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C9560-659 - Fundamentals of Applying IBM SmartCloud Control Desk V1 - BrainDump Information

Vendor Name : IBM
Exam Code : C9560-659
Exam Name : Fundamentals of Applying IBM SmartCloud Control Desk V1
Questions and Answers : 105 Q & A
Updated On : January 22, 2019
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C9560-659 exam Dumps Source : Fundamentals of Applying IBM SmartCloud Control Desk V1

Test Code : C9560-659
Test Name : Fundamentals of Applying IBM SmartCloud Control Desk V1
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 105 Real Questions

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Ex-employee accuses IBM of ‘longstanding and pervasive’ age discrimination | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

A former IBM sales director has sued the Armonk-primarily based expertise gigantic for age discrimination, claiming she was fired as part of a pattern of changing older personnel with millennials.

ibm age discriminationTerry Keebaugh, 57, of Alpharetta, Georgia, was fired in 2016, based on the complaint filed Dec. 21 in federal courtroom in White Plains, one month earlier than she become due to bring together $573,000 in commissions. She acquired $20,000 as a substitute.

“IBM’s age discrimination is longstanding and pervasive,” the grievance states, “considering 2012, IBM has carried out age-primarily based reorganizations twice a 12 months, sending loyal IBMers over age 50 to the reducing block while sparing more youthful personnel.”

IBM did not respond to an e-mail request for remark.

Keebaugh started with IBM in 1984 and labored her method up from a advertising and marketing consultant to a client director on giant money owed. She changed into assigned to disparate industries, from communications to economic functions and eventually to shuttle and transportation. each and every time, the complaint states, she taught herself the talents integral to serve her customers.

The grievance describes overseas company Machines as the biggest tips technology business enterprise on earth, with 366,300 personnel.

historically, in line with a ProPublica article posted in March and mentioned in the lawsuit, IBM became general for terrific wages and “something close to lifetime employment, all in return for unswerving loyalty.”

however fierce world competitors within the Nineties put drive on the business to trim its staff and fees. Keebaugh traces the latest practices to Virginia Rometty, who became CEO in 2012.

That yr, in keeping with the lawsuit, Rometty implemented age-primarily based reorganizations twice a yr, through which hundreds of high performers over age 50 have been laid off.

“Rometty’s vision for IBM is a group of workers made from 75 p.c millennials,” Keebaugh claims.

IBM allegedly desires to shed older people, in response to the grievance, who the business thinks lack the talents necessary to create and sell new products and functions, such as cloud computing.

ProPublica calculated that IBM has eliminated greater than 20,000 U.S. personnel, forty or older, during the past 5 years. Keebaugh claims that the older workers are changed with younger people who fill the equal or identical positions.

Keebaugh was even assigned to work on the Millennial project drive, in 2015. She noticed that younger replacements were now not being educated to serve purchasers who still relied on mainframe computer systems, “the main technology used by means of hospitals, fiscal institutions, airports and coverage corporations.”

She proposed making a database of best practices, for working towards new employees in dealing with costly mainframe issues. Her idea resulted in a “cognitive solution” patent utility.

On Aug. 30, 2016, IBM gave her an invention an success award for her patent application.

the following day, her boss sent her a letter pointing out that she was being fired as part of a “competencies transformation plan,” based on the lawsuit.

She became informed that she had been rated as the “lowest of the low” in advantage in comparison with  her peers. but the business, she alleges, would now not identify how or to whom she was being compared.

She claims she had under no circumstances been warned, placed on probation or admonished for poor sales or substandard abilities before the September letter. basically, she states she had obtained the maximum rating possible in her last annual efficiency evaluate and her boss had praised her for providing “the ideal consequences within the sector for the 12 months.”

In 2015, she had greater than doubled revenues from a new client, from $65 million to $135 million. When she changed into fired a yr later, the grievance states, she had more than $one hundred million in contracts that had been expected to shut in a month.

Keebaugh says she became replaced with a younger worker who she claims has struggled to serve a key client and has generated much less income.

She alleges that IBM shifted its reason for why she was fired after she filed an age discrimination complaint with the Equal Employment opportunity fee in 2017. Now, she says, IBM says she became fired as a result of poor income in more moderen items, together with cloud, analytics, cell, protection and social applied sciences.  Yet, she claims, her closing performance evaluate stated her talents in the newer applied sciences.

Keebaugh straight away landed a new job, in accordance with her LinkedIn profile, as a enterprise construction executive with Tata Consultancy services in Atlanta.

In paying her $20,000 in commissions for 2016, she claims IBM cheated her out of greater than $550,000. She also says she turned into disadvantaged of future inventory awards that had earned her $60,000 to $a hundred and twenty,000 a yr, and $15,000 in a 401(k) company contribution.

Her lawsuit is in keeping with alleged violations of the federal Age Discrimination in Employment Act and the new york State Human Rights legislations. She is asking the court docket to direct IBM to take her again and pay her for the lost wages, commissions and different benefits.

She is represented through long island attorneys Anne C. Vladeck and Allison L. Van Kampen.

in preference to treatment the issue, she states within the complaint’s introduction, IBM has been standing by means of its discriminatory practices, “thereby ignoring a clear need for change in what may forever be remembered only as a “morally bankrupt” institution.


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abstract

IBM Multi-Cloud records Encryption takes a raid like method, helping agencies distribute encryption and centralized management to offer protection to delicate information in a single cloud, multiple clouds, and in hybrid environments. Its flexibility supports cloud IaaS scenarios and improves manageability.

IBM’s Multi-Cloud records Encryption is FIPS one hundred forty-2 compliant and presents its consumers the flexibility to opt for encryption agent kinds in response to their workloads. IBM introduced object shop encryption, storing facts in S3-primarily based AWS storage. This makes statistics recovery simpler and allows for migration of encrypted information across distinctive clouds beneath MDE management. MDE prevents unauthorized access with the aid of working system privilege escalation and transient coverage suspension with kill switch availability. Re-reviewing of audit logs in the adventure of a suspected breach effort is supported.

