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BH0-011 - BCS Intermediate Certificate in EU Code(R) of Conduct for Data - BrainDump Information

Vendor Name : ISEB
Exam Code : BH0-011
Exam Name : BCS Intermediate Certificate in EU Code(R) of Conduct for Data
Questions and Answers : 50 Q & A
Updated On : January 22, 2019
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BH0-011 exam Dumps Source : BCS Intermediate Certificate in EU Code(R) of Conduct for Data

Test Code : BH0-011
Test Name : BCS Intermediate Certificate in EU Code(R) of Conduct for Data
Vendor Name : ISEB
Q&A : 50 Real Questions

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ISEB ISEB BCS Intermediate Certificate

ISEB Practitioner commercial enterprise and answer architecture | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This seller-certain Certification is obtainable with the aid of:British laptop Society (BCS)Swindon, Se UKPhone: 44 (0)1793 417417

ability level: advanced                          fame: active

low-budget: no longer purchasable               

summary:For business and solution Architects who practice their intermediate degree skills to a case analyze and may problematic on the organization and methods required to control an structure efficiently. This certification is appropriate for people that are engaged in any factor of business and answer architecture.

preliminary requirements:You must pass the ISEB Practitioner in commercial enterprise and answer architecture examination. The exam has a one hour deadline and carries forty varied-choice questions in response to a case examine. A passing rating of 26/40 is required.Six years of IS/IT work journey, including some structure definition is recommended. it's additionally counseled you hang the ISEB Intermediate stage certificates, or have studied the ISEB Intermediate degree Syllabus and Reference mannequin, and have both TOGAF 8 or TOGAF 9 degree 2 certificate. training is accessible but no longer required.

continuing requirements:None exact

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dealer's web page for this certification launches new practicing package | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

The ISEB examine management certification is the next level of competency in software testing after the ISEB basis and ISEB Intermediate stages. incomes this certification makes employment candidates extra valuable and marketable, as it signifies a robust skill to analyse, synthesize and evaluate projects involving utility trying out management. These knowledge are critical to the career advancement of utility testers, primarily during this age of world competition and economic uncertainty.

like several practising programs, an permitted and totally skilled ISEB direction tutor authored the ‘test administration’ course. The route is fully in keeping with the professional ISEB exam syllabus and includes exciting researching tools confirmed to maximise the absorption of the material.  This and all different normal assessments practising kits include an ironclad, 100 per cent guarantee: flow, or get a full refund, no questions requested.

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The examine administration examine package contains a comprehensive analyze e book, practice checks, fifty six twin-sided flashcards, situation query papers, exam suggestions, bonus material, ninety days full working towards support in the private enviornment of the enterprise’s IT certification discussion board, and greater. additionally, the equipment is obtainable in varied start methods – instant download, set of CDs, or everything provided in a sure, full coloration booklet (with the bonus material on a CD).

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TietoEnator Certifies Testers | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

January 14, 2002 08:28 ET | source: TietoEnator

ESPOO, Finland, Jan. 14, 2002 (PRIMEZONE) -- TietoEnator is one of two Swedish groups authorised to certify testers in keeping with the ISEB basis certificate for software testing. The ISEB check working towards will be provided in Sweden and Norway from January.

TietoEnator has its personal verify academics and offers the path to purchasers and personnel. it is a three-day path, and on the end of day three the participants can decide to take an examination and get the ISEB-certification.

- we now have seen an increasing demand for licensed testers, and seeing that there isn't any Swedish commonplace for examine, we've chosen to deliver the ISEB groundwork certificate, says Thomas Klarbrant, Managing Director of TietoEnator test solutions.

ISEB (assistance techniques Examination Board) is a division inside BCS (British laptop Society). ISEB presents certifications within a number of distinct IT areas. The purpose of ISEB is to carry the requirements within the IT business and to assist competence building.

For further counsel, please contact: Kennet Osbjer, TietoEnator check solutions, Sweden, +forty six 706 24 sixty five 33 Marit Saelemyr, TietoEnator Consulting AS, Norway, +47 553 64468

With over 10,000 employees and annual net income of EUR 1.1 billion, TietoEnator is a number one company of high value-added IT services in Europe. TietoEnator makes a speciality of consulting, building and hosting its clients' company operations in the digital economy. The community's capabilities are based on a mixture of deep trade-certain abilities and latest guidance technology.

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TietoEnator, Espoo TietoEnator check options, Sweden: Kennet Osbjer +forty six 706 24 sixty five 33 TietoEnator Consulting AS, Norwa: Marit Saelemyr +47 553 64468


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BH0-011 exam Dumps Source : BCS Intermediate Certificate in EU Code(R) of Conduct for Data

Test Code : BH0-011
Test Name : BCS Intermediate Certificate in EU Code(R) of Conduct for Data
Vendor Name : ISEB
Q&A : 50 Real Questions

how many questions are requested in BH0-011 examination?
Killexams.Com truly you are maximum first-rate mentor ever, the manner you teach or guide is unmatchable with any other service. I have been given remarkable assist from you in my attempt to try BH0-011. I was no longer certain approximatelymy fulfillment however you made it in most effective 2 weeks thats really brilliant. Im very grateful to you for supplying such richhelp that these days ive been able to score super grade in BH0-011 examination. If im successful in my discipline its due to you.

Save your time and money, take these BH0-011 Q&A and prepare the exam.
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Have just surpassed my BH0-011 examination. Questions are legitimate and accurate, which is the good information. i wasensured ninety nine% skip price and money lower back assure, however obviously i have got exceptional scores. thatsthe best information.

No questions became asked that turned into now not in my Q&A manual.
All in all, changed into an awesome manner for me to prepare for this examination. I handed, however become a touch disappointed that now all questions about the examination had been one hundred% similar to what gave me. Over 70% were the identical and the relaxation changed into very similar - Im not sure if this is a good component. I managed to pass, so I think this counts as a great end result. But keep in mind that despite you continue to want to study and use your brain.

Do a quick and smart move, prepare these BH0-011 Questions and Answers.
Before I walk to the testing center, I was so confident about my preparation for the BH0-011 exam because I knew I was going to ace it and this confidence came to me after using this for my assistance. It is very good at assisting students just like it assisted me and I was able to get good scores in my BH0-011 test.

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Did you attempted this brilliant source state-of-the-art real examination questions.
sooner or later, on the dinner desk, my father asked me straight away if i used to be going to fail my upcoming BH0-011 take a look at and i answered with a totally company No way. He changed into impressed with my self assurance however i wasso afraid of disappointing him. Thank God for this since it helped me in maintaining my phrase and clearing my BH0-011 check with pleasant consequences. Im thankful.

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Ballots Counted in 2017 ARRL Director, Vice Director Elections

The votes are in, and the ballots have been tallied at ARRL Headquarters in contested Director and Vice Director elections.

Dakota Division Director-Elect Matt Holden, K0BBC.

In a two-way race to fill the Dakota Division Director's chair being vacated by Kent Olson, KA0LDG, the Division's members elected Vice Director Matt Holden, K0BBC, of Bloomington, Minnesota. Holden received 698 votes, while Dean Summers, N0ND, of Dickinson, North Dakota, got 345 votes. Holden was appointed Vice Director in February 2016 after former Director Greg Widin, K0GW, became ARRL First Vice President. Olson announced earlier this year that he would not seek another term.

In a four-way race for the Vice Director's chair that Holden will vacate, the winner was North Dakota Section Manager Lynn Nelson, W0ND, of Minot. Nelson earned 427 votes; Tom Karnauskas, N0UW, of Owatonna, Minnesota, received 338 votes; Chris Stallkamp, KI0D, of Selby, South Dakota got 175 votes; and Jay Maynard, K5ZC, of Fairmont, Minnesota, picked up 93 votes.

In the Atlantic Division, ARRL members chose former FCC Special Counsel Riley Hollingsworth, K4ZDH, of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, as Vice Director. In the final tally, Hollingsworth received 2,559 votes, while Lloyd Roach, K3QNT, of Bedford, Pennsylvania, garnered 1,348 votes.

Ballots were counted on November 17 at ARRL Headquarters. [Dave Isgur photo]

In the Midwest Division, Director Rod Blocksome, K0DAS, easily held off a re-election challenge from Cecil Miller, WB0RIW, of Wichita, Kansas, 1,249 to 792. Blocksome was elected Midwest Division Vice Director in 2011. In 2014, he was the only candidate to succeed retiring Director Cliff Ahrens, K0CA.

Unopposed for new terms were Atlantic Division Director Tom Abernethy, W3TOM; Delta Division Director David Norris, K5UZ; Delta Division Vice Director Ed Hudgens, WB4RHQ; Great Lakes Division Director Dale Williams, WA8EFK; Great Lakes Division Vice Director Tom Delaney, W8WTD, and Midwest Division Vice Director Art Zygielbaum, K0AIZ.

All successful candidates begin new 3-year terms on January 1, 2018.

Status Report: The Amateur Radio Parity Act of 2017

The Amateur Radio Parity Act of 2017 - S. 1534 is alive, but with legislative action slowed to a glacial pace on Capitol Hill in recent months, there's been no real progress to report since this past summer. At present, the bill is under consideration by the US Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, and it remains an active concern for ARRL. The League is working diligently to shake the bill loose and move it forward.

While it may appear that time is short, S. 1534 does not need to pass the Senate by year's end. The bill remains in play until the current session of Congress adjourns, which doesn't happen until December 31, 2018. Once the bill has been passed by both chambers, the FCC would still have to implement its essence in the Part 97 Amateur Service rules.

Introduced on July 12, S. 1534 marked another step forward for the landmark legislation. Senators Roger Wicker (R-MS) and Richard Blumenthal (D-CT) sponsored the bill in the Senate. The US House version of the legislation, HR 555, passed the House of Representatives by unanimous consent last January.

FCC Dismisses Radio Amateur's Petition to Revise Call Sign Rules

The FCC has dismissed a rule-making petition filed last May by Thomas J. Alessi, K1TA, of Stamford, Connecticut, that sought to amend the Part 97 rules regarding Amateur Radio Service call signs. The Commission action came in a November 28 letter from Scot Stone, Deputy Chief of the FCC Wireless Telecommunications Bureau Mobility Division. Alessi had asked the FCC to make call signs consisting of one letter, followed by two digits, followed by one letter (1 xx 1 format) available to Amateur Extra-class licensees. Alessi asserted that the number of Amateur Extra-class licensees who desire short call signs exceeds the available supply of 1 x 2 and 2 x 1 call signs, and that his plan would make available an additional 7,800 four-character call signs.

"Approximately fifteen million call signs are presently available in the sequential call sign system, but it does not include every amateur call sign that has been allocated to the United States," Stone wrote in denying Alessi's petition. He also pointed out that the FCC had rejected a similar suggestion in 2010 that would have made certain additional call signs, including 1 xx 1 call signs, available to Amateur Extra-class licensees, but concluded at the time that enough call signs were already available for every Amateur Radio licensee to obtain an acceptable call sign. In addition, the FCC said in 2010 that it had no plans to revisit the issue.

"You have not demonstrated any changed circumstances or other reason that would warrant revisiting this decision," Stone's letter concluded.

ARRL Board of Directors Publicly Censures Southwestern Division Director

Acting on a recommendation of its Ethics and Elections Committee, the ARRL Board of Directors has publicly censured one of its own -- ARRL Southwestern Director Dick Norton, N6AA. On an 11-3 vote, with one member abstaining, the Board adopted a resolution to censure Norton for criticizing the ARRL Code of Conduct for Board members at an Amateur Radio gathering "by virtue of his characterizations thereof, thus criticizing publicly the collective action of the Board of Directors adopting said Code of Conduct and drawing the Board's collective decision making into disrepute." The Board admonished Norton that no further similar behavior would be tolerated.

The resolution cited "multiple portions of the Code of Conduct" that Norton was found to have violated. The Board's action related to a complaint filed with the Ethics and Elections Committee by an ARRL member. The Board met in special session by teleconference on November 14 to consider the matter.

According to the resolution, fellow Board members had cautioned Norton that "his actions and his manner" in criticizing the Code of Conduct for Board members were "not acceptable and cannot continue, with no notable change in his behavior since that time."

Norton had been provided with a copy of the Ethics and Elections Committee resolution, dated September 7, 2017, and responded to it in writing, accompanied by statements of four ARRL members who supported his response.

The Board found that Norton's violation of the ARRL Code of Conduct had "caused harm to the League" and provided sufficient cause to publicly censure Norton for "unacceptable behavior as an ARRL Board member."

The minutes of the special ARRL Board of Directors meeting have been posted on the ARRL website.

The Doctor Will See You Now!

"Coaxial Cable vs. Balanced Lines" is the topic of the new (November 9) episode of the "ARRL The Doctor is In" podcast. Listen...and learn!

Sponsored by DX Engineering, "ARRL The Doctor is In" is an informative discussion of all things technical. Listen on your computer, tablet, or smartphone -- whenever and wherever you like!

Every 2 weeks, your host, QST Editor-in-Chief Steve Ford, WB8IMY, and the Doctor himself, Joel Hallas, W1ZR, will discuss a broad range of technical topics. You can also e-mail your questions to, and the Doctor may answer them in a future podcast.

Enjoy "ARRL The Doctor is In" on Apple iTunes, or by using your iPhone or iPad podcast app (just search for "ARRL The Doctor is In"). You can also listen online at Blubrry, or at Stitcher (free registration required, or browse the site as a guest) and through the free Stitcher app for iOS, Kindle, or Android devices. If you've never listened to a podcast before, download our beginner's guide.

Just ahead: "Listener Mailbag."

Major New Edition of The ARRL Handbook is Now Available!

The 2018 edition of The ARRL Handbook for Radio Communications has undergone a complete makeover and is now available. First published in 1926, the most widely used one-stop reference and guide to radio technology principles and practices over the years since has documented the state-of-the-art in Amateur Radio as well as emerging technologies in radio experimentation, discovery, and achievement. The 95th edition of The Handbook has been extensively updated, and includes significant new content. Each chapter has been authored and edited by experts in the subject. ARRL CEO Tom Gallagher, NY2RF, is promoting The Handbook as a valuable resource for new and veteran hams alike.

"For new hams, you will be amazed at how quickly you become familiar, not only with the theory, but also with the practical aspects of radio -- from long waves to microwaves," he said. "For experienced hams, you're in for a surprise and delight when you see the extent of the latest revisions. This edition is the most comprehensive revision since the 2014 edition."

Readers can download a fully searchable, digital edition of the Handbook, plus expanded supplemental content, software, PC board templates, and other support files.

The Handbook is not just for radio amateurs. For years now, it's proved to be a valuable resource for professionals and students in radio and communication technology, electrical engineering, data communication, physics, and geophysics.

New projects in the 2018 edition include VHF/UHF/Microwave Filters and Transmission Lines; Software-Controlled and Manual Preselectors for 1.8-30 MHz; Digital Mode Audio-Based VOX/PTT Interface; PICAXE-Based Timer; 6-Meter Halo Antenna; Big Wheel VHF/UHF Mobile Antenna, and an Off-Center End-Fed Portable 40-6 Meter Antenna.

Readers of the 2018 edition of The Handbook will also find new and updated information on software-defined radio (SDR) and digital signal processing (DSP), grounding and bonding, Solar Cycle 24-25, tower safety, and remote-control station building.

The ARRL Handbook is available in hardcover and softcover editions from the ARRL Store or your ARRL Dealer. Hardcover: ARRL Order No. 0727, ISBN 978-1-62595-072-7, $59.95 retail. Softcover: ARRL Order No. 0710, ISBN 978-1-62595-071-0, $49.95 retail. Call (860) 594-0355 or, toll-free in the US, (888) 277-5289.

Sign Up for ARRL's 12 Days of Deals!

We're making a list and checking it twice. Beginning Monday, December 4, 2017, ARRL will be offering 12 days of deals. Subscribe by entering your name, call sign, and e-mail address in the fields provided. You'll receive an e-mail every day for 12 days with a special online deal. Each deal is valid for 1 day only at

ARRL's 12 days of deals concludes Friday, December 15, 2017.

Sign up now, and unwrap a new deal every day!

AO-91 Commissioned, Declared Open for Amateur Use!

AMSAT-NA's latest Amateur Radio CubeSat, RadFxSat (Fox-1B), now known as AO-91, has been opened for general use. AMSAT Engineering officially announced that AO-91 was ready for use at 0650 UTC on Thanksgiving Day, November 23. AMSAT VP of Engineering, Jerry Buxton, N0JY, turned over operation to Mark Hammond, N8MH, and AMSAT Operations during a contact on the AO-91 repeater during the pass over the Eastern US, AMSAT said in a bulletin.

The latest CubeSat in the Fox series was launched on November 18 from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Telemetry is downlinked via the DUV sub-audible telemetry stream, which can be decoded using FoxTelem software.

A 1U CubeSat, RadFxSat (Fox-1B) is a joint mission of AMSAT and the Institute for Space and Defense Electronics (ISDE) at Vanderbilt University. AMSAT constructed the rest of the satellite, including the spaceframe, on-board computer, and power system. The Amateur Radio package is similar to that currently on orbit on AO-85, with an uplink on 435.250 MHz (67.0 Hz CTCSS) and a downlink on 145.960 MHz. -- Thanks to AMSAT News Service

Amateur Radio-Carrying D-Star One CubeSat among Spacecraft Apparently Lost

The first Amateur Radio satellite to employ the D-Star digital voice and data format -- D-Star One -- was among about 20 secondary payloads lost on November 28 after an otherwise nominal launch of a three-stage Soyuz 2.1 booster from the new Vostochny Cosmodrome in the far reaches of eastern Russia.

The mission carried the Russian Meteor M2-1 satellite -- the primary payload -- as well as a Canadian Telestar experimental satellite, and 17 other secondary payloads, including D-Star One. According to reports, a fault occurred in the sophisticated and autonomous Fregat upper stage, which, after separating from the launch vehicle, inserts multiple spacecraft into their respective orbits. A so-called "space tug," Fregat has been in service for nearly 2 decades and has suffered three previous failures. Russian space agency Roscosmos is investigating the Fregat failure.

D-Star One, the first German commercial CubeSat, carried four communication modules, two designated for Amateur Radio use.

D-Star One was developed by German Orbital Systems in cooperation with the Czech company iSky Technology as part of a plan to eventually assemble a low-Earth orbit communication network.

"Hopefully, we'll get another chance to utilize D-Star communications with a satellite repeater sometime in the future," Wayne Day, N5WD, commented on the AMSAT-BB.

The Fregat upper stage functions as an orbital vehicle in its own right to access a range of orbital configurations through a series of "burns." Made up of six spherical tanks arrayed in a circle, Fregat is "independent from the lower three stages, having its own guidance, navigation, control, tracking, and telemetry systems," according to Gunter's Space Page.

The November 28 launch was only the second from the new cosmodrome.

IARU Cites Progress Toward 50 MHz Region 1 Allocation

The International Amateur Radio Union (IARU) says "significant progress" was made during World Radiocommunication Conference 2019 (WRC-19) preparations that took place earlier this month at International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Headquarters in Geneva. But the IARU cautioned that a lot remains to be done before the "reservations and concerns of regulators and spectrum users are adequately satisfied."

