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DES-1721 - Specialist - Implementation Engineer, SC Series - BrainDump Information

Vendor Name : EMC
Exam Code : DES-1721
Exam Name : Specialist - Implementation Engineer, SC Series
Questions and Answers : 59 Q & A
Updated On : January 23, 2019
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DES-1721 exam Dumps Source : Specialist - Implementation Engineer, SC Series

Test Code : DES-1721
Test Name : Specialist - Implementation Engineer, SC Series
Vendor Name : EMC
Q&A : 59 Real Questions

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EMC EMC Specialist - Implementation

E20–335 secrets of Passing examination with E20–335 braindumps | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

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  • Carnegie and Tag Pacific to merge EMC and MPower | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    PRESS release

    Carnegie clear energy (ASX: CCE) (“Carnegie”) and Tag Pacific restrained (ASX: TAG) (“Tag”) these days announce the signing of an Implementation Deed which sets out the phrases and key steps for the acquisition by Tag of Carnegie’s power Made clear (EMC) to create one of the crucial location’s largest, expert Engineering, Procurement, building (EPC) and build, personal, function (BOO) consultants within the abruptly growing off-grid and fringe-of-grid photo voltaic, battery and microgrid markets.

    Upon completion of the transaction, the mixed ASX-listed business could be renamed MPower and should have improved countrywide attain, with over 130 personnel on each coasts of the nation.

    It might be a number one renewables, battery storage and microgrid developer, clothier and constructor within the vicinity with lively tasks across Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific.

    As consideration for EMC, Carnegie will get hold of fifty eight,507,377 completely paid average shares in Tag which should be distributed in-specie by using Carnegie to its shareholders.

    This corresponds to approximately 32% of the entirely paid average shares on challenge in Tag put up completion of the transaction however pre-capital lift by means of Tag (see transaction summary below). Carnegie shareholders will continue to hold their latest utterly paid general shares in Carnegie.

    The proposed, mixed entity would have had mixed seasoned forma income in FY2018 in excess of $50 million. in keeping with market boom expectations, earnings of the enlarged group is anticipated to raise in FY2019 and beyond.

    The mixed entity would birth FY2019 with a mixed dedicated order book of approximately $20 million and as soon as the EMC company and the MPower company are entirely integrated, the mixed company is anticipated to have enough scale to allow profitability to be achieved.

    Upon completion of the transaction, Carnegie will continue as a renewable energy company specializing in commercialising its CETO wave energy expertise.

    it is going to additionally preserve one hundred% possession of the backyard Island Microgrid, and its present 50% ownership of the Northam photo voltaic Farm. as a result of the transaction, Carnegie will additionally retain its eligibility for the R&D tax money returned incentive.

    CEO and Managing Director of Carnegie, Dr Michael Ottaviano talked about:

    “this is a compelling opportunity to liberate the colossal advantage from the microgrid market in Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific, bringing together two of the main entities in Australia to create a countrywide champion.

    “A scrip based mostly merger of EMC with MPower gives Carnegie shareholders with direct ownership of a expert microgrid market leader and a powerful financial platform for the 2019 financial 12 months and beyond. The Carnegie board believes here is a extra compelling option for shareholders than an biological growth approach with EMC which would require additional working capital over a longer time frame.”

    Tag Chief government Officer, Nathan sensible, stated:

    “we are excited through the opportunity to assemble two main renewable and battery storage agencies and to welcome Carnegie’s shareholders into our group.”

    “The microgrid market is starting to be abruptly and consolidation within the sector is inevitable. The enlarged MPower company will be neatly positioned to take a management place and dominate this market. we've plans to develop the mixed community impulsively throughout our EPC, construct own function (BOO) and items divisions.

    We also plan to set up a dedicated automobile to apartment our BOO solar and battery power storage belongings as they're developed.”

    The mixed enterprise will combine the engineering, procurement and building actions of each latest companies, retaining their effective presence in WA and NSW to carry a countrywide and regional ability.

    it'll additionally combine EMC’s solar undertaking development pipeline with a purpose to create a stand-alone construct, personal and operate solar and microgrid asset portfolio.

    The microgrid market in Australia has been forecast to represent in excess of $1.6 billion over the decade from 2016 to 20261 and globally the market is forecast to develop over 10-fold via to 2020 from 20132.

    The ASX-listed MPower can be led by means of present Tag Pacific CEO, Nathan smart, with a Board and management crew combined from each enterprise. because the first step in a board renewal method, Tag would invite CCE to nominate two administrators to join the MPower board from completion of the proposed transaction.