The installation and setup part is a prolonged method seeing that there are usually a number of machines to setup, average for any on-premises answer. We like that MDE offers both windows and Linux assist, corresponding to RHEL and CentOS7. The setup documentation turned into handy to observe.

IBM’s Multi-Cloud facts Encryption makes it possible for for the encryption of volumes of statistics, statistics saved in object stores, and particular files with particular guidelines. there's a tremendous volume of capacity and centrally managed guidelines. For directors, after logging in you are going to see a clear, essential dashboard showing lately prompted hobbies. The account view suggests roles and administrator forms, permitting for separation of responsibility. personnel are simplest given access quintessential to function particular job capabilities. No single administrator can unilaterally make changes. This will also be entirely custom-made to require differing numbers of directors for distinctive moves before committing those changes to the gadget.

coverage keys are true-level encryption used to wrap statistics encryption keys kept on the information administration aspect. These are generated, managed, and maintained internally, but may also be exported externally for off-web site key storage. This bolsters safety by isolating keys from information. Keys can be revoked, cryptographically erasing all associated records.

processes, selectors, path sets, and datatypes are all totally customizable. Selectors are particular clients or agencies that will also be granted entry. course units are where facts lives. Datatypes are permissions assigned to the selectors. To create a coverage, select a particular path and alter the datatype and selectors in keeping with your favored response to certain alterations. if you are attempting to entry disks, the device will no longer supply you entry because you don't seem to be using the whitelisted application.

this might be valuable in case your administrator account was compromised. in case you were using a whitelist coverage on properly of an encryption coverage, there would be no way for any provider account to threaten the average ecosystem, notwithstanding it become compromised. as far as encryption goes, IBM’s MDE has distinctive file varieties: file, object, and storage. that you can encrypt quantity disks, or partition. This encryption is the most powerful commercially attainable encryption on the market these days (AES 256).

IBM offers SIEM integration and reporting and can ship unauthorized access makes an attempt to an exterior SIEM like QRadar or Splunk for precise-time alerting and evaluation. All consumers want chronic access to included supplies during and after a number of failure situations. Contingency plans prolong beyond server hardware and utility. crucial records have to be attainable, in spite of environmental circumstance and there are lots of advantages of a particularly purchasable MDE ambiance: software stage clustering eliminates single features of failure within the management console; automated selections of accessible cluster members for brand spanking new connection requests; utilization of database clustering; and, typical database ensures all cluster nodes have access to updated advice.

many of the products accessible come from legacy utility, or an on-premises background answer tailored for the cloud. MDE was born within the cloud with the theory consumers could have comprehensive control on the place they need things to be. The capability of object keep encryption gives the skills of affordable storage within the cloud, with out compromising security. records is split, as a way to decrypt it, cloud providers would should ruin into Amazon and Azure, and gain entry to the corresponding encryption keys.

MDE offers the skill to deploy object keep gateways that, under access guidelines, encrypt information earlier than being sent to object shop repositories equivalent to AWS S3, Azure, or IBM Cloud Object shop. shoppers needn't count on a single cloud object save and might movement cloud carrier providers at their amusement with out it being a drawn out and complicated technique.

demonstrated with the aid of: Matthew Hreben




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C9560-659 exam Dumps Source : Fundamentals of Applying IBM SmartCloud Control Desk V1

Test Code : C9560-659
Test Name : Fundamentals of Applying IBM SmartCloud Control Desk V1
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Fundamentals of Applying IBM SmartCloud Control Desk V1

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Ask HN: Who is hiring? (April 2014) | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Ask HN: Who is hiring? (April 2014) 337 points by whoishiring on Apr 1, 2014 | hide | past | web | favorite | 531 comments Please lead with the location of the position and include the keywords INTERN, REMOTE, or VISA if the corresponding sort of candidate is welcome. Feel free to post any job that may interest HN readers from executive assistant to machine learning expert to CTO.

Also see: Ask HN: Freelancer? Seeking freelancer? (April 2014) http://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=7507753


What's New in Windows Server 2003 and ProLiant Architecture and Tools | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

There probably hasn't been a time in the modern era of computing where there was more widespread concern for security. Only a few years ago, security was one of those dark corners of the industry for hard-core types, but largely ignored by most of us. Today, securing computing resources ripples from the largest corporation to the most computer-illiterate home consumer, trying to prevent sophisticated hackers not only from infecting their computers with destructive viruses, but also from stealing information or using their computer as an ad hoc server.

NOTE

Jan de Clercq of HP's Security Office provided much of the technical information and technical review of this section. Jan is one of HP's leading security experts. I highly recommend his new book, Windows Server 2003 Security Infrastructures, Digital Press, 2004.

Windows 2000 made some huge strides in securing the computing environment with features such as Kerberos for authentication and authorization, IP Security (IPSec) for remote access security, and the Encrypted File System (EFS) for protecting sensitive data. Windows NT and 2000 provided Certificate Services, which gave Administrators the ability to install their own CA and secure the certificates in their enterprise inexpensively, enticing smaller companies to implement Public Key Infrastructures (PKI).

Security issues always provide room for improvement, and Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP have taken a step forward in a number of areas. Think of XP as a Windows 2003 client—they both have very similar and compatible features. Significant security feature improvements in Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 include

The following sections provide a brief description of each issue. Refer to Jan de Clercq's books listed in the "References" section at the end of the chapter for more information.

Also known as SAFER, these policies are Microsoft's first attempt to provide stronger cryptographic compliance with Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) 140-1. FIPS determines whether products meet the standard and evaluates overall security provided by a cryptosystem. The kernel mode driver, FIPS.SYS, supports EFS (efs.sys), IPSec (ipsec.sys), and other crypto functions. Although this is only a level 1 compliance intended for general PC use, it is nonetheless a start. The idea with SAFER policies is to provide the Administrator the ability to grant granular client-level security policies to restrict the access to read, write, or execute software on computers.

Because the "How To" basics of configuring these policies are reasonably well documented in the Microsoft KB 324036 article "How to use Software Restriction Policies in Windows Server 2003," I'll use the space here to describe some important concepts and implementation recommendations.