For the team representing IARU in Working Party 5A (WP 5A) of ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R), the main focus was on the WRC-19 agenda item that will consider an Amateur Radio allocation in Region 1 from 50 to 54 MHz that is similar to the one available in Regions 2 and 3. The current, mainly secondary, allocation of 50-52 MHz in most European countries is a regional agreement. Delegates to the meeting considered input documents from IARU, France, the Russian Federation, and Switzerland. A rough consensus was achieved on the text that will provide the technical basis for discussions concerning the access to 50-54 MHz for the Amateur Service in Region 1.

Other key issues affecting the Amateur Service that remain to be addressed prior to WRC-19 include securing protection for Amateur Service primary allocations at 24 GHz and 47 GHz and minimizing possible interference arising from Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) for the charging of electric vehicles. Read more. -- Thanks to the IARU

JOTA "Alive and Doing Well," Although 2017 Participation Down from Last Year

Nearly 8,000 Scouts got on the air for the 60th Jamboree on the Air (JOTA) over the third weekend in October, National JOTA Coordinator Jim Wilson, K5ND, said. This week, Wilson released the 2017 JOTA report, which declared, "Radio Scouting and Jamboree on the Air are alive and doing well." Facilitating the October JOTA activity were more than 900 radio amateurs at 525 stations.

"Propagation wasn't our friend, but, even so, [radio amateurs in] almost 90 countries and all 50 states engaged in conversations with Scouts during the weekend," Wilson said. "In addition to HF, VHF, and UHF, many Amateur Radio digital modes were in use, as well as online Jamboree on the Internet channels."

The tally for JOTA 2017 was 7,872 Scouts on the air, which, Wilson pointed out, was down from the 10,761 who took part in JOTA 2016, but more in line with 2015's participation. Reports were filed by 226 JOTA locations.

"The Boy Scouts of America National Radio Scouting Committee will be exploring several improvement projects for 2018," Wilson said. These would include establishing a JOTA Frequency Task Force to explore updated frequency listing and operating recommendations, looking into new ways to alert participants in real time about other JOTA stations that are on the air.

This young Boy Scout got on the air at a JOTA station hosted by the Huntsville Amateur Radio Club (K4BFT)

The Radio Scouting Committee's work in 2017 resulted in the introduction of new Radio Merit Badge requirements, which included a new option for Amateur Radio Direction Finding (ARDF) -- or "foxhunting." The panel also developed documents to help Scout leaders incorporate radio and JOTA in their unit activities.

Wilson pointed out that the K2BSA operation at the 2017 National Scout Jamboree in July introduced Amateur Radio to nearly 2,500 Scouts, with 305 earning the Radio Merit Badge.

Year-Long NASA On The Air Event Kicks off on December 11

The Amateur Radio clubs at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) centers around the US have invited the Amateur Radio community to join the NASA On The Air (NOTA) special event. NOTA gets under way in December and continues through December 2018. In addition to being the agency's 60th anniversary, 2018 will mark 50 years since NASA orbited the first human around the moon, and 20 years since the first elements of the International Space Station (ISS) were launched into low-Earth orbit.

The Marshall Space Flight Center's NN4SA is one of the NASA Center stations that will be active during NOTA.

Starting on Monday, December 11, 2017, Amateur Radio club stations at various NASA centers and facilities will be on the air with special event operations to celebrate these monumental achievements, as well as current milestones. Some clubs will offer commemorative QSL cards, and a special certificate will be available indicating the number of NASA club stations worked on various bands and modes.

"We plan to have a web-based system for you to check your points total and download a printable certificate at the end of the event in December 2018," the NASA announcement said. "Points will be awarded for each center worked on each band and mode (phone, CW, digital, and 'space' modes -- satellites, meteor scatter, EME, ISS APRS)." That would, of course, include contacts with any of the Amateur Radio stations on the ISS.

Key anniversaries during NOTA include the 45th anniversary of Apollo 17 on December 11, 2017, which kicks off the event; NASA's founding on July 29, 1958; the 20th anniversary of the ISS first element launch on November 20, 1998; the 20th anniversary of the ISS Node 1 Launch on December 4, 1998, and the 50th anniversary of Apollo 8 -- launched on December 21, 1968, and returned on December 27 -- marking the end of the event.

More information is on the NASA On The Air website. Participating Amateur Radio clubs and the NOTA event are independent of -- and not officially sponsored by -- NASA. Read more. -- Thanks to Rob Suggs, KB5EZ, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Amateur Radio Club (NN4SA), and Kevin Zari, KK4YEL, NASA Kennedy Space Center Amateur Radio Club (N1KSC).

Ulrich Rohde, N1UL, Receives Wireless Innovation Forum Leadership Award

The oft-honored Ulrich Rohde, N1UL, is the recipient of the Wireless Innovation Forum Leadership Award (formerly International Achievement Award). The award recognizes "especially significant contributions in furthering the global mission of the Wireless Innovation Forum." A prolific technical author, academic, and engineer, Rohde is a partner of Rohde & Schwarz in Munich, Germany, and chairman of Synergy Microwave Corporation, in Paterson, New Jersey.

While working under an RCA US Department of Defense contract in 1982, Rohde's department developed the first software-defined radio (SDR), which used the COSMAC (complementary symmetry monolithic array computer) chip. Rohde was among the first to present publicly on this topic with his 1985 talk, "Digital HF Radio: A Sampling of Techniques," at the Third International Conference on HF Communication Systems and Techniques in London.

"Since then, Rohde has actively driven innovation in the field of SDR, both in industry and academia," the Award announcement said. Rohde holds some 50 patents. In December 2016, Rohde was invited to deliver the Sir J.C. Bose Memorial Lecture on "Next-Generation Networks: Software-Defined Radio -- Emerging Trends," at IEEE Hyderabad, India. In the 2017 edition of Communications Receivers, Rohde and his co-authors set SDR at the core of modern communications systems design.

A project in which Rohde & Schwarz is involved was also honored. The Wireless Innovation Forum conferred its Technology of the Year award on the German Armed Forces Joint Composite Radio Equipment Project; Rohde & Schwarz is lead industry partner.

Winners were announced at the Wireless Innovation Forum Conference on Communications Technologies and Software-Defined Radio (WInnComm 2017), held in San Diego November 15-17.

In Brief...

Canada's Polar Prince WSPR beacon will ID with a new call sign on the return leg of its voyage. With the successful completion of the Canada C3 Expedition via the Northwest Passage that culminated with the arrival of the Polar Prince in Victoria, British Columbia, the CG3EXP special event call sign has been retired. The Polar Prince will continue to carry an Ultimate 3 WSPR beacon as the ship returns to the East Coast via the Panama Canal, identifying as VE0EXP. The CG3EXP WSPR beacon transmitted on 20, 30, and 40 meters. Anyone with an HF receiver and the free WSPR application may be able to receive the VE0EXP signal and track the vessel's location on WSPRnet. -- Thanks to Radio Amateurs of Canada

Statistics indicate that the Amateur Radio population in the UK has grown by approximately 10% over the past 5 years. According to telecommunications regulator Ofcom, as of the end of August 2017, there were 52,195 Full licensees, 9,739 Intermediate licensees, and 22,649 Foundation licensees. Figures recently released in response to a Freedom of Information request from Peter Bowyer, G4MJS, covered the period from June 2010 and August 2017. The statistics also show 803 Reciprocal licensees in June 2016. Overseas visitors do not need a Reciprocal license, if they are visiting the UK for up to 3 months from CEPT T/R 61-01 signatory countries such as the US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, or CEPT signatories in Europe. Ofcom previously issued Reciprocal license holders with call signs that were indistinguishable from Full license call signs; Ofcom now uses the term "Full (Temporary Reciprocal) Licence." In response to a Freedom of Information request for a list of available (unassigned) Amateur Radio call signs from Derek Flewin, 2W0FLW, Ofcom responded, "We no longer hold a list of available Amateur Radio call signs, as we now use a system that randomly allocates call signs upon request."

ARISS has announced that the MAI-75 Slow-Scan (SSTV) system on the ISS will be on the air starting on December 5 at around 1500 UTC and continuing until December 6 at 0900 UTC, transmitting test images on 145.800 MHz FM that should be available worldwide. SSTV activity on December 7 and 8 is scheduled to occur at times when the ISS is above Moscow. In the past images have been sent in PD180 mode, with a 3-minute off time between each image. The SSTV system is in the Russian Service Module of the International Space Station (ISS). -- Thanks to ARISS

SKYWARN™ Recognition Day (SRD) takes place on Saturday, December 2, from 0000 until 2400 UTC (starts on the evening of Friday, December 1, in US time zones). During the SKYWARN Special Event, operators at stations set up in National Weather Service (NWS) offices will contact radio amateurs around the world. Participating stations will exchange a brief description of their current weather with as many NWS-based stations as possible on 80, 40, 20, 15, 10, 6, and 2 meters, plus 70 centimeters. Repeater contacts are permitted. SRD was developed jointly in 1999 by the NWS and ARRL to celebrate the contributions SKYWARN volunteers make to the NWS mission -- the protection of life and property.

The K7RA Solar Update

Tad Cook, K7RA, Seattle, reports: The outlook for the near term shows solar flux at 72, 71, and 69 for November 30-December 2, 68 on December 3-6; 70 and 71 on December 7-8; 72 on December 9-12; 74 on December 13; 75 on December 14-16; 74 on December 17; 73 on December 18-20; 74 on December 21-22; 76 on December 23-29; 72 on December 30-31; 70 on January 1-3; 71 on January 4; 72 on January 5-8; 74 on January 9; 75 on January 10-12, and 74 on January 13.

The predicted planetary A index is 10, 6, 5, and 5 on November 30-December 3; 32, 36, 18, 20, and 10 on December 4-8; 5 on December 9-10; 12, 15, 12, and 8 on December 11-14; 5 on December 15-16; 8, 25, and 10 on December 17-19; 8 on December 20-21; 5 on December 22-23; 15 on December 24; 12 on December 25-27; 8 on December 28; 5 on December 29-30; 35, 40, 28, 20, and 10 on December 31-January 4; 5 on January 5-6; 12, 15, 12, 8, and 5 on January 7-11, and 8 on January 12-13.

Sunspot numbers for November 23 through 29, 2017 were 0, 0, 13, 15, 15, 14, and 12, with a mean of 9.9. The 10.7-centimeter flux was 72.4, 74.1, 74.3, 75.5, 73.6, 71.9, and 72.6, with a mean of 73.5. Estimated planetary A indices were 9, 10, 7, 3, 5, 8, and 5, with a mean of 6.7. Estimated mid-latitude A indices were 7, 8, 4, 2, 4, 6, and 4, with a mean of 5.

Send me your reports and observations.

Getting It Right

Ross Primrose, N4RP, took issue with our awkward and ambiguous wording of a sentence in the story "International Grid Chase Will Allow Use of 630 and 2200 Meters" in the November 16 edition of The ARRL Letter. We should have said, "If UTC does not respond within 30 days or does not specifically deny access, these stations may commence operation there."

The announcement for the 2017 ARRL 10 Meter Contest, as published in November 2017 QST (p. 94) contains incorrect information. Participants may choose to operate CW, Phone, or Mixed. Stations in the Mixed category may work stations on both modes for contact credit -- i.e., once on CW, and once on phone.

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    Agenda 21 - South Africa

    Click here to go to the following issues:

    Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |South Africa

    Click here to go to these sections:


    No information available.

    * * *

    This information is based on South Africa's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

    Click here to access the UNCTAD Country Profiles on LDCs:

    | South Africa | All Countries | Home |

    Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

    Institutional responsibility in this area lies within three ministries: that for the Southern African Development Community (SADC), Foreign Affairs, and Trade and Industry.

    Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

    Generally, exports in certain sectors have increased over the past 10 years, as have environmental policy and regulatory initiatives from the Government. Examples include the National Environmental Management Act 107 of 1998, development of a policy on Integrated Pollution Control and Waste Management, a policy on Conservation and Sustainable Utilisation of South Africa's Biological Diversity and the National Water Act 36 of 1998, amongst others.

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA):

    Environmental Impact Assessment addresses environmental issues associated with specific development proposals. Regulations passed under the Environment Conservation Act 73 of 1989 require identified activities to go through an EIA process. The recently adopted National Environmental Management Act 107 of 1998 makes it a requirement that an environmental assessment be carried out in relation to any activity, which requires legal authorisation if it may significantly impact on the environment.

    The establishment and expansion of many export-induced industrial activities will require EIAs to be completed. For example, for the Maputo Development Corridor linking Gauteng and Maputo, EIAs were undertaken to evaluate the conveyance of magnetite, the location of the plant processing and industrial processes. EIAs are also applicable to various petrochemical projects, which will add substantially to the petrochemical cluster in the Highveld Ridge area of Mpumalanga and increase the range of upstream and downstream opportunities.

    Concerning possible negative impacts of trade on environment, it is to be noted that environmental legislation is undergoing significant reform in South Africa. The driving force behind this, tough, is the need to support the overall national objective of sustainable development which has the primary goal of alleviation poverty and fulfillment of basic human needs.

    Environmental legislative reform is thus geared towards supporting the primary objective. At the same time, export orientated sectors are becoming increasingly aware of the potential barriers which inadequate environmental standards present to trade and are seeking to improve environmental performance.

    Policies have been developed in a wide range of areas but have yet to be translated into legislative reform. Changes are intended to uphold constitutional rights, to promote principles of sustainable development, and to ensure meaningful involvement of civil society. The changes signify a shift to a more holistic and co-ordinated approach to environmental issues. South Africa's commitment to international treaties (e.g. CITES) has also had a direct bearing on some of the changes in the legislation.

    Examples of policy and legislative responses include:

  • Constitutional environmental right: This legislative reform began with the environmental right included in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. This states the following: 'Everyone has the right to an environment that is not harmful to their health or well-being; and to have the environment protected for the benefit of present and future generations, through reasonable legislative and other measures that prevent pollution and environmental degradation, promote conservation and secure ecologically sustainable development and use of natural resources while promoting justifiable economic and social development.'
  • Environmental Management: The Environmental Management Act 107 of 1998 provides an overall framework for environmental management in South Africa. Its prime aim is to provide for co-operative governance in order to address the currently fragmented environmental management system. This is to be achieved through three main elements:
  • Establishing principles for decision making on matters affecting the environment - broadly based on the guiding principle of sustainable development
  • Establishing institutions to promote co-operative governance (Committee for Environmental Co-ordination and National Advisory Forum)
  • Establishing procedures for co-ordinating environmental functions (preparation of environmental implementation and management plans, and Integrated Environmental Management (IEM) procedures).
  • Legislation specific to natural resources management are designed to ameliorate possible negative effects of trade based on the resources. Examples include:

  • The National Water Act 36 of 1998 aims to manage the country's water resources to meet a wide range of objectives including meeting basic needs, equitable access, facilitating social and economic development, protecting ecosystems and preventing pollution.
  • The National Forests Act 84 of 1998 seeks to provide for sustainable forest management.
  • The Marine Living Resources Act 18 of 1998 aims to conserve marine ecosystems, promote the long-term sustainable utilisation of marine living resources and provide for the orderly access to exploitation, utilisation and protection of certain marine living resources. Exploitation of the resource is controlled through a licensing system.
  • Other environmental policies: New policies on minerals, energy, agriculture, biological diversity, integrated pollution control and waste management and coastal management have not yet resulted in amended legislation or regulatory regimes.
  • South Africa has not agreed to the derogation of any specific environmental legislation or regulation as an inducement to foreign direct investment.

    Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

    In the past 10 years, exports as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and imports as a percentage of Gross Domestic Expenditure (GDE) have both increased. In 1996, the Government adopted a Macroeconomic strategy titled the Growth, Employment and Redistribution Development Programme (GEAR). This strategy reinforced government policy to open up the economy to international competition and promote exports.

    Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA):

    South Africa is developing a pro-active strategic approach to planning development within a sustainable development framework. The approach is known as Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). Such assessment seeks to identify opportunities and constraints for development provided by the natural and social environments as well as mechanisms to mitigate negative impacts. SEAs are not legally required but are being carried out on a voluntary basis by national, provincial and local government and other organisations to assist with development planning and environmental management.

    Examples include:

  • Areas impacted by export-focused industries such as the South Industrial Basin and the proposed Port and Industrial Development at Coega;
  • Economic sectors such as a broad national view of the costs and benefits of further growth of the forestry industry;
  • SEAs have been used as an environmental management tool in Spatial Development Initiatives (SDIs) promoted by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). SDIs are short-term investment strategies that aim to identify and unlock inherent economic potential and promote investment in specific spatial locations in Southern Africa. SDIs have already generated 518 investment projects valued at over R115 billion. These involve industrial, tourism and agricultural development, which are planned to be undertaken in a fast track and large-scale manner.
  • The decision not to award mining concessions in St Lucia in Zululand, north of Durban, is viewed as a boost to ecotourism in that part of the country. The conservation of the Greater St Lucia Lake, forested sand dunes and wetland plays an important role in the attraction of tourists to the area. This will, in turn, stimulate job creation, which will ultimately result in economic growth, provided ecotourism is developed and managed in a sustainable development way.

    Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement  

    There is a number of industrial-led initiatives. The South African industry is responding to international trends towards environmental responsibility. Initiatives include:

  • Responsible Care involves a series of management practice standards (waste management and pollution control being one), indicators of performance and independent audits of performance. It is therefore possible to use this initiative to track environmental problems caused by increases in trade if industries comply with the requirements of the standards. Responsible Care has been implemented by companies such as AECI.
  • The introduction of ISO 14001 and the current ISO 9000 series of international standards, both of which require audits, provide external verification of compliance. Quantitative indicators are being developed to improve evaluation of compliance. The Industrial Environmental Forum introduced the concept of environmental management standards to its members long before the International Standards Organisations began negotiating the ISO14000 series. Sappi was one of the first South African timber industries to recognise the importance of developing an environmental code of practice and annual environmental audit.
  • A Geographical Information System, developed by Shell Limited, is used to prioritise its 850 fuel sites across the country according to their potential to impact on the environment in the event of a fuel spill or underground leakage from tanks.
  • Responses of the commercial sector and specifically companies such as Billiton, Umgeni Water, Samancor, Eskom, Sasol and others to international trends resulted in the demonstration of health, safety and environmental accountability through annual Health, Safety and Environmental Reporting.
  • See also under Challenges.

    Programmes and Projects  

    Investment in infrastructure to provide electricity, water and sanitation services is an important factor in poverty alleviation. For example, access to electricity extends the potential for income generating activity, and access to water increase the time women have to devote to activities other than fetching water from long distances.

    In response to the urgent need for decent housing, approximately 400 000 subsidised houses for low-income earners were built or under construction between 1994 and 1997, while another 700 000 subsidies were allocated by end of 1998. This will contribute to the provision of adequate housing under formal urban controls and reduce the negative effects of land invasions and informal settlement on the natural environment.

