the Web service's Sites view in Server Admin using the default setup which points the index to /Library/WebServer/Documents.

    Using a secure site is critical for access because otherwise the password is entered in the clear over a Web connection—which you or a colleague might use at a public location, like a coffeeshop.

    Next, back to the command line. The Webmail software, Squirrelmail, needs to be set up to use secure IMAP to reach your messages when you log in. Type:

    cd /usr/share/squirrelmail/config

    Then type:

    sudo perl conf.pl

    Enter your password when requested. You'll see an uncommon thing these days as a result: a terminal screen based user interface. Enter 2, hit return, enter A, hit return, then:

  • Hit 5, return, and 993 for the port value, and hit return
  • Hit 6, return, and select cram-md5 for authentication, then hit return
  • Hit 7, return, and type y to enable TLS, then hit return
  • Type S, return, to save the data, then enter to proceed
  • Type Q, return to exit
  • You can now log in via Squirrelmail by using the URL https://_your_servername_/webmail.

    You're welcome!

    Other services

    We've covered all the major points, but there are a pile of other services that might be of interest, and certainly enhance the utility and cost of OS X Server in an office.

    Contacts and calendars. Clearly, one of the nicest things about a networked server is a central place to manage contacts and calendars. The Address Book and iCal programs in OS X talk directly to the server, although Apple uses LDAP (a well-established standard) and CalDAV (new and not well supported) to talk to other platforms. For serious enterprises, Apple's contact and calendar support may not meet needs; for the office size I've been talking about this article, there shouldn't be any trouble. (For a differing opinion on iCal service, however, read my colleague Rich Mogull's experience with OS X Server 10.6 for iPhone, Mac, and Web-based shared and local calendars over at TidBITS: Banging My Head against iCal Server's Limitations.)

    File service. Using a central file server for storage and file interchange is also a key office task. Apple's support for AFP and SMB are just fine, with a variety of options for user-based sharepoint setup. SMB service includes the ability to set up a WINS Server for Windows systems, and, in conjunction with Open Directory, act as a Primary Domain Controller for logins.

    Networked backups. Time Machine in Leopard and Snow Leopard can back up Macs to OS X Server drives, automatically handling all the details. I'd recommend using an external drive, both to swap backups offsite occasionally and prevent using an internal drive so heavily that it's constantly being written.

    WPA/WPA2 Enterprise. Wi-Fi logins are one of my bugbears. While you can use a single password (WPA/WPA2 Personal) to allow access to an office's networked, this is a weak method. Each computer has to have the password stored on it, and you can't selectively let others join. With WPA/WPA2 Enterprise, you can let users log into a Wi-Fi network using their server credentials, and each user is assigned a unique encryption key. Accounts can be disabled, or not allowed to log in over Wi-Fi, too. It also increases network accountability along with security. Windows XP and later and OS X 10.3 and later have the necessary Wi-Fi login software or options; there are free Linux downloads, too. (Apple manages this via the RADIUS service, which can automatically reconfigure Apple base stations; or, you can configure non-Apple routers manually.)

    Remote VPN access. If you, colleagues, or employees need remote secure access either to your office network, or simply to create security when using non-trusted networks, like Wi-Fi hotspots, the two forms of built-in VPN in OS X Server do the trick. A VPN server sets up encrypted tunnels that pass all data from a remote client to the server. Compatible VPN clients are found in Windows XP and later and Mac OS X 10.2 and later.

    A Mac mini Home in a Moderate Office

    Unbelievably, this article just skims across the many aspects of OS X Server and avoids much more—like the MySQL database server, configuring NAT and DHCP, and using iChat over a local network, some of which may also be useful for smaller-scale business networks.

    Is the Mac mini server and OS X Server the right match for your office? It certainly depends. In my weeks with the combo, I found much to praise, and many elements improved significantly over the 10.5 release. For a straightforward start-to-finish setup, this combination seems like a steal at the price, despite the problems I found—and especially if you take my advice for tweaking spam-filter settings.

    As with many Apple products, I would prefer if the experience were less frustrating at points at which the company should have tested and anticipated problems. But overall, Apple has kept most of the rough edges and hidden much of the configuration madness from the potential smaller-office audience.

    You can't go into using a Mac mini server and OS X Server expecting to do it all yourself unless everything in this article made sense at first read. First find and meet with OS X Server consultants, and budget some time for setup and for regular maintenance (and emergency help).

    Because Apple has packaged this offering so inexpensively, combining so many typically separate features into one offering, you can afford a little outside help. The cost will still wind up being far less than using any of the alternatives for what you get in one hardware and software package.


    Gmail from the command line with Mutt (Mac OS X) | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Another day, another task I’ve decided to start doing on the command line. After setting myself up with Twitter CLI and abandoning it shortly thereafter (the command line interface strips Twitter of its actual magic, I feel), I moved onto Gmail, excited by the prospect of swiftly sending and receiving emails without having to greatly interrupt my development workflow.