Software Restriction Policies is implemented through GPO settings located in the GPO tree Computer Configuration\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Software Restriction Policies, and in User Configuration\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Software Restriction Policies. When you drill down to this location on a new policy, a warning appears in the right pane of the GPO Editor, "No Software Restriction Policies Defined," as shown in Figure 1.23. Right-click on the Software Restriction Policies in the left pane and click New Software Restriction Policies. You will then see two folders titled Security Levels and Additional Rules. Security Levels defines a high-level access policy, whereas Additional Rules allows you to define specific rules, including the following:

Think of Security Levels as the locked condition on the front door to a building. There are two options (look in the Security Levels folder in the GPO): Disallowed and Unrestricted. The Disallowed option locks the front door and requires all who enter to provide proper credentials. No public access. Employees with ID badges only. The Unrestricted option leaves the front door unlocked, allowing anyone to enter the building. Inside the building are special rooms (programs and files on the PC) that also have locks on the door. These locks are the four classes of rules described in the previous section. If the front door is Disallowed, then you don't get access unless you can prove you have access to a room in the building. The guard escorts you to that room (or rooms), but you can't go anywhere else. This obviously is a high-security condition. If the front door is set to Unrestricted, anyone can walk in and roam through the building and enter any room that is not locked. However, if a room is locked (that is, a rule has been created to restrict access to a program), you have to be granted specific access to get in. I recommend, as does Microsoft's KB 310791 article "Description of the Software Restriction Policies in Windows XP," you use the Unrestricted option because it simply locks out certain files and programs. Unrestricted is the default. Setting the Disallowed mode, unless it is in a very controlled environment, will generate a lot of help desk calls if it's not well planned and tested.

These are the keys to the rooms—the exceptions to the lockout. Note that four Registry path policies are created by default in the Additional Rules folder. Figure 1.24 shows the default Registry path rules, as viewed in the GPMC. They are all defined as Unrestricted and are applied to

The purpose of these policies is to permit access to critical directory space when you've set the Security Level to Disallowed. These policies allow access to areas like c:\> Program files.

Figure 1.24Figure 1.24 The additional rules defined by default in Software Restriction Policies are shown using the GPMC snap-in.

So far these rules seem fairly straightforward. If you want to put the admin pack on every PC, but restrict users from running it, you set the SAFER policy to Unrestricted, and then create a path policy to restrict domain users from executing it. Pretty simple until you get multiple rules defined in multiple policies and perhaps in a combination of User and Computer Configuration settings.

NOTE

The description of functionality described here is based on my experience and testing and asking questions of Microsoft PSS. I have not seen any Microsoft documentation to confirm or deny these assertions. Your mileage may vary, so be sure you test these policies before implementing.

If multiple Software Restriction Policies are defined, things get complicated. Several design rules apply to the application of these policies. Understanding them is critical to obtaining the desired results.

  • Closest match applies the rule. That is, if Rule 1 allows access to c:\*.exe and Rule 2 denies access to C:\payrollapp.exe, then the user would be unable to run payrollapp.exe because Rule 2 is a closer match to the program being run.

  • Most restrictive rules apply. Apply most-restrictive path rules further down in the directory tree than less-restrictive ones.

  • Rules are processed in the following order:

  • Security Level (highest priority)

  • Hash

  • Certificate

  • Path

  • Internet Zone rule

  • Default rules

  • Software Restriction Policies accumulate from multiple GPOs and are evaluated together. They do not obey normal SDOU (Site Domain Organizational Unit) processing of GPOs, and they can be applied at the Computer and User Configuration sections of each GPO.

  • Security Levels determine how the Additional Rules are defined. If the Security Level is Unrestricted, the Additional Rules should be designed to restrict access. If the Security Level is Disallowed, the Additional Rules should be designed to allow access.

  • Software restriction policies—especially when setting general categories (such as entire directories) to be disallowed—can have unexpected results. For instance, disallowing access to *.vbs to prevent virus deposited files from running can also restrict access to logon scripts and other valid scripts.

  • Always thoroughly test these policies.

  • Define the policies in individual GPOs. This makes them easier to manage and troubleshoot.

  • Avoid applying Software Restriction Policies from multiple locations (domains and OUs) if possible. Applying them from fewer locations makes the results easier to predict and troubleshoot.

  • To restrict Administrators from a Software Restriction Policy defined in User Configuration, restrict the appropriate Administrators' accounts and/or groups by removing the Apply Group Policy directly on the GPO.

  • To restrict Administrators from a Software Restriction Policy defined in Computer Configuration, you can remove the Apply Group Policy directly from the appropriate user or group, or you can go to Computer Configuration\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Software Restriction Policies\Enforcement. In the Enforcement Properties page, under the Apply Software Restriction policies to the following users, select All Users Except Local Administrators.

  • Make certain you have not inadvertently restricted access to valid files such as logon scripts and directories and files that should be scanned by antivirus programs. Testing should expose these types of flaws.

  • Evaluation of these policies at this time seems like a bit of black magic. As of this writing, Microsoft had not seen a lot of customers using these policies, but in the work I've done with the policies, I've found they are difficult to design and it's difficult to get the desired results if you have a lot of them. Again, adding complexity to these policies results in a high probability of failure, so you must test them thoroughly. You can apply them to User Config and Computer Config on multiple levels (domain and OU), and then have them all sorted by rule precedence, closest match, and most restrictive. Keep these GPOs in as few domains and OUs as possible, keep the rules simple and well planned, and avoid applying them to both User Config and Computer Config in the GPO.

    Sample Rules

    Let's look at a couple of examples of rules. Suppose we have six policies defined in a Domain SAFER Policy defined at the domain:

  • Security Level: Unrestricted

  • Hash Rule 1: hash of Payroll.exe (v4.2) set to Unrestricted

  • Hash Rule 2: hash of Payroll.exe (v4.1) set to Disallowed

  • Certificate Rule 1: Applications Certificate set to Unrestricted

  • Path Rule 1: C:\RestrictedApps set to Disallowed

  • Path Rule 2: C:\RestrictedApps\*.exe set to Unrestricted

  • Using these rules, a user attempting to run the following programs would have these results:

  • User runs the program: C:\restrictedApps\Payroll.exe (v4.1).