    Investments by the Development Bank of South Africa in 1998/9, include various projects such as the upgrade of stormwater drainage systems and electrification. A project by the DBSA, providing access to potable water, included training of local manpower, creating employment during the execution of the project. Prepaid meters are being installed and consumers will pay R4/kl of water, as opposed to R100/kl for potable water normally supplied by donkey cart.

    Eskom is also investing R50 million per year in the electrification of schools, clinics and community development activities. The provision of electricity leads to job creation and a subsequent rise in disposable income in a community. Electrification of schools and houses may lead to increased education levels and increased productivity levels.

    The 1998 Presidential Jobs Summit and other job creation initiatives gave rise to a number of programmes to reduce unemployment. For example, the tourism industry has been targeted to create additional 450,000 jobs by 2005. This will be achieved through a combination of public and private investment in tourism. Government, business and the trade unions have separate and joint programmes to create jobs while possible restrictive labour laws are under review. This will contribute to a reduction in poverty, and its associated demands on natural resources. The launch of a R1 billion fund for job creation by the private sector should also go a long way in improving trade and investment and alleviating poverty.

    In response to the occurrence of customs fraud, the Ministry of Safety and Security has adopted the Border Control Project, managed by the South African Revenue Services (SARS) and the Department of Home Affairs. Their action is aimed at combating escalating cross-border criminal and trade abuses.


    Due to environmental monitoring systems at national level still being developed, no conclusive statement regarding linkages between environmental hot spots and export-induced production can be made.

    Changes in export-induced production of economic sectors:

    The changes in exports and the consequent changes in domestic production for South Africa's main economic sectors are shown in Table 1. While the information on changes in exports and production patterns is readily available, information between them and specific environmental 'hot-spots' is difficult to obtain.

    Table 1. Changes in exports for the different sectors


    Exporting 1996

    R million

    % share of total

    exports (1996)

    Avg Annual % change, real




    Domestic production

    Primary Sector

    Agriculture, forestry and fishing

    6 368




    Mining: total

    48 700




    Gold mining

    23 770




    Other mining - including coal, diamond mining

    24 930




    Secondary sector

    Manufacturing: total

    77 596




    Food processing

    4 548





    1 245




    Tobacco products






    1 876









    Leather products










    Wood and wood products










    Pulp, paper and paper products

    4 179




    Chemical products

    10 725




    Petroleum refineries and petroleum products

    4 312




    Rubber products





    Plastic products





    Non-metallic mineral products





    Iron and steel basic industries

    12 876




    Non-ferrous metal basic industries

    9 200




    Metal products

    5 987




    Non-electrical machinery

    4 039




    Electrical machinery





    Motor vehicles and vehicle parts





    Other transport equipment





    Other manufacturing





    Electricity, gas and water










    Tertiary section

    Trade, catering and accommodation





    Transport, storage and communication





    Finance, property and business services





    Numbers in ( ) indicate negative growth

    ND No data

    Although no direct institutional mechanism exists to identify "Hot spots" particularly in relation to trade and investment, a number of initiatives to collect environmental information exists or have recently been initiated.

    Inequality, skewed distribution of economic resources and mass unemployment are major causes of poverty in South Africa. Since 1993, positive economic growth rates have not led to formal employment generation in the non-agricultural sectors. Formal non-agricultural employment was 7% lower in 1996 than in 1990. These recent trends in employment mark a change from historical patterns, where employment tended to increase as production increased, although by smaller proportions. The tendency for formal employment to decline in years where GDP is growing, has led some to conclude that South Africa is experiencing jobless growth. It might be more accurate to say that job creation in some sectors has been more than outweighed by job losses in others. There is also some evidence of job creation that has not been captured in the statistics, including jobs in the informal sector.

    Changes in employment, compared to the yearly investment, as well as annual production changes, are reflected in the table below.

      Avg Annual % change, real Employment no (1000)   1996 1997 1998   Investment Domestic production Employment

    Primary sector

    Agriculture, forestry and fishing 1.6 2.1 -0.8 852 ND ND Mining: total ND ND ND 570 ND ND Gold mining

    Other mining - including coal and diamond mining













    Secondary sector

    Manufacturing: total ND ND ND ND 1396 1347 Food processing 5.5 -0.7 -2.3 183 172 170 Beverages -12 -1.4 -3.3 32 30 30 Tobacco products -9.1 -3.3 -6.5 3 ND ND Textiles 24.5 -0.8 -6.3 80 76 57 Clothing 7.6 -0.1 ND 125 140 131 Leather products -3.7 0.8 -7.1 8 7.5 6.6 Footwear 7 -5.8 -4.4 26 23.7 22.4 Wood and wood products -2 0.1 -0.1 62 66 75.8 Furniture 9.4 0.7 1.9 50 ND 45.9 Pulp, paper and paper products 6.5 -0.3 -0.6 50 47.1 45.1 Printing and publishing 22.9 -0.5 0.1 54 51.5 54.8 Chemical products -5.4 2.7 -1.1 117 90.2 96.2 Industrial ND ND ND 16 27.5 28.3 Other ND ND ND 17 62.7 67.9 Petroleum refineries and petroleum products ND 1.2 -3 17 17.4 16.7 Rubber products 4.9 -2.1 -0.9 18 16.1 15 Plastic products 9.2 2.1 0.7 48 48.4 58

    ND No data

    From this table it can be seen that employment in most sectors has decreased from 1991 to 1996.

    Increases of more than 1% in domestic production as a result of increases in trade for the 1991-1996 period were experienced by the following sectors:

  • Agriculture, forestry and fishing (4.4 and 10.1% increase in exports and imports respectively for the 1991-1996 period), indicating an increase of 2.1% in production.
  • Chemical refineries (8.6 and 4.4% increase in exports and imports respectively for the 1991-1996 period), indicating an increase of 2.7% in production.
  • Petroleum refineries ( 3 and 25.9% increase in exports and imports respectively for the 1991-1996 period), indicating an increase of 1.2% in production.
  • Plastic products (17 and 6.5% increase in exports and imports respectively for the 1991-1996 period), indicating an increase of 2.1% in production.
  • Non-ferrous metal basic industries (12.6 and 10.3% increase in exports and imports respectively for the 1991-1996 period), indicating an increase of 9.5% in production.
  • Electricity, gas and water (1.4 and 7.3% increase in exports and imports respectively for the 1991-1996 period), indicating an increase of 3.1% in production.
  • Trade, catering and accommodation (1.5 and 7.3% increase in exports and imports respectively for the 1991-1996 period), indicating an increase of 1.7% in production.
  • Transport, storage and communication (1.2 and 6.8% increase in exports and imports respectively for the 1991-1996 period), indicating an increase of 2.3% in production.
  • Finances, property and business services (1.5 and 7.3% increases in exports and imports respectively for the 1991-1996 period), indicating an increase of 2% in production.
  • Decreases of more than 1% in domestic production as a result of decreases in trade for the 1991-1996 period were experienced by the following sector:

  • Gold mining (3 and 2.9% decrease in exports and imports respectively for the 1991-1996 period), indicating a decrease of 4.4% in production.
  • Investment is one of the key factors in economic growth. As a percentage of GDP, gross domestic fixed investment (GDFI) fell from an average of 27% during the 1970s to an average of around 17% during the first half of the 1990s. Investment levels have increased over the past two years, especially in manufacturing. Although investment has risen as a proportion of GDP, it remains far below the levels experienced in the mid-1980s.

    Sectors that have experienced increases in investment during the 1991-1996 period are:

    (% increase)

  • Agriculture, forestry and fishing1.6 pa
  • Food processing5.5 pa
  • Textiles24.5 pa
  • Clothing7.6 pa
  • Footwear7.0 pa
  • Furniture6.5 pa
  • Rubber products4.9 pa
  • Plastic products9.2 pa
  • Non-metallic mineral products8.3 pa
  • Non-metal based metal industries1.2 pa
  • Metal products0.1 pa
  • Other transport equipment0.6 pa
  • Electricity, gas and water0.7 pa
  • Trade, catering and accommodation6.3 pa
  • Transport, storage and communication2.6 pa
  • Finance, property and business services1.7 pa
  • Pulp, paper and paper products6.5 pa
  • Economic growth:

    Primary sector contribution to GDP has fallen from 11.5 percent to 10.1 percent in the last decade. Secondary sector contribution has also fallen from 26.5 percent to 24.5 percent over the same period. The contribution of the tertiary sector, in contrast, has increased from 53.4 percent to 56.6 percent.

    The table below illustrates the contribution of the various sectors to the South African economy (R million, at constant 1995 prices) and annualised percentage change



    1989 1998 % change p.a.   Agriculture, forestry and fishing 25559 24304 -0.6 Mining 35451 34892 -0.2 SECONDARY Manufacturing 107828 108258 0.04 Electricity 14881 19296 2.9 Construction 17611 16839 -0.5 TERTIARY Wholesale and retail trade 68031 73791 0.9 Transport, storage and communication 37732 53573 3.97 Financial and related services 74546 94565 2.7 Community, social and personal services 99344 111000 1.2

    Strongest growth sectors over the last decade include electricity (2.9 % per annum), transport (4.0 percent per annum) and financial and related services (2.7 % per annum).

    Consumption and production:

    Primary sector:

    Agriculture: Agriculture has indicated growth in all aspects during the 1991 to 1996 period. The conversion of natural vegetation to agricultural crops has shown a sharp increase per year between 1930 and 1970 due to the widespread availability of tractors, fertiliser and pest control, national land policies, and supported prices for farm produce. South Africa has a limited area of high-quality agricultural land (only 12 % is economically cultivatable under current circumstances) and since the 1970s there has been a small net conversion (stabilised at around 10 500 thousand hectares).

    Mining: Trends in production can also be seen in the mining sector, which had declined in each of the four quarters of 1998, declined further at an annualised rate of 2 % in the first quarter of 1999. Gold production, in particular, declined as producers reacted to sustained cost pressures and a relatively static gold price. Production volumes in the other branches of the mining sector, especially diamond, platinum and coal mining, rose slightly as these mines benefited from more stable international commodity prices and uncertain supplies of diamonds and platinum from the Russian Federation.

    Secondary sector:

    A decline in the real value added by the secondary sectors of the economy during the middle quarters of 1998 was followed by modest increases in the fourth quarter of 1998 and in the first quarter of 1999. The manufacturing sector roughly maintained its slight growth momentum of the fourth quarter of 1998, but output growth in the utilities sector (i.e. the sector supplying electricity, gas and water) accelerated somewhat in the first quarter of 1999. This small acceleration arose because domestic activity became slightly less subdued than before and because the demand for electricity from neighboring countries picked up somewhat. Real value added by the construction sector responded in delayed fashion to the third-quarter rise in home mortgage rates and declined in the first quarter of 1999.

    The dual nature of the South African economy implies a diverse demand for food from the middle to upper income levels there is increasingly a demand for healthier, convenient quality foods, whilst the poorer sections of the population still demand staple foods to be provided at low prices. These divergent trends have important implications for each of the food processing sub-sectors.

    Almost 60% of the grain milling industry's output is sold to private households. Maize and wheat, which are the country's staple crops, are consumed in the form of bread and maize meal, respectively. As consumer income rises, the demand for maize meal tends to decline whilst other grains gain preference. Besides personal consumption, 29% of sales are made to food processing sub-sectors.

    The signing of the Trade Protocol between SADC countries could create a large export market for food processors as trade between these countries is freed and non-tariff barriers are removed.

    Tertiary sector:

    Activity in the tertiary sector slowed down perceptibly from an annualised growth of 2.5 % in the second quarter of 1998 to 0.5 % in the fourth quarter and 1 % in the first quarter of 1999. The growth in real value added by the sector finance, insurance, real-estate and business services slowed down from an annualised rate of 2 % in the fourth quarter of 1998 to 1.5 % in the first quarter of 1999, most notably because of a decline in the number of real-estate transactions concluded. The rapid expansion of telecommunication services decelerated in the first quarter of 1999 and the real value added by the transportation and communication sector rose at an annualised rate of 3 %, compared with a growth of 3.5 % in the fourth quarter of 1998.

    Impacts on environment

    Primary sector:

    Agriculture contributes the most to carbon dioxide, nitric oxide and volatile organic carbon, while agricultural activities contribute the most to methane (48% of the national total) and nitrous oxide (78% of the national total) emissions. The main sources of the farmer are cattle and sheep. The main source of the nitrous oxide is the use of nitrogen fertilisers.

    The possibility exists that the use of genetically engineered crop types could lead to unanticipated impacts in agriculture and water use.

    Mining: Trends in oil and coal consumption (fossil fuel burning) is the main source of carbon dioxide, which is currently responsible for more than 60%, compared to methane which is responsible for 20% and nitrous oxide together with chlorofluorocarbons and ozone for the remaining 20% of the enhanced greenhouse effect. Water vapour is the largest contributor to the natural greenhouse effect in South Africa. The values are expressed in energy terms for easy comparison. Note that during the 1980s, due to the international oil embargo against South Africa, coal was substituted for oil as an energy source. After 1994 this trend reversed itself. The current growth rate in energy consumption, which relates directly to the emissions of the gases in question is approximately 5% per annum as is the trend in other developing countries.

    The total emissions of sulphur dioxide from the energy sector were fairly stable during the 1990s and remained at about 1.7 kilotons from 1989 to 1993, despite the overall rise in energy production. This is due to management of coal quality and a small degree of sulphur dioxide removal from the stack emissions.

    The current gold sales by Britain have negative effects on gold producing countries, especially those in southern Africa. It was noted that 30 out of the 41 countries that have been designated highly indebted are either gold producers or have a big portion of their workforce dependent on income from gold producing countries (such as Mozambique and Lesotho). These will have major impacts on the environment as retrenched workers move back to rural areas, having to make a living from the land.

    Secondary sector:

    A recent phenomena in the South African economy since 1994 is the increasing average year-on-year growth recorded in secondary sector activities, most notably manufacturing and construction, where average year-on-year growth has passed the long held first place of tertiary activities. This underlines the conclusion that manufacturing-related pollution and waste is likely to increase if uncontrolled.

    Much of the production in the manufacturing sector depends on the import of intermediate goods and services. Negative trade relations will therefore have a detrimental impact on this sector. Increases in exports in the manufacturing sector over the last 9 years (% annual growth) were the most in the furniture sector, followed by the electrical sector, with the petroleum sector being ranked third. The electricity-generating sector contributes about 47 percent of total CO emissions and 41 percent of NOx emissions. The petroleum sector will also have environmental impacts as a result of wastes being generated from this sector.

    The food-processing sector is driven by a number of factors, including climatic conditions, overall economic growth, private consumption expenditure and the continued deregulation and liberalisation of the agricultural sector. This process of deregulation and liberation has raised competitive pressures, which, in turn, have accelerated the restructuring of the food processing industries. Import control on almost all agricultural products has now been lifted and replaced by import tariffs, whilst the new Agriculture Marketing Act, which was promulgated early in 1997, resulted in the dismantling of agricultural marketing boards. The food sector's strong backward linkages with the agricultural sector imply that agricultural output and prices will have a direct impact on its own competitiveness.

    Tertiary sector:

    The transport sector, which experienced a growth of 4% per annum over the last decade, contributes about 44 percent of total NOx emissions, 48 percent of CO emissions and 45 percent of total national volatile organic emissions (VOC). The building of new roads and the maintenance of existing roads naturally place great pressure on the environment and can lead to the disturbance of sensitive ecosystems. Emphasis on road transport also depends heavily on petrol, diesel, and oil, and contributes to pollution. Countries in the Northern Hemisphere have launched initiatives to encourage the use of rail transport. Road vehicles, rather than trains or aircraft, contribute the most to the total carbon dioxide, nitric oxide and volatile organic carbon emissions from the transport sector (94%, 53% and 89% respectively). Motor traffic also contributes to lead emissions, especially in urban areas. The introduction of compulsory environmental impact studies for new road developments, however, is regarded as an important attempt towards sustainable development

    A rise in income and standard of living of the poor may lead to increased pressure on the environment in other ways, as it may lead to increased demand for consumer goods. The production of consumer goods not only utilises material directly or indirectly taken from the environment, but the production process itself generates waste and pollutants. Certain consumer goods, such as motor cars and electrical appliances, utilise energy sources that contribute to greenhouse gases. Illustrative of this point is the increase in the number of motor cars on South African roads. Although the overall sales of new cars have dropped in recent years, the number of cars on South Africa's roads has increased because older cars are not being taken off the roads. Currently, 6.55 million vehicles are registered, of which 3.8 million are passenger vehicles. Ten years ago, there were about 5 million motor vehicles registered, of which 3.3 million were passenger cars. More cars on the roads mean an increase in fuel emissions into the atmosphere. As the average age of South African motor vehicles is estimated to be around 12 years, the country does not share in the benefits of the greater fuel efficiency of new motor vehicles. The sale of fuel has increased steadily from 1994-1998. Petrol sales have increased from 9 629 millions of litres to 10 883 millions of litres, while the sales of diesel have increased from 5 110 millions of litres to 5 959 millions of litres.

    Although the depreciation works in the favour of domestic producers (by making imports expensive relative to exports, and by making South African exports cheap relative to other producers), the higher rand prices of imported goods have an impact on inflation. This is because key inputs (including machinery, parts and oil) are imported.

    On an international scale, South Africa has a low score on the United Nations human development index (HDI), which provides a composite measure of human development and includes income, life expectancy and adult literacy. According to this measure, in 1993 (latest date for which data are available) South Africa occupied the 100th place out of a total of 174 countries, largely because of the relatively poor performance with regard to both adult literacy and life expectancy. As a result, South Africa falls within the group of countries classified by the United Nations as having medium human development (with an HDI in the range 0,500-0,799). By comparison, countries with a similar level of per capita income have almost all achieved a substantially higher level of human development and are classified by the UN in the higher human development category, with an HDI of above 0,799.


    Concerning other issues that are of importance, and that constitute challenges or constraints in trade related activities, the role of organised labour is to be noted: protracted periods of labour-disputes lead to massive loss in investor confidence. The disputes stem from different views by labour and business (employers) over a range of issues. Job creation and security, safety at workplace, workman compensation and inclusivity in industrial restructuring are of importance to labour unions, while the management considers restructuring as critical in ensuring sustained productivity in the industry.

    The role of NGOs needs to be expanded, particularly in regards to links with rural communities who often lose out on potential benefits of development. NGOs act as a watchdog in ensuring balance between development and conservation needs. The contribution of environmental groups in resource management is now being realised and there is a need to enhance their participation in promoting sustainable development.

    The need to improve/expand links with SADC neighbours to ensure greater balance in the development process within southern Africa. One of the issues that have been identified as a key to the economic developmental growth of the region is to create a free market for the member states.

    Another constraint is the potential loss of key human resources through HIV/AIDS and other notifiable diseases. Although most people have access to formal health services, many find it prohibitively expensive, and seek the services of traditional healers. The most important notifiable disease is Tuberculosis, accounting for nearly 4% of all deaths. The extent of HIV infection and AIDS is not accurately known at this time, but the disease could have devastating consequences on the population structure, potentially having the greatest impact on the economically active section of the population. This could reduce growth in GDP by 2-3% by 2010.