    Introducing Mutt. This awesome email client for the command line goes all the way back to 1998!

    Getting started

    Install Homebrew if you don’t have it already:

    ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/master/install)"

    With Homebrew installed, install Mutt:

    brew install mutt

    Once that is finished, we’re ready to start configuring Mutt to work with our Gmail account. Let’s open up Mutt’s configuration file in nano (a Terminal text editor):

    nano ~/.muttrc

    You will see an empty file like the one above. Paste the following in and edit everything in uppercase according to your account details:

    set imap_user = “YOUR-USERNAME@gmail.com”set imap_pass = “YOUR-PASSWORD”set smtp_url = “smtp://YOUR-USERNAME@smtp.gmail.com:587/”set smtp_pass = “YOUR-PASSWORD”set from = “YOUR-USERNAME@gmail.com”set realname = “YOUR NAME”set folder = “imaps://imap.gmail.com:993"set spoolfile = “+INBOX”set postponed = “+[Gmail]/Drafts”set header_cache = ~/.mutt/cache/headersset message_cachedir = ~/.mutt/cache/bodiesset certificate_file = ~/.mutt/certificatesset move = noset smtp_authenticators = ‘gssapi:login’

    When you’re done, press Control-O (to Write Out) followed by enter. Then press Control-X to exit nano.

    If all went well, you will now be able to access your gmail account from the Terminal with the following command:

    mutt

    (If you provided the correct information in .muttrc but are still unable to connect, it’s possible that Google has blocked the sign-in for security reasons. If that happens, you will receive an email from Google stating “We recently blocked a sign-in attempt to your Google Account” with instructions on how to grant access to your account from “less secure apps.” Just follow the link and change your settings to turn on access for less secure apps.)

    Inside Mutt I bought some things at some places and now they own me forever.

    If, like me, you’ve gotten into the habit of never deleting any emails, you’ll see a massive output when you first start Mutt. It may be overwhelming at first, but soon you’ll learn to set some configuration options that will help you sort and filter your emails with simple key commands.

    But first let’s start by sending an email. You can pick an email from your list to reply to and press r (reply), or start a brand new email by pressing m (mail).

    If you chose to start a new message, Mutt will first ask if you want to ‘recall a postponed message’, i.e. a draft. Press y (yes) to be taken to a list of drafts in your account or n (no) to create a new email. Mutt will then prompt you to specify a To address and a Subject.

    When that’s done, you’ll be brought to the message editor in Vim:

    Vim is another Terminal text editor like nano, but with its own unique commands. If you’re totally unfamiliar with it, you might want to reference a Vim command cheatsheet, but for the purposes of this exercise, only a couple of basic commands are needed.

    Press i (insert) to start typing your message. Once you’re done, press the ESC key, followed by :wq (write and quit) to exit Vim.

    From here, press y to send your email. You did it!

    Advanced Mutt

    Now that you’re command-line emailing like a pro, let’s configure Mutt to best suit your needs.

    Using Mutt’s ‘limit’ command to filter emails.

    Out of the box, Mutt will return you every email in your inbox and you probably don’t want that. Mutt’s ‘limit’ feature lets you ask for emails according to date, subject, sender, unread status, and more.

    To access limit, simply press l (that’s a lowercase L) in Mutt. From here, you can pass Mutt a variety of different options (note the tildes!):

  • ~U —returns all unread emails
  • ~B deadline —returns all emails containing a specific keyword, in this case ‘deadline’
  • ~s pizza —returns all emails with a specified subject, in this case ‘pizza’
  • ~d 01/01/15–01/02/15 —returns emails sent between a specified date range in MM/DD/YYYY format
  • This is just a small sampling! To see all of the options available and how to use them, refer to the Mutt docs.

    Creating shortcuts for limit commands.

    If you have a long or complex limit command, you probably don’t want to have to type it out in full each time. For example, I typically like to be shown emails less than 7 days old and having to type l ~d<7d every time I use Mutt is decidedly unideal.

    Thankfully we can easily create macro shortcuts to map these Mutt commands to key commands on our machine. Let’s return to our .muttrc file:

    nano ~/.muttrc

    Below your email settings, configure your macro. Here’s what mine looks like:

    macro index .. <limit>~d<7d

    This means that when I press .. on my keyboard in Mutt, it will trigger the limit feature with the option ~d<7d which will return emails less than 7 days old. Not bad at all!

    Fetch new emails with a custom command

    Unlike most email clients, Mutt does not come with a ‘check mail’ command that will pull in any new messages while you’re already inside the program. So let’s create our own!

    In .muttrc, add the following:

    bind index G imap-fetch-mail

    Pressing G (get) in Mutt will now fetch any new emails from the IMAP server.



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