  • Security Level set to Unrestricted allows access.

    Path Rule 1 allows access.

    Hash Rule 1 disallows access.

    Certificate Rule 1 applies because this app was digitally signed by the certificate owned by the Applications group and is set to Unrestricted.

    Result: Hash Rule 2 applies because it is most specific (denies access to the exact file name, whereas the others refer to directories or groups of files). Access is granted.

  • User runs the program: C:\restrictedApps\backupfiles.exe.

  • Security Level set to Unrestricted allows access.

    Path Rule 1 disallows access to C:\restrictedApps.

    Path Rule 2 allows access to C:\restrictedApps\*.exe.

    Result: Because Path Rule 1 denies access to the directory, Path Rule 2 never applies. Access is denied. Remember that the most-restrictive path rules should be applied deeper in the tree than the least-restrictive ones.

  • Suppose the same rules are defined, but the Security Level is set to Disallowed. Path Rule 1 and Hash Rule 2 are not needed because the Security Level is set to Disallowed. With that setting, all you need to do is define rules to allow access to programs that you want the user to access.

    Microsoft has attempted to help with some exceptions to these rules. In the Software Restriction Policies folder in the GPO, you'll see three policies besides the two folders. These policies are

  • Enforcement: Allows you to exclude .dlls from restricted programs, and to exclude local admins.

  • Designated File Types: By default, policies only apply to normal executable types, such as .exe, .dll, and .vbs. This option allows you to add other types to it, such as .bat, .cmd, .msi, and others, including a blank so you can add one that isn't in the list.

  • Trusted Publishers: Defines users who can choose trusted publishers (for certificates).

  • In summary of Software Restriction Policies, I'd say to use them very carefully and only after extensive testing so you understand what the ramifications are. They have some value in the security configuration of the enterprise, but they are complex and can create a lot of problems if you aren't careful.

    Some good resources for SAFER policies include the Microsoft whitepaper, and Jeremy Moskowitz's Group Policy, Profiles and IntelliMirror for Windows 2003, Windows XP, and Windows 2000, Sybex, March 2004.

    Internet Connection (Personal) Firewall

    Also referred to as the Personal Firewall, this feature is provided with Windows XP as built-in protection for each computer. It isn't the most secure firewall, but it's probably sufficient for casual home users. If firewalls are implemented elsewhere, the personal firewall in XP is usually required to not be enabled. To enable the Internet Connection Firewall, open a network connection's Properties page, go to the Advanced tab, and select the Protect My Computer and Network by Limiting or Preventing Access to this Computer from the Internet check box. Click the Settings button to access the Advanced Settings pane, shown in Figure 1.25 to configure advanced settings, including

  • Services: Allows you to select services such as FTP, Telnet, HTTP, and Remote Desktop that the users of this computer are allowed to access. Default is no access. So if you turn this firewall on and can't get to a Web site, the reason is probably wasn't enabled.

  • Security Logging: Allows configuring options to log dropped packets and successful connections (or not), to specify a log file name and location (default is %systemroot%\pfirewall.log), and to set a log file size limit.

  • ICMP: Permits configuring of ICMP traffic, such as Allow Incoming Echo Request, Allow Outgoing Search Request, Allow Incoming Router Request, and other options. By default, all are disabled.

  • NOTE

    Windows XP Service Pack 2 enables the Internet Connection Firewall by default.

    EFS (Encrypting File System) Enhancements

    Although Windows 2000 EFS brought a level of security to local files, it had a number of deficiencies:

  • Stealing a local account password is easy using common hacker tools in standalone mode.

  • Encrypted files stored on file servers are decrypted on the server and then transported in clear text across the network to the user's workstation. Because EFS needs access to the user's private key, which is held in the profile, the server must be "trusted for delegation" and have access to the user's local profile.

  • Inability to share EFS encrypted files.

  • Figure 1.25Figure 1.25 Internet Connection Firewall Advanced Settings enable you to define what the user is allowed to do.

    EFS has been enhanced in Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 to support sharing of encrypted files. Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003, and Windows XP all store the EFS metadata in the NTFS. Thus, encrypted files on NTFS volumes in Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003. Sharing an encrypted file is enabled by opening the file's Properties page, clicking the Advanced button, and selecting the Details button in the Advanced Attributes area. You can add users who you want to share the file with to the list.

    Note that EFS file sharing is set at the file level—not the folder level——and inheritance of EFS file-sharing metadata is not supported.

    Another option for sharing encrypted files in Windows Server 2003 is to use Web folders. Windows Server 2003's support for the transport of EFS metadata using the WebDAV protocol, an extension of HTTP 1.1, makes Web folders an excellent alternative to sharing files on file servers, and is recommended by Microsoft. WebDAV is supported on IE v5.0 on the client and IIS v5.0 and later on the server. For more information about WebDAV, see the WebDAV Resources FAQs at http://www.webdav.org/other/faq.html.

    To configure a Web folder on the server running IIS, go to the properties sheet of the encrypted file (or any file), go to the Web Sharing tab, and select the Share this Folder option. Table 1.5 provides a side-by-side comparison of features between the Web folders and File Shares.

    Table 1.5 Comparison of EFS Features Between File Shares and Web Folders

    Remote EFS Operations On . . .

    . . . File Shares

    . . . Web Folders

    Where does EFS encryption/decryption occur?

    Files are encrypted and decrypted on the file server.

    Files are encrypted and decrypted on the user machine.

    Are the files secured during transmission over the network?

    Files are sent in the clear over the network connection.

    Files remain encrypted while being sent over the network connection.

    What technology is or can be used to secure the transmission of the files over the network?

    Requires IPSec to secure the file transfer between file server and user machine.

    Does not require IPSec to secure the file transfer; relies on the WebDAV EFS extensions to securely transmit the file.

    Must the file server be "trusted for delegation?"

    Requires file server to be "trusted for delegation."

    Does not require file server to be "trusted for delegation."

    Does the solution require a copy of the user profile on the file server?