    The strong and sustained fall in international commodity prices since 1994, as well as the emerging market financial turmoil over an extended period of more than 18 months recently, have impacted on capital flow to South Africa, putting pressure on the exchange rate and interest rates. The economic and social pains of several policy actions, including the reduction of the budget deficit from 10% to 4% and inflation from double digits to 5%, as well as large reductions in import tariffs, will not have to be inflicted again. The benefits from these earlier difficult policy decisions should start to flow in the years ahead.

    Important structural changes are currently feeding into the South African economy as it adapts to the dictates of the global economy. These are reflected in fiscal and monetary policy adjustments, whilst in the real economy the quest for international competitiveness forces industries to achieve efficiency gains of an exceptional nature. An important outcome of these structural changes is the increased emphasis on productivity, especially labour productivity, as companies endeavour to conform to standards set by international competition.

    The occurrence of customs fraud is another important trade and economic issue in South Africa. Customs fraud results in an estimated R3 billion per annum loss of tax revenue, undermines local industry and, hence, South Africa's industrial policy and job creation objectives. The consequences of fraud are strongly felt in various sectors, including clothing and textiles, footwear and electronics - where thousands of jobs have been lost. Customs and VAT fraud includes the under-valuation of imported goods, forged documentation, the abuse of the import permit system, the removal of imported goods in transit, the incorrect description of goods, false claims on VAT refunds and the redirection of imports. Please see the 'Challenges and Constraints' section in this chapter for action taken to combat customs fraud.

    The Public Service fulfils an important role in South Africa and needs to maintain integrity and accountability in performing its duties at all times, while executing policies aimed at advancing the delivery of services. A Code of Conduct, setting ethical standards for public servants, was launched in June 1997. One of its main objectives is stamping out corruption, which has a major effect on the economy and economic growth. Officials will in the course of their duties be expected to report to the appropriate authorities fraud, corruption, nepotism, maladministration and any other act that constitutes an offence or which is prejudicial to public interest.

    The lack of trained employees is a major issue in South Africa, having an indirect impact on trade and economic growth.

    The implementation of the Convention on International Trade in Rare and Endangered Species (CITES) requires the use of permit controls, regulations and training of nature conservators in the General Investigations, Special Investigations, and in particular, the Import Export Sections which enforce the requirements of the international convention. Special Investigations make provision for the execution of covert investigations as a proactive means to curb the mercenary trade in illegal wildlife products. It also provides for a monitoring function at major airports to regulate the in and outflow of wildlife products.

    See also under Status.

    Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

    No information available.


    Environmental information:

    Industrial pollution is regulated by both liquid and effluent discharge and atmospheric emission permits. Both of these require data to be submitted to the government. A holistic approach to the management of this data still needs to be developed and there is no link between this and trade and investment data.

    Environmental inventories take stock of factors influencing the environment, providing the information base for the management of these factors. Examples are:

  • Imports of hazardous waste are currently handled within the framework of the Basel Convention, which aims to ensure that waste is discarded as close as possible to the manufacturing site in order to minimise the impact on the environment;
  • The waste management database currently being developed by the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism and the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry will be the first database to be based on standard industrial classification codes, thus allowing a link to be made to trade and investment data.
  • State of the Environment reporting analyses the drivers of environmental issues and responses to it.
  • Web sites and other sources where information related to trade, investment and economic growth can be found, are listed in the table below.

    Table: List of web sites listing information related to trade, investment and economic growth.

    Type of information


    Potential users


    Socio-economic statistics HSRC


    Academic researchers; public

    Monthly brochure

    Financing DTI Business sector Export/Import DTI Business sector Small business ventures DTI Small business Foreign Investment Guides DTI Foreign Investors Social and economic developments NEDLAC Nedlac constituencies, public in general Infrastructure funding INCA Potential funders Annual reports National State of the environment DEAT Wide variety of users will be web-based - currently under review Cities State of the Environment     http://www/deat/issues/transprt/index.htm Census data Statistics SA Wide variety of users Economic data Statistics SA Wide variety of users   SA Reserve Bank Wide variety of users Information on products, services, imports, exports and business opportunities in South Africa Trade Page Everyone wanting to do business on the Internet Guide to potential investors in SA Bowman Gilfillan Inc, Attorneys - Johannesburg Potential foreign investors to SA Broad overview of the considerations and procedures involved in making an investment in South Africa Bowman Gilfillan Inc, Attorneys - Johannesburg Potential foreign investors to SA Information on SDIs, IDZs SDI initiative Potential investors, general public Trade enquiries for the sourcing of products from SA Cape Business News National and international business people Regular updates on certain key indicators, economic information Financial Mail, Economist, Finance week, 'Finansies en Tegniek', Business Day wide variety of users

    Economic information and forecasts Bureau for Market Research (BMR), Bureau for Economic Research(Standard Bank) and private companies such as SANLAM, Mutual Wide variety of users Some in brochures, some available on the web Initiative for economic empowerment (IEE) - Business Skills SA. (NGO responsible for training small business people) (those already in business or intending to start) drawing up of business plans, aiding in securing financial assistance from banks, informative brochi and after care (follow-ups). Loans from banks and general information

    Training, loans (from government funds).

    Independent Business Enrichment Centre (IBEC) (NGO)

    Small Business Development Corporation (SBDC) (parastatal)

    Business people

    People involved in small business


    Local media (TV and newspapers)

    Research and Technologies

    No information available.


    No information available.


    Considerable economic and other co-operation takes places through SADC, including in areas such as health, education, mining, geology, mineral resources, environment, mineral processing, mineral markets and information systems. In the area of energy, an important project investigation is underway regarding a regional hydropower network (Powerpool) involving Zaire and other Southern African Countries.

    Regular formal and informal communication is conducted between the Gauteng Province (Directorate of Environment) and the Canadian, United States of America and the Danish Trade Offices in Johannesburg and Pretoria. Visits by prominent environmentalists looking for trade opportunities in the environmental area are encouraged, particularly those offering technology, which have the potential for improving the quality of life in the Gauteng Province. The Western Cape Province (Department of Education) encourages guides and co-ordinates school activities that are orientated towards the promotion of sustainable development through trade liberalisation. (See "Education")

    International Trade Fairs have been attended which serve to improve reactions, highlight products and processes that contribute towards sustainable living and encourage investment in South Africa. However, to date, few domestic policies have been formulated which are designed to accelerate sustainable development through trade. Continuous discussions are taking place to integrate trade and environmental affairs and concrete proposals are expected.

    South Africa has signed the Convention on International Trade in Rare and Endangered Species (CITES) It has also signed the Trade Protocol between the countries of the SADC (Southern African Development Community).

    * * *

    This information is based on South Africa's submission to the fifth and eighth Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: October 2000.

    Click here to access the UNCTAD Country Profiles on LDCs:

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    Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

    The following national bodies deal with different aspects of sustainable consumption and production: Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), Department of Minerals and Energy (DME), Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEA&T), Department of Transport, Department of Land Affairs, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF), Department of Agriculture, Department of Welfare, and Department of Defence (DoD).

    The following provincial departments are responsible for the administration of consumption and production patterns at the provincial level: Mpumalanga Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Eastern Cape Department of Economic Affairs, Environment and Tourism, Free State Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Free State Directorate of Housing and Specialised Services (water supply and sanitation), KwaZulu Natal Department of Traditional and Environmental Affairs, Northern Province Department of Agriculture, Land and Environment, North West Parks Board, North West Department of Environmental Affairs, Gauteng Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Environment, Western Cape Department of Environmental and Cultural Affairs, and Northern Cape Department of Health, Welfare and Environmental Affairs.

    Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

    Regulatory framework

    The following regulations seek to promote sustainable consumption and production:

    The Water Services Act (1997) sets requirements for local government tariff structures and other water related issues in local government. Some of the objectives of the Act are to: set out the rights and duties of consumers and those who are responsible for providing services; promote, support and strengthen the capacity and authority of local government while creating mechanisms that will allow national and provincial governments as well as consumers to monitor its performance; and promote the effective and sustainable use of financial and natural resources.

    The Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act (1965) establishes a structure for the control of atmospheric emissions. Four categories are addressed: the control of noxious or offensive gases, where the requirement is that activities stated in the Act may only be executed if a registration certificate authorising the process had been issued by the chief air pollution control officer; the control of smoke which focuses mainly on the control of fuel burning appliances; the control of dust where the offender can be required to avoid dust migration through whatever best practicable means can be used; and the control of fumes emitted by vehicles.

    The Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act (1983) deals with a wide variety of agriculturally related sustainable use aspects such as the protections of wetlands, soil conservation, control of weeds and invader plants and ensuring that the carrying capacity of land is not abused.

    Nuclear Energy Act (1993) established a control structure for radioactive emissions.

    Hazardous Substances Act (1973) deals with and controls the importation, manufacture, sale, use and disposal of hazardous substances.

    Fertiliser, Farm Feeds, Agricultural Remedies and Stock Remedies Act (1947) deals with the use, disposal, registration and other aspects of the substances.

    Occupational Health and Safety Act (1993) controls the operation of machinery which includes the control of noise pollution in the work place and aspects relating to the manufacture, storage, use and exposure of employees to hazardous substances.

    Marine Living Resources Act (1998) aims to provide for the conservation of the marine ecosystem, the long-term utilisation of marine living resources and the protection and orderly access to exploitation of such resources. A strict conservation policy in a fishing zone of 200 square nautical miles is followed by the Government. It is enforced by marine conservation inspectors along the Cape Coast and in fishing harbours. Licenced South African boats include: 2844 fishing boats (excluding deep sea and Natal Trawlers), 97 deep sea and Natal Trawlers, 33 inshore trawlers, 2634 handline boats, 325 squid boats and 68 purse seiners. The only foreign vessels fishing off the South African coast are 86 Japanese and 26 Taiwanese tuna boats.

    The Environmental Impact Assessment regulations underpin legal procedures to ensure rational decision making regarding sustainable land use against the realities of growing population and economic needs. Prescribed procedures involve communities and NGOs as stakeholders and are administered by provincial authorities. The emergence of EIA regulations in South Africa has had a notable positive effect on the promotion of energy and material efficiency.

    A variety of legislation deals with waste management. Waste disposal is mainly administered in terms of Section 20 of the Environment Conservation Act (1989) which deals with the permitting of waste disposal sites. Littering is also addressed in the Act. There are several other Acts that also deal with waste management, for example the Abattoir Hygiene Act (1992), the Advertising of Roads and Ribbon Development Act (1983) and other legislation dealing with aspects of waste disposal from their specific perspective.

    The National Forests Bill (1998) focuses on the principle of sustainable forest management. The Minister of Water Affairs and Forestry is given power to set criteria, indicators and standards for assessing and enforcing sustainable forest management and creating incentives to manage forests in a sustainable way. Principles guiding decision- making state that forests must be developed and managed so as to sustain the potential yield of their economic, social and environmental benefits, and to conserve natural resources, especially soil and water. Special measures are included to protect indigenous forests and trees. Regulations may be made to control the collection, removal, transport, and various other activities relating to parts of or products from protected trees.

    The Water Services Act (1997) provides for the phasing in of a tariff structure designed to promote water conservation by all stakeholders, including consumers. In addition, this act requires that water services activities have a duty to progressively ensure efficient economical and sustainable access to water services, noting the duty to conserve water resources. Water Boards are required to take measures to promote water conservation and water demand management, and to promote public awareness.

    Legislated Codes of Practice, Standards and Guidelines, aligned with international practice, are mandatory and were established by government. Voluntary Codes of Practice, Standards and Guidelines originate from a variety of sources, including industry itself, driven by the need to be on par with international practice.

    Financial incentives

    Monetary measures are embodied in the DEA&T’s national Integrated Waste and Pollution Management Regulations and its matching strategies and programmes, intended to systematically encourage waste minimisation, and reuse and recycling of products and resources. The waste minimisation team of the National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS) is developing a proposed incentive scheme to be incorporated in the strategy. 

    Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

    There is no specific National Strategy, Policy or multi-year Work Programme dealing with sustainable Development.

    The Growth, Employment and Redistribution Policy (GEAR) and DTI’s environmental policy process mandates the DTI to contribute to accelerated economic growth, ensuring stronger employment creation and improved standards of living for all South Africans, by implementing a set of integrated trade and industrial policies. These policies are generally aimed at improving industrial competitiveness, facilitating South Africa’s re-integration in the world economy, restructuring state enterprises, expanding trade and investment flows in Southern Africa and attracting foreign direct investment in particular. The increased export and inward investment flows are expected to stimulate employment creation which, in its turn, provides a powerful vehicle for redistribution and poverty alleviation. DTI’s environmental policy process addresses DTI’s conformance with its legal sustainable development obligations and the need for enabling measures to allow industry, and small enterprises in particular, to conform to environmental and social legislation in a feasible way.

    The White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management Policy for South Africa acts as a statement of intent by the government on minimisation and management of South Africa's diverse pollution and waste streams, in a manner which is environmentally, socially and economically sustainable, as well as politically acceptable. The fundamental approach of this Policy is the prevention of pollution and minimisation of waste at source, efficient management of inevitable waste, control of impacts and remediation of affected environments. The policy promotes efficiency, re-use, recycling, treatment, measuring, testing and reporting.

    The Code of Practice for Mine Residue Deposits of the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) covers management of mine residue deposits and its environmental impacts. One of the major concerns in this regard is coal discards, amounting to close to 60 million tonnes annually. The Code of Practice will be referenced in the revised Minerals Act and as a guideline to the Mine Health and Safety Act 1996 requirements.

    The White Paper on Agriculture (1995) promotes maintaining and developing an economically viable, market-directed and competitive farming sector with the family farm as basis. It promotes a production approach based on the sustainable use of natural agricultural land and water resources. The White Paper on Agriculture includes policies for sustainable production and consumption.

    The White Paper on Land Policy (1997) addresses issues regarding the allocation and utilisation of land and measures to enhance the effectiveness of administration of public land.

    The White Paper on Mineral and Mining Policy for South Africa (1998) contains a section on participation in ownership and management, which examines imbalances in industry. It also addresses issues which look at health and safety, housing needs, migrant labour, industrial relations, management of down-scaling of production and ownership of mineral rights.

    The Draft White Paper on Energy Policy for South Africa (1998) promotes energy efficiency and the use of renewable sources of energy.

    The White Paper on Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity (1997) identifies, as a national priority, the necessity for the sustainable use of biological resources and emphasises the need to restore degraded ecosystems and integrate biological diversity considerations into land-use planning and environmental assessments.

    The White Paper on Marine Fisheries Policy for South Africa (1997) aims at uplifting impoverished coastal communities through improved access to marine resources and the sustainable management of those resources (including sustainable utilisation and the replenishment of living resources).

    The White Paper on Population Policy for South Africa (1998) is a multi-year national action plan scheduled for development in 1999. Major population concerns that link directly with consumption and production patterns are the pressure of the interaction of population, production and consumption patterns on the environment; the high incidence and severity of poverty in both rural and urban areas; inequities in access to resources, infrastructure and social services, particularly in rural areas; and implications for redistribution and growth and the alleviation of poverty. Major strategies of the policy are reducing poverty and socio-economic inequalities through meeting people’s basic needs for social security, employment, education, training and housing; providing infrastructure and social facilities and services; and ensuring environmental sustainability through comprehensive and integrated strategies which address population, production and consumption patters independently as well as in their interactions.

    The voluntary implementation of ISO 14000 and SABS ISO 14000 standards, obtained from the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) and adapted for South African conditions by the SABS, plays a major role in encouraging sustainable consumption and production patterns. It is envisaged that the SABS will establish sectoral advisory committees to facilitate more interaction with industry and inform industrial cluster studies.

    Voluntary SABS ISO codes of practice include: a series of Environmental management systems, Guidelines for environmental auditing, and the Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - principles and framework.

    The DME, (in collaboration with the US Department of Energy), embarked on a project to provide a framework of technical and performance standards for non-residential buildings in South Africa. The policy document, consisting of five modules, will be published as a guideline to be reviewed for a period of one year and commented on and will then be introduced as a voluntary SABS standard.

    The National Water Act (Act 36 of 1998) endorses the concept of tradable rights for water use, including the use of effluent discharge.

    Unleaded petrol is made available to motorists cheaper than leaded petrol in order to promote use of unleaded petrol.

    A number of public and commercial recycling initiatives, supported by original manufacturers, have achieved results on par with other parts of the world. Materials recycled include glass, paper, plastics, metals and oil. Paper recycling is encouraged by a regular collecting service in selected residential areas.

    Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement  

    All national policies are being developed in a participatory manner.

    A number of local governments implement Local Agenda 21 programmes. They play a key role in promoting the principles of sustainable development at the local level, encouraging the people of South Africa to work towards a society where all people have sufficient food, clean air and water, decent homes and green space in their neighborhoods, providing for spiritual, cultural and physical harmony with their natural surroundings. In addition, it addresses the maintenance of natural life sustaining processes by ensuring that the carrying capacity of the environment is not exceeded.

    An encouraging number of industries have, on a voluntary basis, adopted environmental management measures and systems. It is, however, not necessarily the norm yet. Responding to international trends, trade requirements and sustainable development legislation, industries are increasing their efforts towards energy and resource efficiency and waste and pollution minimisation.

    A number of Industry Associations have developed their own codes of conduct, such as the Mining Industry Code of Conduct and the Code of Conduct of the International Chamber of Commerce, adopted by affiliated members. Responsible Care, an international environmental management programme for the chemicals industry, which calls on chemical companies to demonstrate their commitment to continuously improving their performance in the protection of health, safety and the environment, is co-ordinated in South Africa by the Chemical and Allied Industries Association.

    Programmes and Projects  

    South Africa’s National Forestry Action Programme (1997) is designed to facilitate implementation of the National Forests Bill. The programme seeks to establish an agreed and effective system to maximise the benefits of industrial forestry while managing the impacts on the environment in general and impacts on water resources in particular. Another priority is the establishment of a system of national resource accounts for the forest sector, adequate systems for valuing the resources and an effective system of monitoring and evaluation of management practice, especially for natural forests and woodlands.

    The Committee on Environmentally Sound Management of Hazardous Materials is assigned with the task to look into the management of hazardous waste and chemicals in general and to focus on baseline studies, harmonisation, chemical registration and regulation of imports and exports of hazardous substances.

    The DME is currently supporting various programmes on energy efficiency. It launched the Low Smoke Fuel Programme in 1994 to promote the provision of cleaner and affordable energy to disadvantaged communities. The programme was enhanced by the Macro-Scale Experiment (MSE), which was conducted on potential low smoke fuels at a rural site in July 1997. The results indicated that by using low-smoke fuels, air pollution levels in the study area abated by 56 %. This experiment demonstrated what could be achieved when the State, community and contractors work together to address a problem. The results of the experiment will be used to calibrate an Integrated Decision Support Model, which will assist in the policy-formulating process.