    Requires availability of user profile on the file server (local or roaming profile).

    Does not require availability of user profile on the file server.

    Where does the EFS file-sharing authorization process take place for users?

    EFS checks for other user certificates on the file server and/or in the AD

    EFS checks for other user certificates on the local machine and/or in the AD.

    (Table reprinted by permission from Jan de Clercq, Hewlett-Packard Company.)

    Credential Manager

    Single Sign On (SSO) capability has been a frequent request from users and Administrators who find it challenging to keep track of all the credentials needed to log on to the domain, or use Microsoft Passport credentials and Smart Card credentials. Managers who must keep getting validated to perform administrative tasks on various computers also have requested this capability. Windows Server 2003 introduces Credential Manager, a client-based SSO solution that uses an intelligent credential-caching mechanism that keeps credentials in a store on the client, requiring the user to provide a single username/password to open the store. Credentials in the store can consist of a user account and password; a user account, certificate, and private key (which can be stored on a smart card); or Microsoft Passport credentials.

    The credential store is part of the user profile and supports roaming and can optionally be disabled by the Administrator via the GPO. This is done by opening a GPO and going to Windows Settings\Security Settings\Local Policies\Security Options and enabling the option Network Access: do not allow storage of credentials or .NET Passports for network authentication.

    This feature is available in Windows Server 2003, Windows XP Pro, and Windows XP Home operating systems.

    Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Improvements

    Microsoft provided an out-of-the-box, user-defined and administered CA in the Windows NT 4.0 Option pack. This might not have been the most effective and robust product on the market, but it was cheap (and was included at no extra cost with Windows 2000). This allowed small- and medium-size companies, who couldn't afford the high cost of third-party companies such as VeriSign and Entrust, to fortify their security systems. However, according to one of HP's security experts, consultant Jan de Clercq, "ease of use and security don't easily coexist." But considering the improvements made in Windows Server 2003 security features, especially in the PKI arena, Jan stated that "Given the low cost and the advanced PKI features of Windows.NET, it may be a product that will bring PKI to the masses." Let's see what features are now available to make this possible.

    Cross Certification Trust Model

    Windows 2000 used a hierarchical CA trust model, shown in Figure 1.26, whereby the parent (root) CA was linked to the child (subordinate) CA by trusts. Only one root CA can be in the forest, and the only way to configure it to trust certificates issued by other CAs in other forests was to reconfigure the entire CA structure using Certificate Trust Lists. This might be desirable in multiforest enterprises or to link extranets.

    Note that the CA hierarchy is not specifically tied to the domain hierarchy. Rather, it might more appropriately be associated with geographies of the enterprise to provide accessible CAs to users and computers in each geography.

    Windows Server 2003 introduces the Cross Certification trust model, which allows CAs in different organizations (forests) to trust each other and is in addition to the subordinate trust model. The Cross Certification model permits the Administrator some freedom in configuring the trust relationships with the extranet partners, by specifying whether it is a one-way or two-way trust, and by controlling the issuance and usage scope of the CA agreement via naming constraint, application, and issuance policy rules.

    Cross certification provides the ability to create transitive cross forest trusts, as described in the "Creating a Cross Forest Trust" section in this chapter.

    Figure 1.26Figure 1.26 Hierarchical CA structure with the root (enterprise) CA at the top and subordinate (issuing) CAs below.

    Editable Certificate Templates (v2)

    Windows 2000 provided v1 certificate templates that were not editable. Windows 2003 provides v2 templates that are editable and include a mechanism to modify v1 templates and convert them to v2. The v2 templates facilitate cross certification and policy enforcement, which allows configuration of certificate trust relationships across forest boundaries. This could be trusts to CAs in other forests within the company or to a CA in a business partner's extranet. This also allows a CA to issue certificates to a CA in another forest and can link a policy to this cross certification. The policy can limit the issuance and usage scope of the CA cross- certification agreement.

    A new Certificate Templates snap-in is included in Certificate Services for Windows Server 2003, as shown in Figure 1.27. Note that the icons for v1 and v2 templates are a different color, the Minimum Supported column identifies v2 templates as Windows 2003 and Auto Enrollment functionality is listed. This snap-in is used to modify Version 2 templates to perform the following functions:

  • Create a new template, modify an existing template, or duplicate an existing template.

  • Modify template properties such as certificate lifetime, renewal period, whether it is published in AD, Issuance Requirements such as re-enrollment, extensions, and other properties.

  • Define accounts that can enroll and autoenroll a certificate template.

  • Enable a template for Autoenrollment.

  • Set which accounts can enroll and auto-enroll for a particular certificate template. This is done by right-clicking on a template, selecting its properties and modifying the template's Access Control List (ACL) in the "security" tab. Windows.NET ACLs contain an Access Control Entry (ACE) for "Enroll" and "AutoEnroll."

  • Figure 1.27Figure 1.27 Certificate Template snap-in.

    NOTE

    You can copy and save a v1 template as a v2 template and then configure it as desired. You also can select the Duplicate Template option when you right-click on the template in the Certificate Templates snap-in, which will make a duplicate and give you a head start on creating a similar one.

    Private Key Recovery

    Windows Server 2003 PKI made significant changes to the key recovery process, providing centralized key recovery services. An important component to this process is the Key Recovery Agent—usually one or more Administrators who have the ability to recover encrypted files, by means of a special public key stored in an EFS Recovery Agent certificate. The key recovery data is stored in the CA database. A user's archived private key is encrypted using a symmetric key, which is encrypted using a Key Recovery Agent's public key. These keys are stored in the CA database in the RawArchivedKey and KeyRecoveryHashes columns, respectively.

    To recover a user's private key, an Administrator must be added to the Recovery Agent list. The preparation for the Key Recovery process includes the following steps:

  • Issue the EFS Recovery Agent certificate to an Administrator.

  • Create a GPO called EFS Recovery, for example.

  • In the GPO, go to Computer Configuration\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Public Key Policies\Encrypting File System. Define an EFS Policy. Select the Add a Recovery Agent option and add a user account that has the EFS recovery certificate (from step 2).

  • In the Certificate Authority snap-in, in the RootCA properties, select the Recovery Agents tab. Select the Archive the Key option and select the Add button. Select the Key Recovery Agent certificate in the next dialog box.

  • NOTE

    Multiple Administrators can be designated as Recovery Agents so that both public keys are required to recover private keys for an added measure of security.

    This four-step process will recover a private key in Windows Server 2003:

  • The Administrator who has the Recovery Agent rights (key) must know the User Principal Name (UPN) or serial number of the certificate whose private key he wants to recover.

    certutil –getkey <serial number or UPN> <outputfile>

    This exports the recovery data from the CA database.

  • From a command prompt, run the command:

    certutil –recoverkey <outputfile> <pkcs12file>

    This will convert the output file in a PKCS12 format and could store it on a floppy disk.

  • From a command prompt, run the command:

  • The PKCS12 file is provided to the appropriate user, who can then import it in his certificate store.

  • Enhanced Security Management—Effective Permissions Tab

    The Effective Permissions tab displays the cumulative permissions calculated from group membership and any inherited permissions, and displays the result applied to a given user. This is part of the Advanced Settings on the ACL properties page. For instance, right-click on an NTFS folder, go to Properties, select the Security tab, and then select the Advanced button. In the Effective Permissions tab, shown in Figure 1.28, you see a cumulative summary of all permissions applied to that user on that object.

    User Autoenrollment

    Windows 2000 Certificate Services provided a valuable feature in the autoenrollment and renewal of machine certificates. This allowed DCs to obtain and renew certificates. Windows Server 2003 now provides autoenrollment of users. You can do this in a Certificate Template by going to the Properties of the template, and then on the Security tab, giving Autoenroll the READ privilege. You also can enable it via Group Policy, as shown in Figure 1.29. In Computer Configuration\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Public Key Policies, check the Enroll Certificates Automatically option.

    Kerberos and Forest Trusts

    Windows 2000 was unable to create a transitive trust between forests, allowing only a one-way NTLM type trust that had to be created between individual domains in different forests—much like what we had to do in Windows NT to build trusts between all domains. Interestingly enough, this actually has a side benefit—because this type of trust can't be used by Kerberos, it solves a migration problem known as the "Pile On" issue, described in Chapter 3. Other than that, an NTLM trust isn't a good thing because it requires the Administrator to manage a lot of trusts between forests.

    Windows Server 2003 includes schema modifications made to the trusted domain object (TDO), which allows Kerberos to authenticate across the domain. This provides transitive trusts to be built across forests. That is, we create a trust between two forests, (one way or two way) and no other trust is needed. The Administrator does have some control over the trust, in making it a one-way trust or a two-way trust, and determining the default level of authentication that is allowed between forests (described in more detail in the next section).

    Figure 1.28Figure 1.28 Effective Permissions tab.

    Figure 1.29Figure 1.29 Using Group Policy to enable autoenrollment of users.

    Creating a Cross Forest Trust

    The preparatory steps to creating a cross forest trust include establishing DNS name resolution between the two forests, synchronizing system time between all computers in both forests (easier than it sounds), and setting the forest functional level to Windows 2003 (native). Windows Server 2003 provides three different ways to establish DNS name resolution between the two forests:

  • Create a stub zone in the forest root of each forest, for the other forest.

  • Create a secondary zone in the forest root of each forest, for the other forest.

  • Set up a conditional forwarder on the DNS server that is authoritative for each root zone for the other forest.

  • Test name resolution by pinging the root domain name of each forest from the other forest. In addition, you must ensure that the system time of all computers in both forests is within the allowable Kerberos time skew (default is five minutes). If the time skew between the two DCs contacted to build the trust is more than the allowable time skew, the trust might be created successfully, but authentication will fail.

    NOTE

    There is no default time synchronization between two forests. Because Kerberos authentication, by default, requires the system time of all computers to be within five minutes of each other, ensure the time between forests is synchronized. It is recommended that you configure the PDC emulator of the root domain in each forest to synchronize with the same external time source. Time synchronization is configured by default for a forest, but not between forests. More information is available in the "Time Services" section of Chapter 6.

    Setting the forest functional level is described in Chapter 3. To do this, all DCs in every domain must be Windows 2003 servers, and the domain functionality must be set to Windows Server 2003 (referred to as native, though the word "native" is not used in the UI). After the domains are all raised to Windows 2003, the forest must be raised to Windows 2003 native—similar to the way Windows 2000 domains were raised to native mode, but Windows 2000 didn't have a forest native mode.

    After the forest is at Windows 2003 level, Time Services are synchronized, and DNS name resolution is established between the two forests, the trust can be created. You create the trust just as you did in Windows 2000 by going to the Active Directory Domains and Trusts snap-in, choosing Domain Properties, selecting the Trusts tab, and clicking New Trust. This engages the New Trust Wizard. Some of the options specified in the wizard are described here, along with screen shots of the dialog boxes used in the wizard.

  • Trust Type: Can create an External Trust (downlevel, nontransitive trust) between domains, or a Forest Trust (transitive, Kerberos) between forests. The dialog box is shown in Figure 1.30.

  • Figure 1.30Figure 1.30 The New Trust Wizard allows you to create an External (NTLM type) Trust or a Forest Trust (Kerberos transitive trust).

  • Trust Direction—Incoming: Users in the source domain can be authenticated in the target domain or forest (source domain is the trusted domain). The dialog box is shown in Figure 1.31.

  • Trust Direction—Outgoing: Users in the target domain or forest can be authenticated in the source domain or forest (source domain is the trusting domain).

  • Trust Direction—Two Way: Outgoing and incoming trust. Users in source and target domains or forests can be authenticated in each domain.

  • Authentication Level—Forest-wide Authentication: Users from the other forest are automatically authenticated in the local forest. Essentially this makes the authenticated users in the other forest included in the authenticated users in the local forest. This is appropriate for a company with a multiple forest deployment, and users from both forests are equally trusted for resources in each forest. They can be denied access by changing permissions just like a single forest implementation. This is defined for the ingoing and the outgoing trust separately. The dialog box is shown in Figure 1.32.