    The Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF), in consultation with stakeholders, including industry, NGOs and others, drives a variety of programmes and projects regarding the management of water resources. These programmes and projects cover a spectrum ranging from mining, industry, and agriculture to urban usage. A variety of guidelines, procedures and strategies are available or under development.

    In 1996, the Department of Local Government and Housing (DLGH) of KwaZulu-Natal embarked on a strategy to initiate a Local Agenda 21 (LA21) programme in KwaZulu-Natal. The first phase of the strategy involved the compilation and dissemination of an information package dealing with the principles and processes of LA21, and the convening of an LA21 conference. Phase two, conducted in 1998, entailed a user-friendly Guideline Document on the implementation of LA21.

    Some programmes, such as the Low Smoke Fuels programme, focus more on social and environmental aspects, while others such as LA21 focus specifically on integration of social, economic and environmental aspects.

    A number of local governments implement Local Agenda 21 programmes. They play a key role in promoting the principles of sustainable development at the local level.

    Many individual industries have their own procurement programmes which include environmental and broader social development considerations, e,g,. favoring small contractors and specific environmental criteria. Programmes may, for example, include a requirement to subcontract to surrounding communities. The Gauteng Department of Environmental Affairs is in the process of formulating a green procurement programme.

    The metals industry sector has introduced a number of incentives to encourage research, innovation and manufacturing partnerships that will enhance sustainable production. The Technology and Human Resources for Industry Programme, the Support Programme for Industrial Innovation, and the Sectoral Partnership Fund are co-funding programmes.

    A cleaner production unit was established in the DEA & T to promote cleaner production, waste minimisation and pollution prevention. An international conference on Cleaner Production was held in May 1998 in South Africa. Cleaner Production programmes were launched in three industries e.g. fishing, textile and metal plating. The focus of these programmes are sustainable and efficient consumption and production.

    The number of ISO 14000 and SABS ISO 14000 certificated industries are steadily growing. The implementation of Responsible Care programmes is common in formal chemical industries.

    The Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa encourages sustainable production by means of a low-interest financing scheme for manufacturing projects with Cleaner Production as an essential element. A growing appreciation of the benefits of Cleaner Production in terms of reduced materials and operational costs, coupled with increased production efficiency, is apparent among private sector firms.

    See also under Status and Research and Technologies.



    Mining and industry are the largest energy consumers, accounting for nearly half of total energy consumption in South Africa. Households, at 22 % and transport make up most of the other half while agriculture accounts for 3 % of energy consumption. In rural areas most household energy is obtained from fuel wood, with the remainder sourced from coal, illuminating paraffin, and a small amount from liquid petroleum gas. An extensive solar power programme, in combination with an accelerated electrification programme, is making a major contribution towards enhancement of the sustainability of rural energy consumption.

    The accelerated electrification programme targets formal and informal households in urban as well as rural areas, with the objective of raising the percentage of electrified households from the 1992 level of 32 %, to more than 70 % by 2000. Despite the total number of homes approaching 8.5 million, more than 63 % have already been equipped with electricity.

    Escom, South Africa’s electricity supplier, has used solar systems and micro-hydro schemes to bring electricity to more than 1500 schools and 300 clinics in rural areas. In addition, Escom, in a joint venture with Shell International Renewables, commenced with the first phase of a programme entailing electrification of 6000 homes, using solar technology. The second phase targets another 44,000 homes.

    Electrification programme progress statistics showing number of connections

    Year Escom Local Government 1991 30 000   1992 145 000   1993 208 000 70 000 1994 254 000 164 000 1995 313 000 150 000 1996 307 000 137 000 1997 285 000 166 000 1998 300 000(planned) 150 000 1999 290 000 (planned) 150 000 TOTAL 1 750 000 918 000

    Escom conducts constant and ongoing research into alternative energy sources: solar, wind, hydro, nuclear, biomass, wave, geothermal.

    A new type of nuclear technology, the Pebble Bed Nuclear Reactor, is very promising and feasible applications for South Africa are investigated.

    Electricity and coal provide about three-quarters of energy consumed by the industry and mining sectors. The balance is made up largely of coke and blast furnace gases and small amounts of heating oils. Total primary energy supply for 1996 was 4.552 million TJ, compared to 4.527 million TJ in 1997. This included coal, crude oil, gas, nuclear, hydro and renewable energy.

    The mining industry depends on electricity for 87 % of its energy use. Minerals and metal processing use large amounts of both electricity and coal, mostly in large scale minerals beneficiation processes, with base metals the largest single industrial energy consuming sub-sector.

    The food sector shows both a high total use and relative high intensity, although, in terms of value-added, its energy requirements are very modest in comparison with the minerals and metals industries. The chemicals and pulp and paper industries consume large amounts of energy at high intensities.

    Consumption of energy by sector was as follows (total energy consumption of 2.47 million TJ):

      1997 (%) 1996 Industry 35.9 35.4 Residential 24.4 24.9 Transport 23.6 23.6

    Escom produces 98.3 % of the electricity in South Africa, using a low quality coal that would otherwise be discarded. A volume of 90 million tons was used by Escom in 1997 to generate 170,464 GWh of electricity as opposed to 85 million tons of coal to generate 163,541 GWh of electricity in 1996. Escom has reduced its total particulate emissions by 91 % over the last 15 years, despite increased electricity output. Short term total emissions decreased by 25 % and relative emissions by 30 % compared to 1996, despite a 5 % increase in energy production.

    Total energy supply equaled total energy consumption (176,000 GWh) in 1997. In terms of total primary energy supply, coal contributed most (72.9 % for 1996 compared to 74 % in 1997). This was followed by crude oil (13.6 % in 1996 compared to 12.3 % in 1997).

    The national approach to energy and material efficiency, waste reduction, recycling, public transport and quality of life comprises a mixture of quantified and quality indicators. There is scope for developing a general paradigm of interlinked quality of life and sustainable consumption and production targets.

    In 1993, the Chief Air Pollution Control Officer (CAPCO) published new guidelines for particulate emissions for the petroleum industry, stating that within five years (i.e. by 1998), allowable concentrations have to be diminished from 500 mg/m3 to 120 mg/m3.

    In 1994 the CAPCO introduced a new guideline for sulphur present in the fuel used in refinery heaters, to be reduced from 3.5 - 4%, to 2% by weight. Expressed in terms of tons of sulphur dioxide, this translates to a reduction from 60 tons to about 48 tons per day.

    Water use and management

    The irrigation sector has by far the largest water demand of all water sectors in South Africa at 54 % of the country’s total demand, including state regulated water schemes (9.8 % of total demand), irrigation regulated by irrigation boards (11.4 % of total demand) and private irrigation schemes (30.7 % of total country demand). Industry uses 11 % of the country’s demand and forestry 8 %. The major areas for demand growth are likely to be the domestic, urban and industrial sectors as a result of population growth, increasing levels of service provision, and increasing industrialisation.

    Escom sustained specific water consumption at 1.2 R/kWh, and has probably achieved the lowest water consumption possible at power stations. Further reductions will only be possible with the development of new dry-cooled power stations.

    Water demands in South Africa have been growing at 4 – 5 % per annum since the 1930’s, and it is estimated that within three decades, i.e. by 2030, the country’s water resources would be fully utilised under current growth and consumption patterns.

    Total daily average sales of water by Rand Water increased as follows over the last ten years:

    1986-1987: 1 820,383 megalitres

    1996-1997: 2 656,288 megalitres

    In terms of the National Water Act, the allocation of water depends on the principles of sustainability, along with a range of mechanisms for protection of natural water resources. The mechanisms include better management practices such as Cleaner Production, Cleaner Technologies, recycling of water and waste minimisation. Demand management through tariff and water pricing and water conservation measures is supported by the National Water Act (Act 36 of 1998), in which re-use and recycling of water is promoted.

    The management programme for water quality relies on the SA Water Quality Guidelines issued by DWAF. The guidelines focus on establishing tailor made effluent standards for individual industries or other producers of waste water based on the policy of determining the needs of the receiving water body and structuring the standards with reference to the water quality required by downstream water users.

    In a joint venture between DWAF and the mining industry, a sector specific management strategy in terms of water management for prospecting and mining activities has been initiated. One of the steps in this regard is the development of a set of the Best Practice Guidelines for water quality management in the mining industry. Research conducted by the mining industry has resulted in the wide-spread use of water-recovery technology, to the extent that many mines can report a 30% reduction in the use of raw water resources. In the Witbank Dam Catchment Management Programme, water quality objectives, achieved through the allocation of permissible waste loads per industry, were set by a multi-sectoral group.

    Metals and minerals

    Gold ore (average grade): The amount mined decreased from 496.9 tonnes in 1996 to 492.6 tonnes in 1997 (4.95 g of gold per t of ore).

    Diamonds: Carats mined increased from 9,886 in 1996 to 10, 935 in 1997.


    The contribution of Agriculture to GDP was 4.2%, 4.7% and 4.5% in 1995, 1996 and 1997 respectively.

    Maize production:

    Production totaled 8,488 mt in 1997, compared to 9.69 mt in 1996. 1996 human consumption was approximately 3.1 mt, representing per capita consumption of 62 kg/person/year. Industrial processing of maize for animal feed comprised 1.2 mt.

    Wheat production:

    The 1997/98 season yielded 2.3 mt of which 1.8 mt are designated for human consumption - per capita consumption of 57 kg/person/year.

    Wool production:

    Average annual production totals 55.1 million kg of greasy wool, 5.7 million kg from white wool breeds, other than Merino.

    During 1996, South African consumers spent a total amount of R 77,694 million on food commodities.

    Livestock numbers (1997 vs. 1996):

  • Cattle: 13.7 million in 1997, compared to 13.4 million in 1996
  • Sheep: 29.2 million in 1997, compared to 28.9 million in 1996
  • Pigs: 6.6 million in 1997, compared to 6.7 million in 1996
  • Fishery sector

    In terms of South African Total Allowable Catches (TAC), quotas are adapted annually to allow for more sustainable consumption. For example, TAC of hake in 1995, 1996 and 1997 varied from 148,000; 151,000; and 151,700 tonnes nominal mass respectively. Pilchard TAC quotas have decreased over the 3-year period and were fixed at 117,000: 105,000; and 98,000 tons nominal mass respectively.


    In 1997 plantations covered an area of 1,518,138 ha. Yields vary from an average of 15 m3 of per ha per annum for softwood to 20 m3 per ha per annum for eucalyptus and 9 m3 per ha per annum for wattle. The production from plantations in 1996 amounted to some 24.7 million m3. More than 10 million m3 of firewood is chopped annually.

    Renewable energy sources

    Renewable energy sources other than biomass, have not yet been exploited to the full in South Africa. Research projects are, inter alia, investigating solar, wind and hydro energy. Current and envisaged main uses of solar energy include the use of solar power for water-pumping and for heating. Research is presently conducted to evaluate the feasibility of building a solar thermal power plant in the Northern Cape, and a wind farm in the Western Cape.

    Waste management

    The National Waste Management Strategy will be completed by December 1998. As part of its implementation, priority pollutants will be identified and targets set for reduction.

    The Pollution Research Group of the University of Natal has conducted a number of projects including ways of recycling water and using co-products of one process as input for others. The group also provides guidelines on water and waste management, especially for the Textile Industry.

    A project was launched by the DEA&T with DANCED support in August 1997 with the aim of establishing a National Waste Management Strategy Project (NWMS) for South Africa. The baseline situation in South Africa with regard to cleaner production and waste minimisation was reviewed and targets for waste minimisation identified. The Situation Baseline Analysis Report comprised a synthesis of the findings of the four NWMS Task Groups i.e. Waste Minimisation, Non-Hazardous Waste, Hazardous and Related Wastes and Waste Information System.

    Recycling operations exist for paper (including packaging), cans and glass. Consumers cooperate by using recycling bins placed at selected centres. Agencies related to paper manufacturing collect waste paper on arrangement. Labeled recycled paper is popular with "green-conscious" commercial and private consumers.

    Examples of activities having impacts in changing unsustainable consumption and production patterns

    After 20 years of flaring these gases to the atmosphere, Samancor's Manganese Alloy operation in Meyerton found a way to burn carbon monoxide and gases containing hydrogen. In the process, the company generates an average of 30 Megawatts of electricity every hour, about 10 % of the total plant demand. The benefits to both the atmospheric environment and the company are significant: About 275,000 MW hours of electricity are generated each year, with an average availability of 98 %, saving the company R28 million annually in power costs. The electricity saved would have been generated by Escom power stations burning 10 tons of coal each hour, or 87,600 tons per annum. Gases containing hydrogen are no longer released to the atmosphere. The plant made a giant leap in terms towards energy efficiency.

    Sasol Fibres' acrylic fibre manufacturing process is unique in South Africa because the fibre is coloured during production as opposed to providing undyed fibre for dyeing by the garment manufacturer. This is cheaper and easier for the customer, allowing for a virtually effluent-free garment manufacturing operation. More important, the environmental benefits are exceptional. Dyeing the fibre early in the process is far more efficient - Sasol Fibres effluent contains only some 1 – 2 % of the dye left in the effluent of the more conventional processes, and only 0.1% to 0.02% of the amount of additives and chemicals. The effluent from Sasol Fibres' gel dyeing process contains only 0.06 kg of additives and 0.05kg of dye per tonne of acrylic fibre.

    In December 1997 Polifin a member of the chemicals manufacturing industry completed a ZAR 100 million upgrade to eliminate mercury from its processes and effluent.

    Caltex Oil installed two electrostatic precipitators. Caltex is the only South African refinery to date that has gone this route, which has proved completely successful - particulate emissions have dropped to less than 100 mg/m3. Caltex Oil has also made significant strides since 1994 in reducing SO2 emissions even further than the regulatory maximum of 48-tons per day. The refinery is operating at, and often below, its stringent in-house target of 28-tons per day.

    Escom's coal-fired Matimba Power Station reduced its ash emissions from 6,000 tons a month in 1990 to 3,400 tons per month in 1993 and 232 tons per month in 1998. In addition, defying the precipitator's reliance on good quality coal for top performance, Matimba achieved 15 % better performance in 1996 than 1995, using the same quality of coal. In 1997 Matimba's ash emissions were 75 % below the required limit for the year.

    Significant progress has been made in the area of Clean Coal Technologies and in the reduction of dust from mine residue deposits through vegetation cover and the new approach of rock cover in combination with vegetation.

    The Mondi sulphite pulp mill reduced sodium levels to a third (from about 2 500 mg/l to around 800 mg/l).

    Saldanha Steel has installed a closed loop cooling system to reduce water consumption used for cooling. This was a result of water supply being identified as a key issue during the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the limited water supply in the West Coast Region. Although the temperature reduction capacity of the closed loop cooling system was not high enough to allow it to be installed for all the processes, those processes that do use the system have resulted in a reduction in the consumption of fresh water from 18 000 m3 to 12 000m3/day.

    The Aerosol Manufacturing Association, reports that the Aerosol industry, has totally phased out CFCs from their products over the past 10 years. Any aerosol manufactured in South Africa now contains either hydrocarbons, compressed air or compressed nitrogen as propellant.

    The Foam Blowing industry, producers of both rigid and flexible foams, has to a major extent succeeded in moving from CFCs to HFCs, which are less destructive to the ozone layer - only 10% as destructive as CFCs. This is seen as an intermediate step, and the industry will be moving to cytopentane in the near future.

    The Solvent industry has moved away from 1,1,1-TCE and is now using aqueous solutions. Companies have phased out all TCE from their production where possible.

    The Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Industry both used CFC 12 in their cooling systems. The refrigeration industry has moved over to using HFC 134a. The Air Conditioning industry uses a multitude of substitution products (all ozone friendly) depending on the application. No new refrigeration or air conditioning units contain CFCs.

    Fire fighting equipment previously based on halons, now use CO2, water mists, argon or helium, all of which are ozone friendly.

    The Gold Mining sector is replacing equipment that runs on CFCs with CFC-free machinery.

    An interesting case study can be made out of the prepayment water metres installed in some peri-urban areas on behalf of Rand Water. Although these were installed to combat the problem of payment for services, they have resulted in major savings in water consumption.

    Water restrictions in the Vaal River system are not uncommon, as this is probably the most exploited river system in South Africa. The river system supplies water to Gauteng Province and parts of the provinces of Eastern Transvaal, North West, Free State and Northern Cape, and shows the highest shortfall in available water. The first water restriction was announced in 1976. The longest continuous period was from 1983 to 1988. Restrictions in 1995 accomplished a saving of 40 % on water for agricultural purposes, 30 % on domestic use and 10 % on water used for mining, industry and commerce.

    In Hermanus, South Africa, the introduction of a Water Demand Management Programme resulted in savings of 16.5% over the first 12 months, compared with the average of the previous three years. Unaccounted-for water was reduced from 18 % to 11 %.

    A multi-stakeholder National Steering Committee on Climate Change was established to steer policy processes related to the international Framework Convention on Climate Change. As an active participant, the mining industry is investigating the use of alternative technologies for the reduction of emissions.


    The key issues and constraints to implementing effective programmes to address the issues related to promoting sustainable consumption and production in South Africa include the following:

  • Ensuring equity: A major focus for the South African government over the next ten years will be to redress the inequalities of the past, redistribute wealth and create employment opportunities through investment and exports.
  • Poverty alleviation: During national poverty hearings held throughout the country in September 1998, it was concluded that 53 % of the population lives on less than ZAR 301 a month. Poverty conditions are worse in rural areas in South Africa. Rural areas contain 72 % of those members of the total population who are poor. The poverty rate (i.e. the proportion of people falling below the poverty line) for rural areas is 71 %. (Source: Poverty and Inequality in South Africa - Report prepared for the Office of the Executive Deputy President and the Inter-Ministerial Committee for Poverty and Inequality, May 1998).
  • Other underlying issues inherent to insufficient implementation may be financial limitations, knowledge constraints and a lack of capacity to change existing policies and systems; insufficient information and training; and weak implementation of legislation due to institutional fragmentation and other factors.
  • Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

    South Africa supports awareness raising and educational programmes for environmental authorities. The DEA&T, with the aid of donor funding, has begun developing training courses for local and provincial authorities, with regard to sustainable development at the local level.

    Education, training and awareness-raising take place through several media, including educational institutions, conferences and workshops, awareness-raising campaigns, and publications. The following provide examples:

    Educational Institutions

  • Energy efficiency is being included in school curricula at primary, secondary and tertiary levels as well as in industrial training. Courses on Environmental Law, EE and Cleaner Production Engineering are also being developed at the majority of tertiary institutions as well as by a number of private sector consultants in the field.
  • A growing number of consultants and environmental specialists offer consultation services and a variety of training courses that provide production and consumption options which promote sustainability.
  • The GLOBE Programme is an international environmental education and science programme which attempts to build strong links between schools and local interests, e.g. communities. Issues hinging on sustainable consumption and production are explored.
  • Industry and Business in Environmental Education (IBEE) is a forum that conducts sustainable development seminars mainly for industry. The present focus is on management structure, and on ways of incorporating environmental management systems into management structure.
  • Annegarn Environmental Research is involved with an extensive project to educate communities in environmental sustainability. Teams in underprivileged areas are trained to improve efforts to capture sustainability data. A manual on environmental sustainability has been developed and is being modified to serve as an educational tool in the school curriculum. Training is provided for various industries on opportunities for broadening their base of resources, how to access resources, particularly information resources, and how to use the resources. Industry and NGOs are involved, amongst others.
  • A Local Agenda 21 Training Guide was successfully piloted in KwaDukuza TLC on 7 and 8 September 1998. The purpose of the guide is to train municipal managers and community leaders with respect to the basic concepts of sustainable development as well as the measures and tools needed for implementation.
  • Training courses on the implementation of EIAs are given by the DEA&T for all the provincial departments. Officials of all 9 provinces have completed the course. In addition, the 9 provincial departments conduct monthly workshops which are dedicated to capacity building, co-ordinating and training regarding the implementing of EIAs and other environmental regulations.
  • The mining industry invests on an ongoing basis in environmental research, education and training
  • Ecolink is an independent, non-profit, educational environmental developmental trust established to improve the quality of life of people by improving their knowledge and comprehension of their environment and nature and to equip them with environmentally responsible life skills.
  • Conferences and Workshops

  • The historical first Southern African Regional Conference on Cleaner Production, held at Midrand in May 1998. SADC and other African Countries as well as SA government, labour, business and scientists/ inventors were well represented.
  • The SA Regional Conference on Cleaner Production (CP) provided a forum for exchanging experiences in relevant CP case studies and involved groups assigned with policy formulation. It is expected that a Southern African Regional Roundtable on Cleaner Production will be one of the outcomes of the Conference.
  • Campaigns

  • In the domestic sector, the second phase of a communication campaign with the theme Enerwise/Moneywise was launched in March 1997 with the aim of educating, training and informing consumers on improvement of energy efficiency. An energy labelling system for refrigerator equipment has also been introduced. In the commercial sector, voluntary programmes have been initiated in collaboration with the International Institute for Energy Conservation, and if proven to be successful, will be expanded to the domestic and industrial sectors.
  • The DME hosted national energy efficiency awareness campaigns in the domestic sector in 1997 and 1998. The campaign succeeded in sensitising certain target groups, such as women’s organization and municipalities, to the importance of efficient use of energy. The overall aim of the campaign was to promote the concept that national economic development and a decrease in energy intensity can occur simultaneously. Practical guidelines on achieving energy efficiency were provided and an appeal was made to South African households to become part of an energy-wise culture by informing, educating and creating awareness of energy efficiency in the home. The Living Standards Measurement was used as a guide. One outcome of the campaign was that free editorial space and airtime were received for energy efficiency messages.
  • In order to ensure that builders and building owners make use of incentives for existing standards, the DME is cooperating with the CSIR and other institutions to run an incentive scheme, titled Green Buildings for Africa, for energy efficiency in buildings. Participation in the programme provides the property owner with a framework that will allow access to an environmental labelling system recognising energy efficiency efforts.
  • Escom has initiated an "electro-wise" campaign to promote efficient electricity usage around the home. The programme offers advice about saving energy and reducing electricity bills in and around the home. Escom also administers a system of energy efficiency design awards.
  • Rand Water has initiated a ‘water-wise’ campaign to promote the conservation of water around the home.
  • Publications:

  • An Energy Management Newsletter periodical has been published since June 1997 by the DME. The newsletter covers all economic sectors including households, commerce, industry, mining, transport and the public service sector.
  • In order to promote an awareness of fuel efficiency among the South African motoring public, a booklet entitled, "A Fuel consumption of passenger vehicles, 1997/98" was published.
  • Environmental management by industry is not well reported on by the general media. Many companies, however, include environmental reports in their annual reports, often also published electronically in McGregor Library.
  • A limited number of South African newspapers as well as a number of professional and local periodicals regularly publish environmental management news, covering issues of resource efficiency, mitigation of pollution and waste minimisation in trade and industry.  
  • The need for energy efficiency gave rise to an industry strategy to promote Energy Services Companies. Energy efficiency market surveys provide information on consumer energy, behaviour and needs. DME is developing an energy efficiency database. The main aims are to obtain data to inform benchmarks for awareness and educational campaigns.
  • Capacity-Building:

    The Foundation for Research Development has launched the Directed Theme Programme for Food Production and Food Security which focuses on the development of human resources and expertise to serve the needs of small-scale and resource-poor farming communities and systems. The FRD currently supports more than 150 grant-holders at universities and technikons conducting research and training students within the Programme Framework. (Refer also to the numerous examples given under "Status," above.

    The Industrial Environmental Forum (IEF) strives to engender environmental awareness in production and consumption by channeling knowledge and expertise to the industrial community and encouraging an atmosphere for innovative thinking rather than prescriptive controls. The members of the Industrial Environmental Forum (IEF) voluntarily agree to a ten-point Code of Conduct and are also signatories to the International Chamber of Commerce’s Business Charter for Sustainable Development. Members of the IEF are committed to continuous improvement, self-regulation and openness about performance in the environmental arena.

    Green conscious consumers are mostly guided by labeling and additional trade information. There is scope for enhancement of labeling and for a greater extent of consumer awareness.

    DEA&T has initiated a project that will encourage sustainable consumption and production through education regarding environmental resource economics.


    The Programme for Development Research (PRODDER) published by the Human Sciences Research Council is a Southern African development information medium which collects and disseminates information on all Southern African development issues and role players. Given the potential important contribution of information to the development process in Southern Africa, PRODDER has, since 1987, established itself as a leading Southern African development information service, compiling and disseminating information on thousands of Southern African development-related organisations.

    The provinces of Gauteng and Mpumalanga, sponsored by DANCED, published comprehensive information documents addressing procedures for implementation of EIAs. National EIA guidelines refer developers to the IEM principles which are set out in a series of 6 booklets published in 1992.

    The mining industry supports various fora dealing with scientific and technological developments. These fora include the International Committee for Coal Research, the Coal Research Forum and the National Science and Technology Forum.

    The South African Energy Information System is a database with relevant energy information and is kept in the library at DME.

    Auditing and monitoring systems

    The Environmental Management Programme Reports (EMPR) revision process and the EMP Performance Assessment and Monitoring Regulations are designed to provide information to the regulator for purposes of informed decision making. This programme is overseen by the DME.

    The Waste Disposal Permit System, administered in terms of Section 20 of Subsection 1 of the Environment Conservation Act, 1989, as well as the Water Permit System, administered in terms of Section 21 of the Water Act, 1956, are overseen by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF). The air pollution control system is overseen by the Chief Air Pollution Control Officer, under the auspices of the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism.

    The ROSE Foundation (Recovery of Oil Saves the Environment) is a South African non-profit organisation which has the task of regulating the environmentally acceptable collection and recycling of used oil for the lubricants industry. This organisation is funded by South Africa's main lubricant manufacturers, with the aim of protecting the natural environment against the potentially devastating effects resulting from irresponsible oil dumping. The Foundation provides users of lubricants with purpose-designed containers, which they empty as needed, at a nominal fee. A well designed assessment, auditing and certification system for members is managed by the ROSE Foundation.

    The Oil Industries Environmental Committee comprises representatives of eight oil companies of which six are members of the South African Petroleum Industry Association. The committee collectively agrees on general standard practices to minimise impacts on the environment. Examples of these include the purchase of forty-three oil spill response trailers, as well as first-response equipment for ports and harbours. They have also developed practices such as the investigation of corrosivity of soils to address the reality that 70% of leaks from underground storage tanks occur as a result of corrosion. A vulnerability map of South Africa, showing the vulnerability to underground tank pollution of ground water per area, was created.

    The South African National Accreditation System in 1998 launched their division for auditing and certification bodies and personnel, that provides for international mutual recognition of eg. ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 certification.

    The National Metrology Laboratory invested in state-of-the-art measuring equipment to provide for efficient infrastructure and facilitation of environmental reporting and implementation of environmental management measures.

    Regulation 5(4) of the Hazardous Chemical Substances Regulations imposes a duty on the employer to monitor the exposure of employees to substances hazardous to health. The Department of Labour is responsible for auditing and monitoring.

    Indicators related to consumption and production patterns.

    South Africa, through the DEA & T is assisting in testing the CSD proposed list of sustainability indicators, of which indicators related to consumption and production patterns are part.

    The CSIR is driving an internally funded project to research indicators of biodiversity. In a separate project, the CSIR is looking at developing criteria and indicators of sustainable development of terrestrial ecosystems. The research approach is to develop practical and easy to implement indicators. Sectors that will be addressed include Forestry, Agriculture and Conservation. This is a three-to-five-year process which is presently in its second year.

    The South African government, through DEA&T, is initiating the development of a Pollutant Release Transfer Register (PRTR), that will give guidance and statistics on amount of waste produced and pollutants emitted.

    There are projects going on within industry to develop sustainability measures. Indicators are based on CAPCO records, from which targets and alarm levels are derived. Conformance with targets is often linked to a monetary bonus scheme. Areas covered are air emissions, water economy and quality, elimination of legal incidents and clients’ perception of the efficiency of the industry’s environmental management measures.

    Information on some of the issues addressed in this discussion on "Consumption and production patterns, can be obtained from the following web sites:

    South African Environment Page:

    Central Statistical Services:

    South African Government Index:

    South African legislation:

    Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism:

    Department of Water Affairs and Forestry:

    Department of Minerals and Energy

    Chamber of Mines of SA:






    Agricultural Research Council

    South Africa Online

    Pollution Group: University Natal

    Environmental Process Engineering Group:

    Rose Foundation:

    Technology and Human Resources for Industry Programme:

    Southern African Conference on Cleaner Production

    Water demand management initiative

    Research and Technologies  

    The National Productivity Institute (NPI) has initiated an annual Productivity Award system through which industries submit improvements made to their productivity during the year to the NPI, which then presents the award for the best improvements in productivity. Clean and environmentally sound technologies implemented to improve productivity are looked on favourably.

    Regulations on Environmental Impact Assessment brought a new corporate focus on cleaner production patterns. The National Waste Management Strategy promotes waste minimisation through cleaner technologies that will minimise waste at the source as opposed to end of pipe solutions.

    The DTI’s proposal for a National Technology Transfer Centre, awaiting approval, includes cleaner technology certification for all technology transfer transactions facilitated by the Centre.

    In industry practice, the culture of promoting and applying clean and environmentally sound technologies is growing, as has been substantiated in this report.

    Research, development, demonstration or pilot projects and other activities

    The Science sector conducts research on how to create more sustainable consumption and production pattern. Research themes include:

  • Research on demand and pollution management;
  • guidelines that have been developed for sustainable water use in each user sector, i.e. domestic, agriculture, industry, recreation and conservation;
  • community participation in sustainable resource utilization and management;
  • projects on the sustainable utilisation of medicinal plants;
  • low-smoke coal project;
  • community involvement in protected areas;
  • indirect water consumption through interception and evapotranspiration in commercial forest plantations;
  • intensive research is being done on rehabilitation of surface areas, soils and pastures of areas impacted on high extraction mining;
  • the design and application of constructed wetlands for treatment of certain effluents, particularly domestic waste water; and
  • research into the control of invasive aquatic plants that has led to the development of integrated control strategies.
  • Research is also being done in terms of both eco-labeling and life-cycle assessments.

    The situation assessment of the South African appliance market revealed a focus on name brand loyalty rather than technical innovation. A climate of decreased import duties, intensified international competition and large differences among consumer groups, indicated the need for a segmented labelling programme. Stakeholder consultation revealed that: the stakeholders were largely unaware of the concept of energy performance labelling; the stakeholders preferred an approach that ensured a level playing field; the retail sector will be a key stakeholder in the labelling programme development; and consumer groups prefer a mandatory approach to labelling. Escom is interested in linking its domestic sector promotional activities with the labelling programme. The labelling programme is encouraged by DME, DEA&T and DTI.

    The DEA & T is engaged in a project to develop criteria and indicators for sustainable development of terrestrial ecosystems. This project adopts a research approach to develop practical and easy to implement indicators which will address specific land uses and encourage sustainable land management. The objectives include maintaining biological diversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality and the ecosystem’s potential to fulfill, now and in future, relevant ecological, economic and social functions, at local, national and global levels (without damaging other ecosystems). Sectors that will be addressed include forestry, agriculture and conservation. This is a 3 - 5 year process, presently in the second year.

    The Regional Office for Southern Africa (ROSA) of the World Conservation Union (IUCN) is implementing research on Water Demand Management. The project is financially supported by SIDA, and is planned for completion within 18 months effective from January 1998. The main aim of the project is to establish and assess the level at which water demand management is being practised in the region against a background of diminishing resources and increasing demand. IUCN has commissioned five country studies through which to execute the project. The CSIR, through its Division of Water Environment and Forestry Technology (Environmentek) accepted the invitation to lead the South Africa country study.

    The Industrial Symbiosis Project started in February 1997, and is conducted by the University of Cape Town. It is concerned with optimising the economic and environmental performance of Small and Medium Enterprise (SME). The general theme of the project is industrial symbiosis or industrial ecology/ecosystems and draws on parallels with models of biological ecology. The aim is to demonstrate the co-operation between firms that can realise gains in eco-efficiency for the sector as a whole. Results of the project will be used to prepare operational strategies for the SME sector to improve its economic competitiveness by striving for improvements in environmental performance, recognising that unavoidable waste generation equates to operational inefficiency.

    A national resource accounting research project, linked to the USAID resource accounting project covering Southern Africa, has been initiated under the auspices of the DEA&T, Statistics South Africa, and the University of Pretoria. Envisaged outcomes include linkages between macro economic policies and the environment.

    The Water Research Commission is funding a project entitled ‘Development of a Philosophy and Methodology for the Implementation of the Polluter Pays Principle’. The project is aimed at developing a system for calculating equitable pollution charges, with incentives to encourage polluters to move from diffuse to more controllable point-source pollution. The mining industry forms the focus of the research project and has been integrally involved in the development of the project.

    See also under Status.


    The range of sources for funding of activities include national budget, Official Donor Aid (ODA), (for example the UK, Germany, NORAD, USAID, DANCED, SIDA and others, See under Cooperation), assistance by institutions and company funding. 

    Industry contributes in terms of research and training funds, funds committed to environmental management systems and personnel, investment in cleaner technologies, measuring and testing equipment and in reporting. Private sector inter-country partnerships represent joint investments in technology, equipment and training required to implement agreed environmental management systems.

    The mining industry is the only industry cluster in South Africa for which financial provision for post-closure environmental management is legislated. As such, each mine has to make financial provision for post closure environmental management, which includes reduction of environmental impacts at source during the lifetime of the mine.

    REFSA (Pty) Ltd (Renewable Energy for South Africa) is a subsidiary of the state-owned Central Energy Fund group of companies which operate in the energy arena. Its main objective is the financing of renewable energy-based systems for those households that cannot readily be connected to the national grid. Its activities are guided by an independent and representative board of directors, to which several key institutions have been approached to nominate members. These are, amongst others, the DME, Escom, the Independent Development Trust, the Development Bank of Southern Africa and the World Bank Group. REFSA commenced its operations by launching a number of pilot projects designed to identify possible financing and delivery models. These include providing loans to potential customers through the retail banking sector operating in the rural areas, and financing interested rural communities on a collective basis and assisting them to manage a tendering process for the procurement and installation of systems.

    CooperationThe work done to develop a National State of the Environment report, as well as the City State of the Environment reports is funded by NORAD. Research on Water Demand Management (WDM) is financially supported by SIDA. DANCED funded and assisted with a number of policy formulation and related processes and, in cooperation with DANIDA, provides technical assistance and co-funding for lead projects on environmental management in industry.

    DANCED, has, over a three year period, set aside 8 million rand for Cleaner Production projects in selected industrial sectors (including the Fishing and Fish Processing, Abattoirs and Dairy, Wood and Furniture, Metal Plating and Textile Industries), with the aim of promoting Cleaner Technology in South Africa. Criteria used for support is the recognition of negative environmental impacts associated with the activities of the specific sector. This donor agency is committed to the transfer of technical skills relating to the environment as spelt out in Agenda 21.

    USAID is contributing to the development of a Resource Accounting system and database for Southern Africa, and the counterpart project for South Africa has commenced in 1998.

    SIDA contributes to competitiveness enhancement in the textile-and-clothing and other sectors, as well as in a new growth programme, for SMMEs, combining sustainable development and productivity principles.

    The UK, through a range of seminars hosted by the British Council, involves South Africa in educational discussions.

    The Federal Republic of Germany, supported by its partners in the Global Initiative for Sustainable Development, notably Brazil, Singapore and South Africa, will in 2000 host the Urban 21 global conference on the urban future. The German Government has approached DTI through the DEA&T, to discuss a programme that will support possible country to country small business partnerships with the objective of promoting the manufacture of green products.

    The environment forms a significant part of the United States assistance pledged to South Africa. A commission was established with Vice-President Gore and Deputy President Mbeki as co-chairmen. The Conservation and Environment Committee of the Commission has the following working groups: Nature conservation and tourism, Environmental management and pollution, Water, Fisheries, and Oceans and atmosphere.

    Water and Rivers

    South Africa shares a number of rivers with neighbouring states. Codes of conduct regarding tributaries of shared rivers are covered by bilateral agreements and supported by studies such as the Limpopo Basin Study, the Lesotho Highlands water scheme and the Nkomati basin project. South Africa is also a signatory of the SADC protocol on shared water courses.

    Agricultural cooperation and trade in agricultural goods

    The national Department of Agriculture is represented in Brussels, Rome and Geneva. The Department of Agriculture is responsible for matters concerning agricultural relations with other countries, for example bilateral agreements with Zimbabwe, Malawi and Mozambique.

    The Department of Agriculture, DTI and the Department of Foreign Affairs cooperate with respect to trade negotiations, for example between South Africa and the EU, the Indian Ocean Rim Initiative and the Cairns Group. Negotiations regarding the implementation of the Convention on Biodiversity are also covered. South Africa obtained qualified membership of the Lom� Convention, which will allow South African companies to tender for contracts funded by the European Development Fund and to make use of the rules of accumulation. The ARC is represented in Paris and Washington at the relevant South African missions.


    South Africa has a bilateral agreement with Mozambique which covers the harvesting of hake in SA waters in exchange for a comparable amount of Mozambique prawns.


    A bilateral Memorandum of Understanding between the Department of Minerals and Energy and the German Government to collaborate on the promotion of solar cookers in South Africa, was implemented in 1997. During the implementation phase, solar cookers or stoves were distributed, accompanied by training, information workshops and evaluations.

    Environmental Management Agreements

    In addition to its commitment to implement Agenda 21, South Africa is party to a number of legally enforceable international environmental agreements. These include:

  • the Convention on Fishing and Conservation of the Living Resources of the High Seas (Geneva, 1958),
  • the Convention on the Conservation of the Living Resources of the South-East Atlantic (Rome, 1969),
  • the Convention of the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London, 1972),
  • Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal, 1987),
  • the Convention on Biological Diversity (Rio de Janeiro, 1992),
  • the Basel Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (1994),
  • the Convention to Combat Desertification, and
  • the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).
  • Participation and monitoring of implementation is administered by the DEA & T.