  • Figure 1.31Figure 1.31 The Trust Direction dialog box lets you specify whether the trust is incoming (trusted), outgoing (trusting), or two–way.

  • Authentication Level—Selective Authentication: This scope requires users to be specifically trusted to access any resource. This is appropriate for enterprises that have business partner extranets as separate forests and want to grant limited and specific access. This is defined for the incoming and the outgoing trust separately.

  • The wizard also gives you the ability to choose to verify the trust. I recommend that you do so. After the trust is created, you will be able to see users and groups of the other forest in the object picker to assign permissions to resources. For instance, in Figure 1.33, we have a share on a server in forest CorpB.Net, and in assigning permissions, the users and groups of forest CorpA.Net are available. Note that all you see in the locations option of the object picker is the remote forest with a triangle-like icon. Child domains in that forest, if any, are not exposed. However, entering user or group names (including the use of wild cards) in the object picker will find objects in any domain in the remote forest. For instance, if you entered Admin as the name in the object picker, it would return the Administrator account for all domains in the remote forest.

    Figure 1.32Figure 1.32 Authentication scope options allow you to specify the default authentication between two forests.

    Figure 1.33Figure 1.33 The object picker displays the trusted forest for assigning rights.

    The cross forest trust will be a valuable benefit to enterprises with multiple forest deployments. Where Windows 2000's NTLM trusts have made multiple forests prohibitive to manage, Windows Server 2003's cross forest trusts could easily make the multiple forest configuration feasible.

    Conclusion

    This is by no means a comprehensive dissertation on security or even Windows 2003 security, but it does give a good overview of the many improvements provided in Windows Server 2003. Hopefully, after reading these issues, you will have some area you want more information on that might affect your Windows infrastructure and should be included in the migration plan. I have the good fortune of getting much of this information from HP's Jan de Clercq, a recognized security expert and author of two books regarding PKI and other security issues in the Windows environment. I highly recommend Jan's latest book, Windows Server 2003 Security Infrastructures, Digital Press, 2004.


    Information security blueprint for architecture and systems | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    A formalized architecture diagrams how To handle the changing threat and regulatory environments.

    Every so often, something beastly crosses the desk of an enterprise security manager. Be it a digital disaster or a new regulatory mandate, these nasties have transformed a CISO's professional existence into a series of policy and process adjustments, and reallocations of resources.

    Any measure of standardization and repeatability becomes a welcome ally in warding off the effects of a shift in the threat or regulatory environment.

    Jim Brockett takes heed, but isn't fazed, by the sophistication of new phishing schemes or insider threats. Shifts in the landscape mean the senior vice president and CIO of Washington Trust Bank, a $3.5 billion regional commercial bank in the Pacific Northwest, reaches for the virtual blueprints of his security architecture. These steps are the foundation of his enterprise's security program, the pillars upon which customer and proprietary data is kept safe and auditors and the board of directors are satisfied.

    Brockett, his security teams and application developers, four years ago laid out the underpinnings of the bank's architecture. They established four areas of concentration overarching enough that they remain tried and true to this day. Underneath those four umbrellas is where the tweaks and transitions are made when a new threat or regulatory requirement commands attention.

    "It's important to have a talk about it and get it written down," Brockett says. "You're hit with a lot of different best practices, products and processes. Does it fit under one of our [steps]? If not, we don't do it."

    Gartner analyst Tom Scholtz estimates that a little more than half of the Global 2000 have formalized their security architectures and successfully integrated them with the enterprise architecture.

    "The more explicit driver for a security architecture is the need to become more consistent in your terminology, language, strategy, modeling and tools. A large part of what you're trying to achieve is the avoidance of duplication and get to the point where you leverage and reuse as much as possible," Scholtz says. "Formalizing an architecture demonstrates to stakeholders that the organization is serious about security."

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    Four Pillars, One ArchitectureFFIEC compliance is the latest challenge for Washington Trust. A Dec. 31, 2006 deadline mandated that banks conduct risk assessments of their online banking infrastructure and remediate any shortcomings, especially in the areas of strong authentication for consumers. Banks are spending millions on compliance with FFIEC, yet those with formalized architectures are taking on less water than those without a spelled-out strategy. They're able to roll in these requirements and beef up existing procedures without major overhauls. A periodic tweak of an existing architecture heads off compliance and threat anxiety.

    "Because of regulatory changes and laws like FFIEC and Gramm-Leach-Bliley, there was a lot of regulatory guidance that set precedent on IT best practices," Brockett says. "The thing I keep saying is that being in compliance isn't good enough. Every year there are projects and accomplishments that improve security and mitigate risks that exist. We want to get better at that every year."

    In 2003, the Washington Trust board of directors approved an architecture that addresses risk from a business point of view, rather than strictly from a technical standpoint. Brockett's team, in conjunction with security and a risk management committee, identified four areas of concentration to best combat the changing threat environment, address regulatory demands, and manage vendors and systems:

  • Information security
  • Vendor management
  • Business continuity/disaster recovery
  • Information and systems integrity
  • Under each heading, the bank has identified components such as policies, profiles and inventories, and procedures.

    "What we've had in place--this four-pillar framework--does not change. It's static. The changes are made within each pillar to monitor, measure and improve risk management," Brockett says. "We tweak and fine-tune components of the program as the threat environment evolves."

    For example, under information security, user and consumer electronic security banking policies are spelled out. Applications and IT infrastructure profiles are detailed here, and IT resources are inventoried. Reporting and monitoring procedures are explained, as are user account administration procedures and profile maintenance.

    With the architecture blueprinted, Brockett can prioritize threats and address them in a standardized, repeatable way that not only deals with today's problems, but lays a foundation for heading off tomorrow's problems.

    "Where we tend to have most vulnerabilities is with internal threats--people with legitimate authorization and access to systems and potentially defrauding us via legitimate access. That's where we are spending a lot of our time," Brockett says.

    Brockett's biggest step toward countering employee fraud was an endpoint security deployment (Cisco Clean-Access) that determined device integrity and forced policy on deficient devices. Washington Bank also monitors insider activity (NextSentry's ActiveSentry) on the desktop.

    The bank's architecture also includes its disaster recovery and business continuity plans, focusing on recovery information for each application and infrastructure component, plan testing and maintenance schedules, and notification procedures, among other components.

    Information and systems integrity puts in print change-management policies, including system configurations and coding. It also spells out who is authorized to make systems changes, when those changes may be made and with whose approval. Database profiles, change logs, system maintenance and the systems development lifecycles are stored here as well.

    Brockett's teams went so far as to blueprint policies for dealing with vendors, including the business risks posed by each vendor relationship. To help execute on the blueprints, Brockett has engaged business leaders to act as liaisons between IT and a business unit. These risk coordinators have no formal secu-rity backgrounds, but have responsibility in coordinating, implementing and communicating the security program drawn up in the architecture. The coordinators' performance is measured and bonuses are handed out based on effectiveness.

    "The benefit is that it gets everyone talking the same language," Brockett says of the bank's security architecture. "By having a documented framework, it gets everyone understanding where things fit and what we're trying to do."

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    Opportunistic ArchitectureUsed to be that security architectures were technical reference guides under which a security program is executed. But much the same way the responsibilities of a CISO are evolving to include risk management and an understanding of the business, architectures are similarly evolving.

    As with the approach Washington Trust Bank adopted, many security architectures now include policy structures, process information and information models.

    "Architectures can be a continuous set of models and templates that evolve and are used on a much more opportunistic basis where the main objective is to avoid reinventing the wheel with every new project," Gartner's Scholtz says. "You're able to formalize decisions and principles, so that the next time you develop a similar application, for example, you're not reinventing the wheel."

    Many organizations take a contrary approach where the architecture represents a desired state, and gap analyses are conducted to determine what new initiatives need to be undertaken to reach that desired state. "This is a common approach with enterprise architectures, for example," Scholtz says.

    Ultimately, a security architecture must integrate as seamlessly as possible with the overall enterprise architecture, especially with the rapidly evolving threat and regulatory landscapes. This necessary integration makes it almost impossible to design a standalone enterprise security architecture. "It's impractical to do a 35-year plan," Scholtz says. "You have to be more dynamic."

    Architectures are blueprints that not only explain an enterprise's technology roadmap, but the controls--processes, policies and technology--to satisfy an auditor.

    Scholtz says most architectures are built on three levels:

    Conceptual, where abstract goals and models are laid out. This is the high-level vision of the architecture, where processes and designs are modeled, and trust levels mapped out.

    Logical, where those goals are applied against the environment and available resources, and alternatives are discussed. This is where organizational, informational and logical design models are blueprinted.

    Implementation, where the conceptual and logical levels are carried out. Here the architecture is tweaked as ripples in the environment warrant. Security applications, infrastructure and services are architected at this level; data is classified and the security organization as a whole is architected.

    Each level accounts for a business, information and technical viewpoint, Scholtz says.

    "This is the time when you get to a position where you have the flexibility to adapt to new risks and changing environmental factors, but do it in a way so as you get as much reuse and repeatability as possible," Scholtz says. "A real benefit of an architectural approach is that you formalize and externalize learning and experience. With environmental changes in IT risk and volatility, the more you get to this point, the more you don't have to address everything as a new solution or initiative."

    The secret sauce, however, is in how to best integrate with the enterprise architecture. Overcoming a language barrier is the first step, Scholtz says.

    "Enterprise architecture guys talk a language different than typical security guys," Scholtz says. "When a security guy talks about a service or domain, he's talking about something different than when an EA guy talks about a service or domain."

    The onus is on security to learn enterprise architecture principles and develop a security architecture that structurally aligns as close as possible, Scholtz says. Some forward-thinking enterprises have folded security architecture teams into the overall enterprise architecture organization. Most, however, operate in isolation from infrastructure-planning teams, application developers and systems integration specialists.

    Washington Trust Bank's Brockett takes it a step further, not only integrating his operations with the overall enterprise architecture, but ensuring his teams are in sync with the bank's risk management function--the operational risk coordinator.

    "You can't operate in an environment where you're adversarial with the audit or regulatory function. It can't--and won't--work if you get to the point where the audit group is not risk focused," Brockett says.

    Business ApplicationSecurity-specific architecture blueprints exist that organizations can use as a template for their environments; several tackle architecture strictly from a business point of view.

    SABSA, or the Sherwood Applied Business Security Architecture, is a model that considers business requirements, then assures those requirements are met strategically and conceptually, as well as in design and management of an architecture.

    "Unless the security architecture can address this wide range of operational requirements and provide real business support and business enablement, rather than just focusing upon security, then it is likely that it will fail to deliver what the business expects and needs," says John Sherwood, developer of the SABSA model.

    Sherwood's model implores security architects to always think in terms of the business, and gird themselves for the scrutiny of those who shun strategic architecture for solely technical.

    SABSA is a layered model with six different views of an architecture: contextual, conceptual, logical, physical, component and operational. The contextual view is a description of the business context under which security systems are built, while the conceptual view defines the principles and concepts that guide the logical and physical views. The component view assembles the products and begins the integration within security and the overall enterprise architecture. Finally, the operational view executes and maintains the previous concepts. However, this view needs to be interpreted in detail at each of the other five layers, Sherwood says.

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    SABSA is not your only option as far as risk-oriented architectures go.

    The Information Security Forum (ISF) standard also addresses security from a business perspective, and is a reference on how to architect security into systems management, critical business applications, installations, networks and development.

    The ISF standard compiles best practices and lays out how to best measure the effectiveness of a program via its Information Security Status Survey.

    The Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF) is another popular blueprint on which an enterprise can model its security architecture.

    DoDAF is a military-grade security architecture, and it guides not only military strategy, but business processes and procedures. It too is broken into separate views: operational, systems, technical standards and an overarching view.

    These established frameworks, along with homegrown architecture models, should enable enterprises not only to counter today's issues, but lay down a foundation for warding off future threats and inevitable regulatory changes.

    "Use your architectural frameworks to do future planning," Scholtz says. "Treat IT risk as an architecture problem."



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