    South Africa is inter alia a participant in negotiations / research relating to:

  • The Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol;
  • The Convention on Prior Informed Consent;
  • The Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants;
  • The Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety; and
  • The Bamako Convention.
  • South Africa will be hosting a Regional Training Centre for English speaking African countries, where courses will be presented on management of hazardous waste and related issues.

    SADC Protocols

    South Africa has either ratified, or signed with the aim of ratification, four SADC protocols, namely the Protocol on Energy, the Protocol on Trade, the Protocol on Mining, the Protocol on Transport, Communications and Meteorology and the Protocol on Combatting Illicit Drug Trafficking.


    A number of commercial alliance agreements, aimed at strengthening bilateral trade and economic co-operation between South Africa and foreign countries, have been signed or are being negotiated.

    In conformance with policies and business practice in their own countries, most foreign investors in SA are committed to responsible management of environmental aspects, minimising pollution and waste, and conserving water.

    * * *

    This information is based on South Africa's submissions to the fifth, sixth and seventh Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: December 1998.

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    Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies 

    The Department of Finance is responsible for decision-making in the field of financial resources.

    Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

    Foreign direct investment is subject to the same environmental legislation as local investment. For example, no industrial development will be permitted without a mandatory process of environmental impact assessment. Incentives for investment in cleaner production technologies for both local and foreign investment will be investigated as part of the National Waste Management Strategy.

    Certain environmental issues are addressed by the application of fiscal instruments. For example, a relatively high tax on fuel, which is partly in recognition of the external costs associated with fossil fuel consumption, is maintained. Furthermore, a price differential between leaded and unleaded fuel was introduced to encourage the use of unleaded fuel. However, "the environment" does not receive direct financial benefits from present fiscal instruments.

    While it is relatively straightforward to impose an environmental tax, the situation becomes far more complex when there is a maximum limit on the total tax burden. While much work has been done on market based fiscal instruments, not enough is known yet in South Africa on how to suitably shift, and not increase, the tax burden. Furthermore, given the current income distribution problem in South Africa, a progressive tax system is a high priority at present. A set of guidelines on the interdependent use of regulations, market-based instruments and self-regulation mechanisms is currently being drafted. The implementation procedures and frameworks are still needed.

    Concerning the introduction of new environmental taxes, levies, or charges, a process is underway to identify suitable economic instruments that may be used in the management of South African water usage and waste disposal.

    Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

    South Africa is in the process of implementing a long-term plan entitled the Growth, Employment and Redistribution Strategy (GEAR), which provides a basis for macro economic development. While this policy document does not specifically refer to environmental issues or sustainable development, it addresses the priorities of any developing country such as South Africa, which are to eradicate poverty and meet the basic needs of all its inhabitants.

    It must be noted that a policy is being formulated on user charges, which favors moving towards a system where the user increasingly bears the costs of a service. There is much scope here for the recovery of the cost of providing certain environmental services or goods.

    Apart from the above policy framework, a National Advisory Committee has recently been formed to direct a project that seeks to investigate the linkages between environmental and macroeconomic policy in South Africa. This is being done with a view to advising on the frameworks required to achieve sustainable development, including social, economic and environmental aspects.

    The Departments of Agriculture and Water Affairs and Forestry have initiated numerous policy reforms to identify and eliminate environmentally unsustainable land and water subsidies. In particular, these reforms aim to redress past imbalances, which provided for subsidised capital and irrigation water to large commercial farms, often at the expense of emerging farmers and the environment.

    There are no specific environmental policies pertaining to foreign direct investment (FDI), though national environmental regulations would apply to all foreign and domestic investors.

    In terms of freshwater management, irrigation schemes have often received water at subsidised costs. The present price is based on historical costing and the full environmental and social costs are not included.

    A multitude of subsidies exist, which are distorting the relative costs of factors of production, making labor relatively more expensive than the other factors, and shifting production towards more capital intensive and energy intensive methods. This has contributed to the decrease in labor absorption rates over the years as well as to the unemployment and poverty problems. Part of the GEAR strategy involves the reduction of such distorting subsidies in order to shift production to more labor intensive production methods.

    Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement  

    Government channels subsidies of over R 1,5 billion a year to about 1 400 non-governmental organisations, focused on developmental welfare services, support for the unemployed and meeting the needs of women and children. Some 4 000 personnel in child and youth care and residential centres are receiving specialized training.

    No changes were made in national, provincial and regional budgets to address sustainable development. Churches, Independent Development Trusts (IDT) and other NAOS have played a major role in financing and supporting social development, particularly in the poverty-stricken communities. Environmental capacity enhancement projects undertaken by community forums and community based NAOS have recently been funded by the Reconstruction and Development Programme based in different government departments. However, there is a need to engage communities in programmes that stimulate economic growth and sustainable development.

    Programmes and Projects  

    Concerning financial mechanisms used to combat poverty, the redistributional aspects of the South African budget have been considerably enhanced, and the tax system has been reformed in favour of low-income earners. On the expenditure side, a significant reprioritisation of the budget has taken place, with over 60% of expenditure now going to social services and to meeting the needs of the poor. Expenditure on social services (comprising education, health and welfare) increased by an annual average rate of 12% from 1995 to 1998. Specific achievements under the South African Government's Redistribution and Development Programme (RDP), which have been actively supported through the national budget, include:

    Since 1994 the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry has brought 25 liters of potable water per person to over three million people and has created 100 000 jobs every year. There are 1 025 projects which are underway, expected to serve 4,9 million people. Sanitation services will be provided to approximately 50 000 households by the end of 1999.

    Over 900 projects have been implemented creating some 40 000 jobs in 1998 under the Working for Water programme, curtailing the spread of alien plants in water catchment areas.

    Land reform is gathering momentum. By the end of 1998, 3 623 households had regained their rights to land. Under the land redistribution programme 179 088 hectares of land had been transferred to 33 366 households. Please refer to the 'Capacity Building' section of this chapter for more information on financial mechanisms aiming the reduction of poverty.

    A new social grant was introduced in April 1998, providing assistance to caregivers of children under the age of seven.

    The housing subsidy scheme launched in 1994 has contributed to the building of 629 449 houses. Approximately 936 754 subsidies have been approved since 1994.

    The primary school nutrition programme reaches approximately 5 million children in poor communities, contributing to their nourishment, enhancing learning capacity and many employment opportunities.

    Primary health care services are largely provided at no charge. Government has built 638 clinics over the last four years, introduced a cost-effective essential drugs list and conducted successful immunisation campaigns and AIDS awareness programmes.

    Because macroeconomic decision making in South Africa is not based on an assessment of the availability and quality of natural resources (resulting in unsustainable or inefficient resource use which lowers social welfare), a framework for information and analysis to support sustainable macroeconomic policy is required. One of the tools for accomplishing this is Natural Resource Accounting (NRA). Work on this has commenced on a small scale in South Africa by an environmental economics working group. It is envisaged that the NRA project will be expanded throughout Southern Africa, with capacity building in government ministries, to promote an awareness of the importance of environmental economic analysis and the development of the institutional linkages necessary for compilation of NRA. One of the tasks of the NRA project is to identify the level of subsidisation each sector receives from the government and the total cost of subsidies and to conduct analyses to indicate economic and social justification, as well as the cost effectiveness and environmental impact thereof. However, this will not be done in the initial phases of the NRA project.


    No information available.


    No information available.

    Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

    Concerning financial mechanisms to combat poverty, it is to be noted that educational enrolment has increased by over 1,5 million since 1994, while the average number of learners per teacher has decreased from 40 to 34 over this period. Improved grade 12 examination results in 1998 signal a turnaround in school performance. Key initiatives are in progress to improve management in schools and strengthen learning and teaching skills. In support of access to higher education, Government funds a National Student Financial Aid Scheme and targets assistance at development and redress in universities and technikons. See also under Programmes and Projects.

    Developing skills is a responsibility Government shares with its social partners. Agreement has been reached on the way forward. Preliminary organisational work is underway for the creation of education and training authorities and introduction of learnerships as part of a joint strategy for extending improved learning opportunities to all.


    South Africa's national budget, which includes a comprehensive survey of the expenditure and service priorities of all government departments, is available from the department's web page at

    Research and Technologies  

    The Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism recently completed a research project on the use of economic instruments to address environmental problems. An assessment of economic instruments and their suitability for environmental management in South Africa was investigated. It is likely that new legislation will be addressed within the next year.


    No information available.

    * * *

    This information is based on South Africa's submissions to the fifth, sixth and eighth Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: October 2000.

    For details on the South African national budget 1996, click here:For information on participating states in the Global Environment Facility, click here:For information about issues and projects in Africa from the World Bank, click here:

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    TECHNOLOGY Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology

    Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies 

    The South African Bureau of Standards (a parastatal standard making body) has been involved in the development of the ISO 14000 series. Additionally, the South African National Accreditation System (SANAS) was launched recently. This body will accredit certification bodies, and environmental certification will become an area of activity in the near future. These SANAS accredited products and services will be recognised throughout the world. The Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism is currently holding discussions with other National Departments and Provincial Governments to encourage the adoption of the ISO 14000 series.

    Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

    South Africa's Intellectual Property Rights legislation that will be passed in Parliament will comply with the World Trade Organisation's (WTO) Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement.

    In terms of the Technology Transfer Act that is currently being drafted, the Department of Trade and Industry's Technology Transfer Centre, to be launched in 1999, will require "best available affordable cleaner technology" clearance for all technology transfer transactions. The use of Best Available Technology Not Entailing Excessive Cost (BATNEEC) is considered an essential principle in environmental management.

    Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   It should also be mentioned that after evaluating EIAs in terms of the Land Development Objectives (LDOs) as specified in the Development Facilitation Act, provincial and local governments have decided to require that an Environmental Management System be incorporated into development applications in order to promote the consideration of best technology, practice and alternatives into business plans.

    Although South Africa does not have a specific national policy or strategy with regard to ESTs, some government departments and research institutions, such as the Medical Research Council (MRC), have developed policies and strategies on integrated environmental management and the use of environmentally sound technology. The policy document on Science and Technology, 1996, provides the framework for the development of a national system of innovation that would promote ESTs.

    Sectoral strategies and policies are available, for instance, in the electricity sector: clean coal technologies, water use and energy-efficiency.

    Provincial departments have created policies that address the need to travel abroad for study tours, conferences or meetings. This is to ensure that capacity building is achieved as well as to strengthen existing networks and build up new information networks. Because of South Africa's geographical location, these types of networks are not always efficient, and it has been recognised that Internet and E-mail networking is also of great value. Capacity building is perceived as a major priority by Government, particularly in the field of environment. This is being addressed, although no formal policy exists.

    Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement  

    Several organisations and associations operate as platforms within the field of ESTs. There are technical centres, various specialised committees, policy groups and professional or business institutions, such as the Industrial Environmental Forum (IEF), which coordinates environmentally sound technology within the industrial sector, as well as the Water Research Commission (WRC) to which technology transfer is a key issue, that also bring stakeholders together.

    The private sector plays a leading role in disseminating knowledge and information about cleaner processes in industry. The IEF is completely funded by business, and aims to promote awareness on the transfer of ESTs through participation and peer incentives. The chemical industry in South Africa has adopted the International Responsible Care Initiative and is continuously seeking to achieve cleaner production. Current interactions with government include discussions on the introduction of incentives to promote cleaner production processes.

    Companies, some with international divisions, regularly survey the available technological development and bring relevant process technology into South Africa for adaptation to local conditions. A group of environmental consultants has accumulated wide and detailed experience in the field of clean production and manufacturing technology, and the services provided contribute advisory expertise to those businesses without resident specialists. The private sector has contributed major investments in waste water treatment technology, some of which hold world-wide patents.

    The CSIR, the Development Bank of Southern Africa and the Environmental Scientific Association of South Africa are among the other role players in terms of cleaner production processes. In the energy sector, promotion is taking place regarding electricity, clean coal technology and future energy supply and demand.

    Several universities are also collaborating with local authorities and industrial small, medium and micro enterprises in efforts to promote cleaner production processes.

    Programmes and Projects  

    Programmes of action have been developed by a number of government departments and research institutions such as the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the MRC. No institutions have yet been identified for implementation.

    Cleaner production initiatives recently initiated will partly focus on implementing pilot projects targeting the following industrial sectors:

  • The fish and fish processing industry;
  • Abattoirs and the dairy industry;
  • The wood and furniture industry;
  • The metal and furniture industry; and
  • The textile industry.
  • Stakeholders representing industry, various government departments and research institutions are involved. Through various sector-specific industrial associations, the invitation to forward pilot project proposals has been disseminated. The implementation of several pilot/demonstration projects is supported by DANCED.

    Objectives of the pilot projects:

  • to raise awareness through local examples of cleaner production;
  • to ensure the broad dissemination of the results of DANCED-supported cleaner production activities - each industrial sector should be represented by a sectoral association which acts as a networking body for individual industries within the sector; and
  • to sustain the skills and expertise transferred through DANCED support to cleaner production activities - each sector should have a recognised service body.
  • Status  

    No information available.


    No information available.

    Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

    The Department of Education encourages transfer of technology in schools. At the same time, steps are being taken to integrate environmental education across the curriculum in order to ensure that communities have access to information on the environmental risks of technologies. In this way, informed economic choices can be made. Social and cultural priorities are considered during transfer of technology.

    DEA&T is organising a cleaner production regional conference for 1998, which will serve as a platform to promote the concept of cleaner production within the Southern African region. Issues related to technology are shared with international organisations such as the World Federation of Technical Assessment Organisations.

    A 2.5 year capacity building project has been launched by the Gauteng Provincial Government with DANCED which will include training in cleaner production technology. This project involves, among other things, a study tour to South Africa and Sweden which concentrates on these issues and the implementation thereof. Provincial Governments have budgeted for some small pilot projects in this area, the results of which will go towards new national regulatory frameworks.

    See also under Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans.


    There are no recent national data available to indicate in which sectors ESTs are most urgently needed, but the National Waste Management Strategies and Action Plans (NWMS) will include baseline studies which will address this question. Indications are that ESTs are needed inter alia in mining, agriculture, small to medium manufacturing and processing industries, liquid fuels for the most deprived communities, water for all sectors of the economy, as well as for energy, transport, tourism, off-shore oil and gas pollution reduction, small business, and domestic, urban and rural energy.

    See also Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement.


    No information available.


    See under Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-Raising and Programmes and Projects.

    * * *

    Economically Sound Technologies (ESTs) in water and waste management

    Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

    No information available.

    Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

    Through the Environmental Management Programme requirements of the Minerals Act, 1991, and the mine water related research done through WRC, environmentally sound waste management technologies at mines are specifically promoted. The environmental management programme requirements for the mining industry are based on Best Available Technology Not Entailing Excessive Costs.

    Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

    Through the National Water Policy, 1997, a system of economic incentives will be put in place to foster the development of low-waste and non-waste technologies, and to reduce pollution and other impacts on water resources. A sector-based approach will be integrated with water resource management strategies and functions and, where appropriate, regulated sectors should take responsibility for the development, evaluation and implementation of ESTs that will meet the requirements for water resource protection. The system of economic incentives has yet to be developed in detail, and its implementation is seen as a long-term process.

    No financial instruments are used at present to encourage the use of ESTs in the field of water management. However, there is provision for two types of economic instruments in the draft National Water Bill, 1997. The first is the setting of water tariffs at levels which reflect the real cost of water and its relative scarcity or abundance. This is intended to act as an incentive for the development of water-efficient technologies, and improved recycling and reuse. The second is the introduction of a system of waste charges, to be imposed for discharges to water resources. These are intended to encourage the development and implementation of improved treatment technologies as well as low-waste technologies. Funds raised in this way will be used for resource protection activities.

    South Africa's Draft Policy on Environmental Management outlines the following with regard to pollution and waste management, which implies ESTs: "Waste management must minimise and avoid the creation of waste at source especially in the case of toxic and hazardous wastes". The Draft Policy on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management in South Africa proposes a policy to promote the implementation of a hierarchy of waste management practices, namely reduction of waste at source (cleaner production/technology), reuse, recycling and safe disposal as the last resort. Furthermore, the National Waste Management Strategies and Action Plans (NWMS) will propose strategies and actions for each component of pollution and waste management that will advocate the use of ESTs (possibly within the strategy and action plans regarding cleaner production/pollution prevention).

    The Department of Water Affairs and the DEA & T are using guidelines for the issuing of permits for waste disposal. The Draft Policy on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management in South Africa refers to waste management in the context of cleaner production/pollution prevention. 

    Organisations such as state corporations and government departments have already formulated or are in the process of formulating policies on waste stream reduction and the management of effluent discharges.

    Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement  

    No information available.

    Programmes and Projects  

    A strategy on cleaner production will be developed through the NWMS project, which has implications for the promotion of ESTs.


    No information available.


    The Environmental Management Policy has recognised the current problem that: "There are no effective incentives to encourage all waste producers to adopt cleaner production processes and minimise waste generation". In the draft Integrated Pollution and Waste Management Policy document, promotion of cleaner technology has been identified as a priority.

    Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

    No information available.


    No information available.


    No information available.


    No information available.

    * * *

    Housing technologies

    Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

    No information available.

    Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

    No information available.

    Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

    No information available.

    Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement  

    No information available.

    Programmes and Projects 

    The Housing and Urbanisation Information System (HUIS) and the Housing Subsidy System (HSS) are being developed to respond to the need for technology for housing and housing information for planning purposes. The basis for the HUIS includes the refinement and updating of a database created by the Development Bank for Southern Africa and the Council for Science and Industrial Research. Tenders for the development of a HUIS have been called for.


    Housing support is necessary to establish a range of financial, institutional, technical and logistical support mechanisms that will enable communities to continually improve their own housing circumstances. Housing Support Centres are in the process of being set up as identifiable bases where beneficiary families may gain access to a serviced site as well as the relevant subsidy package. 


    No information available.

    Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

    In Housing Support Centres people would receive training in materials manufacture and basic construction skills, together with the necessary information and advice to enable them to contribute directly to the design and construction of their own homes. Environmentally sound and appropriate technologies including know-how, services, equipment, organisational and managerial skills are provided by the Housing Support Centres.


    See under Programmes and Projects.


    No information available.


    No information available.

    * * *


    Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies 

    Biotechnology research is conducted by government departments, parastatal bodies and industry.

    Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

    A draft bill on the safe use and handling of genetically modified organisms has been developed and submitted to parliament for approval to be written into national legislation. The bill takes into account the UNEP Guidelines for Biosafety. South Africa is also actively involved at subregional, regional and global levels in the negotiations on the development of a protocol on biosafety under the auspices of the Convention on Biological Diversity. It is intended to control genetically modified organisms by means of the Genetically Modified Organism Act, 1996 which is to be administered by the Department of Agriculture and a statutory Executive Council consisting of cross-sectoral representation. The application of the Act includes genetic modification of organisms, use of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) and gene therapy. Excluded from the Act are human gene therapy, activities which are considered conventional and which do not involve r-DNA, as well as activities where GMOs are not used as recipient or parental organisms in conventional techniques. Human gene therapy should be controlled by the Department of Health because of the moral and ethical issues that are involved in this type of therapy.

    Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

    No information available.

    Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement  

    See under Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies.

    Programmes and Projects  

    No information available.


    No information available.


    No information available.

    Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

    No information available.


    No information available.

    Research and Technologies  

    No information available.


    No information available.


    No information available.

    * * *

    This information is based on South Africa's submissions to the 5th and 6th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: December 1997

    For access to the White Paper on Science and Technology - 'Preparing for the 21st Century', click here:For access to the homepage of the research institute CSIR, providing information on water, environment and forestry technologies, among many other issues, click here:For information on science and technology from the South African Communication Service WWW Page, click here:Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages

    | South Africa | All Countries | Home |


    Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

    No information available.

    Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

    Currently, industrial development is subject to the conditions of regulations made under sections 21, 22 and 26 of the Environment Conservation Act 73 of 1989, which includes a rigorous process of environmental impact assessment.

    Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

    The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), in cooperation with other stakeholders, is in the process of formulating a national policy and strategy for ecologically sustainable industrial development. The Draft Environmental Policy for Trade and Industry will endeavour to harmonise the principles and objectives of the Growth, Employment and Redistribution Strategy (GEAR) and the draft Policy on Environmental Management. The process will be conducted as an integrated research and participation exercise that will determine how the environmental performance of industry could be managed in a way least restrictive to economic growth, international competitiveness and employment.

    The development of a Plan of Action will follow after the completion of the Environmental Policy for Trade and Industry. The Department of Trade and Industry will be responsible for the co-ordination of the implementation of the program. Objectives still have to be formulated in terms of the strategy for ecologically sustainable industrial development and capacity developed and targets will be subject to the formulation of a programme of action. Individual companies have however set time- bound targets for corporate reduction of waste and improved resource efficiency.

    There is no particular policy to promote green industries.

    Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement  

    The draft Policy on Environmental Management recognises the importance of enhancing partnerships with industry in order to ensure that a more environmentally friendly approach to production is adopted.

    Programmes and Projects 

    In terms of the Technology Transfer Act that is currently being drafted, the DTI's Technology Transfer Centre, to be launched by 1999, will require "best available affordable cleaner technology" clearance for all technology transfer transactions.


    No information available.


    In South Africa, the principal threats to human health as a result of industrial activity are the potential of some sectors to emit air, soil and water pollutants and/or generate waste containing hazardous substances. Lack of appropriate legislation and injudicious siting of industrial areas next to residential areas in South Africa have resulted in a legacy of poor environmental quality of some residential areas. This situation has to be addressed. The need for a more targeted strategic approach to government policy in this regard has been recognised by stakeholders and is reflected in the Draft Environmental Policy.

    Principal threats to human health and/or the sustainable use of natural resources include:

  • Over-abstraction from surface and groundwater resources, inter alia linked to the provision of water for urban and industrial purposes. This is being addressed in the draft National Water Bill,1997, through the right given to the Reserve, which is defined as the water quantity and quality required to protect basic human needs and the integrity of aquatic ecosystems;
  • salinisation of surface water due to the discharge of saline effluent from manufacturing and processing industries, the discharge of underground water pumped from mines to prevent flooding of works and the discharge of treated sewerage effluents.
  • destruction of riparian and instream habitat due to uncontrolled urban and peri-urban development, which includes industrial development;
  • discharge of toxic substances at point sources and diffuse sources;
  • health and environmental impacts on groundwater resources due to diffuse pollution;
  • air pollution of sulphur dioxide from burning of coal as a domestic and industrial fuel, causing chronic respiratory disorders; and
  • localised pollution through spillages and accidental leakages which may cause health problems in the immediate vicinity.
  • Industry is a significant user of freshwater in South Africa. In 1980, industrial use of water (including mining and power generation) was estimated at 1 779 million cubic metres per annum, about 11 % of the total demand for freshwater resources in the country. By the year 2000, industrial demand is expected to reach approximately 3 400 million cubic metres per annum, or about 15% of the total demand (based on consumption and production needs of a growing population).

    South Africa's water resources are very unevenly distributed across the country. In arid or water-scarce areas water supply is a constraint to industrial development. This constraint has served as an incentive to industry to develop water recycling processes.

    Pollution of freshwater by industry is a problem in South Africa. The failure of historical source control mechanisms to achieve the desired level of water resource protection has been recognised in the National Water Policy as well as in the draft National Water Bill, 1997. The Policy and proposed legislation provide a framework within which a range of regulatory mechanisms will be applied to improve both source control and resource protection and management.

    Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

    No information available.


    No information available.

    Research and Technologies  

    No information available.


    No information available.


    No information available.

    * * *

    This information is based on South Africa's submission to the 6th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1998. Last update: December 1997For access to the White Paper on a National Strategy for the Development and Promotion of Small Business, click here:For information on the supportive role of the research institute CSIR in the area of industry, click here:

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    Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies 

    The Department of Transport is currently reviewing its legislation and formulating an Environmental Policy for Transport. The Department of Environmental Affairs and tourism (DEA&T) has been commissioned to provide reports on emissions, including vehicle emissions. 

    Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

    No information available.

    Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

    The use of environmental impact management tools and cleaner technologies are promoted in the reviewed environmental policy, and a guideline document has been finalised which integrates environmental management into its planning, development and decision-making processes.

    One of the strategies that will be pursued by South Africa is closer cooperation between transportation planning and land-use planning. Inventories of requirements and indicators will be compiled to allow progress to be monitored on a regular basis, in accordance with government policy.

    Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement  

    No information available.

    Programmes and Projects  

    No information available.


    No information available.


    No information available.

    Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

    No information available.


    A database for all independently monitored atmospheric emissions is being organised at the South African Weather Bureau, which is a sub-sector of the DEA&T.

    Research and Technologies  

    No information available.


    No information available.


    No information available.

    * * *

    This information is based on South Africa's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

    For access to the Working Documents for Land Transport Bills and Cross-Border Road Transport Bill, click here:For acess to the White Paper on Western Cape Provincial Transport Policy, click here:For information on transport from the South African Communication Service WWW Page, click here:

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    Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies 

    The Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEA & T), Directorate of Tourism Development Planning and Provincial Liaison is responsible for sustainable tourism at the national level. 

    Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

    No specific legislation exists, which seeks to ensure sustainable tourism development, nor are specific areas set aside for the purpose. However, many government and private sector owned properties such as protected areas and wildlife ranches are being run, promoting eco-tourism activities to a greater or lesser extent. New eco-tourism destinations and services are, due to the increase in demand, almost daily launched for business purposes.

    Integrated Environmental Management (IEM) and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) are applied to monitor continuously the progress of tourism development in order to make the necessary corrections or revisions to ensure sustainability. The Environmental Conservation Act of 1989 may be applied for control and penalising of offenders damaging environmental practices on the part of businesses and visitors.

    Environmental management systems are applied in hotels and other tourist establishments on an ad hoc basis, depending on the sensitivity of the product owner.

    In view of the fundamental importance of guidelines for the promotion of sustainable tourism, the DEA & T has as a priority the development of a framework and guidelines for sustainable tourism included in its Chief Directorate, Tourism’s business plan.

    The National Tourism Organisation of South Africa (SATOUR) has prepared basic voluntary guidelines for ecotourism, i.e. Ecotourism: Principles and Practices. Generally, the guidelines have been well accepted.

    Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

    There is no specific national strategy on sustainable tourism which is one of the majors constraints that exist to pursuing sustainable tourism. However, the Tourism White Paper proposes ‘responsible tourism’ as the key guiding principle for tourism development and is seen to include sustainable tourism development. The white paper covers economic, technical, environmental, social, institutional and financial aspects related to sustainable tourism. Eco-tourism and nature-based tourism are integral parts of the National Tourism Policy.

    Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement  

    Due to the fact that at the local level guidelines for sustainable tourism development are in the process of being formulated and that procedures and regulations are not yet available, no local bodies can currently be held responsible for the enforcement or promotion of such guidelines. However, in the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP), the Tourism White Paper and its implementation strategy, Tourism in Gear, appropriate authorities have to promote implementation of principles, which may be referred to as ‘responsible practice’ into the project cycle. These authorities include Local and Metropolitan and Regional Councils.

    While every effort is made to involve all role players and stakeholders in appropriate decision-making, it will also be done when the process is initiated to formulate guidelines for sustainable tourism development in South Africa. A working group, representative of role players and stakeholders, is anticipated which will finalize an action plan for the formulation of guidelines. An interactive process which will include opportunities for constructive consultation (including appropriate formal forums which ensure attendance to the views and needs of all interested parties) will be fundamental for the exercise.

    Programmes and Projects  

    The following illustrates activities which are geared both to sustainable tourism and to eco-tourism and nature-based tourism:

    Responsible Tourism Development Programme aims to develop a replicable socio-economic development model that will focus on community empowerment, based on sustainability.

    The Spatial Development Initiatives (SDIs) of the South African government aims at (i) generating sustainable economic growth and development in developing areas with inherent economic potential; (ii) creating sustainable employment over the long term for previously disadvantaged communities of the area; (iii) maximising private sector investment in and lending to the area; (iv) empowering previously disadvantaged communities and emerging entrepreneurs (SMEs) to exploit (spin-off) business opportunities; and (v) maximising export orientated growth by exploiting the area’s underutilised potential.

    South Africa is involved in the implementation of the Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme, under UNESCO. Biosphere Reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal/marine ecosystems, or a combination thereof. They are established to promote and demonstrate a balanced relationship between humans and the biosphere. Biosphere Reserves have three primary functions, namely development, conservation and a logistical function. The structure of a Biosphere Reserve physically consists of three elements: a core area that is a clearly identified natural area which is strictly protected (a) securely protected area for example a National Park; (b) a buffer zone that is a clearly identified area within which cooperative activities, compatible with sound ecological practices such as recreation, tourism and research which have a limited effect on the area, are permitted ; and (c) a transition zone that is a flexible area or area of cooperation which may contain a variety of agricultural activities, settlements and other uses in which local communities, management agencies, scientists, non-governmental organisations, cultural groups, economic interests and other stakeholders work together to manage and develops the area’s resources in a sustainable manner. Currently, a proposal for designation of South Africa’s first Biosphere Reserve is under scrutiny of UNESCO and their response is awaited. A further three possible areas are considered for designation.


    Travel and tourism, encompassing transport, accommodation, catering, recreation and services for travellers, is expected to generate 69.8 billion ZAR (USD13,1 billion) to economic activity in South Africa in 1998, growing to ZAR 270.2 billion by 2010. Travel and tourism economic activity in real terms is expected to grow at an average annual rate of 5.5 percent from 1998 to 2010 in South Africa.

    While the Travel and Tourism Sector will in 1998 probably contribute 2.6 percent to the South African GDP (worldwide: 4.2 percent to GDP), 3.3 percent is anticipated by 2010 (worldwide 4.4 percent). The Travel and Tourism Economy contribution, encompassing the flow-through effect across the South African economy as a whole, is expected to grow from the current 8.2 percent (worldwide: 11.6 percent) to 10.3 percent (worldwide: 12.5 percent).

    Travel and Tourism’s contribution to total South African exports, services and merchandise should be 13.2 percent in 1998 and increase to around 17.5 percent in 2010.

    Taxes from Tourism and Travel are expected to be ZAR 15 billion (USD 2.8 billion) in 1998 in South Africa, i.e. 8,4 percent of total taxation and is expected to grow to ZAR 55.1 billion by 2010, i.e. 10.6 percent of total taxes.

    The current 248,141 jobs in the Tourism and Travel Industry represent 2.4 percent of total employment and is expected to rise by an annual 3.1 percent in 12 years’ time. The present Travel and Tourism Economy employment is estimated at 737,617 jobs, i.e. 7 percent of total employment and is anticipated to rise to 1,254 million, i.e. 9.3 percent of total employment by 2010.

    The growth of the tourism sector in the economy is described in the following table

    Tourist arrivals for the period 1987 – 1997

    YEAR GRAND TOTAL % GROWTH OVERSEAS % GROWTH AFRICA % GROWTH 1987  703351           339 307      364 044   1988  804985 14         388102 14    413 368 14 1989  930393 16         472 076 22    454 818 10 1990 1029093 11         498 712 6    528908 16 1991 1709554 66         521257 5 1 186 529 124 1992 2703191 58         559913 7 2 142 249 81 1993 3093183 14         618508 10 2 462 277 15 1994 3668956 19         704630 14 2927982 19 1995 4488272 22      1 071 839 52 3290931 12 1996 4944430 10       1172394 9 3506757 10 1997 5436848 10       1379611 18 3568518 7

    Source: SATOUR

    The anticipated average increase in tourism arrivals from overseas over the medium to long term is fifteen percent per annum and six percent per annum from the African continent whereafter at least ten percent is expected for the two combined.


    Section 21 of South Africa’s Environment Conservation Act identifies activities which may have a substantial detrimental effect on the environment. It also outlines application of regulations and the responsibilities in terms of these regulations. However, the current impact of tourism on social, institutional and cultural issues requires urgent attention with a view to considering the need for the establishment and implementation of guidelines to promote sustainable tourism development. See also under Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans.

    Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

    The National Tourism Organisation of South Africa, SATOUR, promotes tourist attractions through a variety of ways. These ways include promotional material which is distributed or used by its domestic and international offices to inform the demand side through road shows, exhibitions and other events about South Africa as an exciting tourist destination. Every year, a new theme in terms of the country’s extraordinary product offering is selected for marketing. Eco-tourism or nature based tourism (including culture) is promoted under the auspices of the slogan ‘Explore South Africa’ with the suggestion to ‘Go Wild’.

    In addition to the South African Wildlife College, various universities offer training and education which promote sustainable tourism.

    The World Tourism Organisation’s programmes are used to educate policy makers in the concept and policy design of sustainable tourism.

    The itineraries of various tour operators focus on awareness raising programmes on sustainable tourism.

    Tourism product owners are increasingly aiming at attracting environmentally-conscious tourists.


    Basic guidelines have been prepared by SATOUR to assist both decision-makers and the tourist industry in promoting sustainable tourism. Guidelines have also been prepared for tourism development along the Wild Coast of the Eastern Cape Province.

    Mapping and inventorying of natural resources and ecosystem characteristics in tourist areas has taken place. An ENPAT is being developed to support planners, developers and (potential) product owners to optimise their project development proposals.

    Various GIS data sets on natural resources and ecosystem characteristics have been completed, such as the National Land Cover data set, the South African Terrain Inventory, the South African Bird Atlas and Ramsar Sites.

    Availability of information on sustainable tourism is presently dependent on negotiation. A WWW Site is being considered.

    Attention is being given at regional level to develop guidelines and indicators, e.g. The Transkei Wild Coast.

    Research and Technologies  

    South Africa is considering to investigate technology-related issues that need to be or are being addressed, such as those associated with transportation, provision of freshwater, sewage and waste disposal, bulk infrastructure, appropriate technical and maintenance processes and procedures, engines and motors, equipment, maintenance implements, vehicles and commercialised wildlife management.


    Formulation of guidelines is primarily funded by the government from the national budget.

    Cooperation  A number of ‘model sustainable tourism destinations’ are reportedly being developed through different initiatives. These destinations have not yet been appraised for the purpose by Government and, accordingly, can not officially be declared as such.

    Cooperation with Local Authorities or private sector in promoting sustainable tourism has not yet been initiated, but is inevitable in the future.

    South Africa participates in the Conference of the Parties to the Convention of Biological Diversity in terms of the Berlin Declaration on Biological Diversity and Sustainable Tourism, as well as in the formulation of guidelines for Tourism Environmental Assessment by the Secretariat for Eastern African Coastal Area Management.

    * * *

    This information is based on South Africa's submission to the 6th and 7th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: December 1998.

    For access to the White Paper On Development and Promotion of Tourism in South Africa, click here:For information on wildlife and tourism from the South African Communication Service WWW Page, click here:

    | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |

    | South Africa | All Countries | Home |

    CIA Says Pelosi Was Briefed on Use of 'Enhanced Interrogations' | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    By Paul KaneIntelligence officials released documents this evening saying that House Speaker Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif.) was briefed in September 2002 about the use of harsh interrogation tactics against al-Qaeda prisoners, seemingly contradicting her repeated statements over the past 18 months that she was never told that these techniques were actually being used.

    In a 10-page memo outlining an almost seven-year history of classified briefings, intelligence officials said that Pelosi and then-Rep. Porter Goss (R-Fla.) were the first two members of Congress ever briefed on the interrogation tactics. Then the ranking member and chairman of the House Intelligence Committee, respectively, Pelosi and Goss were briefed Sept. 4, 2002, one week before the first anniversary of the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

    The memo, issued by the Director of National Intelligence and the Central Intelligence Agency to Capitol Hill, notes the Pelosi-Goss briefing covered "EITs including the use of EITs on Abu Zubaydah." EIT is an acronym for enhanced interrogation technique. Zubaydah was one of the earliest valuable al-Qaeda members captured and the first to have the controversial tactic known as water boarding used against him.

    The issue of what Pelosi knew and when she knew it has become a matter of heated debate on Capitol Hill. Republicans have accused her of knowing for many years precisely the techniques CIA agents were using in interrogations, and only protesting the tactics when they became public and liberal antiwar activists protested.

    In a carefully worded statement, Pelosi's office said today that she had never been briefed about the use of waterboarding, only that it had been approved by Bush administration lawyers as a legal technique to use in interrogations.

    "As this document shows, the Speaker was briefed only once, in September 2002. The briefers described these techniques, said they were legal, but said that waterboarding had not yet been used," said Brendan Daly, Pelosi's spokesman.

    Pelosi's statement did not address whether she was informed that other harsh techniques were already in use during the Zubaydah interrogations.

    In December 2007 the Washington Post reported that leaders of the House and Senate intelligence committees had been briefed in the fall of 2002 about waterboarding -- which simulates drowning -- and other techniques, and that no congressional leaders protested its use. At the time Pelosi said she was not told that waterboarding was being used, a position she stood by repeatedly last month when the Bush-era Justice Department legal documents justifying the interrogation tactics were released by Attorney General Eric Holder.

    The new memo shows that intelligence officials were willing to share the information about waterboarding with only a sharply closed group of people. Three years after the initial Pelosi-Goss briefing, Bush officials still limited interrogation technique briefings to just the chairman and ranking member of the House and Senate intelligence committees, the so-called Gang of Four in the intelligence world.

    In October 2005, CIA officials began briefing other congressional leaders with oversight of the intelligence community, including top appropriators who provided the agency its annual funding. Sen. John McCain (R-Ariz.), a prisoner-of-war in Vietnam and an opponent of torture techniques, was also read into the program at that time even though he did not hold a special committee position overseeing the intelligence community.

    A bipartisan collection of lawmakers have criticized the practice of limiting information to just the "Gang of Four", who were expressly forbidden from talking about the information from other colleagues, including fellow members of the intelligence committees. Pelosi and others are considering reforms that would assure a more open process for all committee members.

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