    The proposed transaction is area to a number of situations precedent together with the execution of binding criminal documents, a couple of key contract novations and third party agrees, and approval of both TAG and CCE shareholders.

    Shareholder conferences are anticipated to be held in August and more tips can be supplied to shareholders ahead of this.

    Upon completion of the transaction, MPower intends to undertake a capital raising to fund the increase of the enlarged group and the development and financing of build, personal, function initiatives.

    consistent with the Carnegie’s Board’s outdated brought up intention round Board renewal, John Davidson and Kieran O’Brien have resigned from the Board of Carnegie. Mr Davidson’s function as MD of EMC has additionally been made redundant and he'll obtain a statutory termination charge of $378,000.

    one by one he has entered into a voluntary escrow settlement for twelve months with Carnegie for the currently tradeable shares in CCE and his closing shares will reside discipline to the existing escrow arrangements.

    The Tag shares Mr Davidson receives because of the in specie distribution under the proposed transaction may have the equal escrow intervals as his Carnegie shares.

    Key transaction phrases abstract (area to the completion of binding, felony documentation):

  • Scrip primarily based transaction to create ASX-listed MPower
  • Enlarged MPower to be owned (undiluted) sixty eight% TAG shareholders, 32% CCE


  • CCE shareholders (as at the date of the EGM, expected late August) to receive a

    direct funding in MPower via an in-specie distribution to be accredited by way of CCE


  • CCE shareholders to retain their current shares in CCE which will proceed with CETO

    commercialisation and as the proprietor of its Northam and garden Island solar belongings

  • Completion of the transaction is field to various circumstances precedent, together with but now not constrained to:
  • the execution of binding criminal documents;
  • CCE and TAG shareholder approvals;
  • third birthday party concurs;
  • Tag raising or receiving binding commitments to carry A$4m; and
  • no grownup acquiring a important activity in additional than 15% of the vote casting power in CCE.
  • Transaction focused on CCE and TAG shareholder approval and completion of the

    transaction in August

  • Two CCE directors to be invited to join the MPower Board

  • large alterations for Dell EMC Certification program | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Written by means of Ed Tittel published: 11 may additionally 2018

    a couple of years after the acquisition of EMC with the aid of Dell, the now-hybrid Dell EMC certification application has accomplished a makeover. these prevalent with the historical EMC certification schema will consider appropriate at domestic.

    Couple discussing business on steps with laptopif you like Pixar films, then you likely already understand it’s worth looking at the credits all of the method via on most of them. The animators all the time encompass a couple of small surprises as the lengthy progression of names, roles, and grateful acknowledgements parades across the reveal.

    considered one of my favourite credit crawl Easter eggs rolls previous on the end of finding Nemo, when a tiny little fish engulfs and gulps down a bigger piscine passerby. I mention this as a result of however EMC isn't the biggest part of Dell, its lengthy-time and relatively successful certification software looks to have won out in defining Dell applied sciences' future outlook on, and constitution for, IT certification.

    (EMC changed into acquired by way of Dell applied sciences on Sept. 7, 2016, when the two corporations formally culminated their merger eleven months after asserting a listing-surroundings $sixty seven billion money-and-stock deal.)

    if you would like proof for your self, then consult with the Dell EMC “Certification Overview” page — or enhanced yet, down load the Dell EMC confirmed expert Certification Framework (PDF doc), which lays out the total set of the enterprise’s offerings across 6 pages of content material:

    there's an overview web page, one page for every of four tracks — manipulate, Plan and Design, set up, and guide — and a remaining page that indicates certification degrees and tracks. That final page is what furnished the image that accompanies this story, really. Behold:

    Ed T Figure 1 05 11 2018

    supply: Dell EMC Certification Roadmap, web page 6 (PDF document)

    Digging into DellEMC Certification

    If certification is a game of numbers, then the Dell EMC portfolio has a lot of them to offer:

    ● four stages: affiliate (“fundamentals practising and competencies of a technology”), expert (“position specific working towards, baseline expertise in a given expertise”), professional (“advanced talents and event in one or greater applied sciences”), and master (“discipline be counted knowledge with adventure in distinctive technologies and complicated solutions”)● eight certification tracks: technology Architect (TA), Cloud Architect (CA), commercial enterprise Architect (EA), Implementation Engineer (IE), methods Administrator (SA), Platform Engineer (PE), Technical guide Engineer (TSE), and records Scientist (DS)● 7 applied sciences: (page 1 indicates how they tie into this matrix of tracks and levels) Cloud, Storage, facts coverage, Server, Networking, Converged Infrastructure, and statistics Science● The control roadmap (web page 2) suggests 4 distinctive affiliate exams, 13 professional checks, 5 knowledgeable tests, and a single grasp examination. It also makes point out of CompTIA Server+, two product/technology checks, and Dell associate and knowledgeable assessments in networking and servers. It even mentions VCP VMware credentials as neatly. (VMware became bought via EMC in 2004, and now we have already mentioned how EMC got here to be where it now could be.)● The Plan and Design roadmap (page three) indicates four distinct associate checks, 7 expert checks, three professional checks, and the equal, single grasp exam.● The set up roadmap (web page 4) shows four distinctive affiliate assessments, 13 professional assessments, 4 knowledgeable assessments, but no master exam. It additionally includes 2 product/technology assessments, and Dell affiliate and skilled tests in networking, VxRail equipment, and PowerEdge. It also mentions the CompTIA Server+ examination as neatly.● The support roadmap (web page 5) shows a single associate examination, 7 expert tests, 1 expert exam, however no grasp exam, both. It additionally contains Dell associate and skilled tests in networking and PowerEdge. The CompTIA Server+ exam also puts in an look.

    The context for the look here by using CompTIA Server+ appears to be as a prerequisite for checks involving the Dell PowerEdge server family unit.

    The EMC offerings supply the standard framework for how certs are labeled and categorised, and EMC's former certification regime also appears to outline the progression across ranges from affiliate to master.

    There’s a lot to take in right here, however it appears like a substantial and reasonably neatly-orchestrated try and deliver the a variety of threads of training and certification collectively below the Dell EMC umbrella. be certain to try it out!

    about the writer

    ed-tittel120Ed Tittel is a 30-plus-12 months computing device trade veteran who's worked as a utility developer, technical marketer, advisor, author, and researcher. writer of many books and articles, Ed blogs on certification themes for Tom’s IT pro, and on windows desktop OS themes for TechTarget. check out his website at DES-1721 Dumps and Real Questions

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    DES-1721 exam Dumps Source : Specialist - Implementation Engineer, SC Series

    Test Code : DES-1721
    Test Name : Specialist - Implementation Engineer, SC Series
    Vendor Name : EMC
    Q&A : 59 Real Questions

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    Know pangolins before it’s eaten to extinction | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    KOTA KINABALU: Elisa Panjang, a distinctive name for a Sabahan native, is not just your average Kadazandusun lass.

    This PhD student from Cardiff University has a keen interest in pangolin ecology and behaviour studies, and is actively involved in conservation programs to protect the endangered wildlife species.

    Pangolins, also known as scaly anteater, are a mammal inhabiting tropical forests, dry woodlands and the savannah.

    It is believed to be among the most trafficked wildlife in the world. Like most other pangolin species, the Sunda pangolin found in Sabah is hunted for its skin, scales, and meat.

    Born and raised in Sandakan, Elisa also holds a B.Sc. (Hons.) in Conservation Biology and a M.Sc. in Ecological Processes, both from Universiti Malaysia Sabah, and added to that has a Diploma in Civil Engineering from Politeknik Kota Kinabalu to boot.

    Elisa, who decided to change her course to pursue her interest in nature and wildlife, is a member of the IUCNSSC Pangolin Specialist Group and is currently fully based at Danau Girang Field Centre.

    Here she conducts her research, and sometimes perform her job as a Pangolin Conservation Officer, educating and raising awareness about pangolins in Sabah.

    After finishing her study, Elisa hopes to use her knowledge and experiences to collaboratively improve the implementation of biodiversity conservation in her country.

    Pangolins are completely covered with scales made of keratin, also found in human nails, which start off as soft and harden as the creatures get older. The armour-like scales come into play when pangolins are under attack, when they curl up into a spiky ball.

    Its scales are sometimes made into rings as charms against rheumatic fever or powdered as traditional medicine.

    Its meat is eaten by those who believe it to be good for health or as a cure for arthritis, asthma and back pains.

    None of these supposed uses are backed by scientific evidence, Elisa painfully points out.

    “The demand is mostly driven by the Chinese, and indigenous people who hunt for wildlife. As conservationists, we are battling to save the pangolin, the most illegally traded animal in the world, before it is ‘eaten to extinction’, she states as a matter of fact.

    The Sunda pangolin, the only species found in Sabah, is protected under Schedule 2 of the Wildlife Conservation Enactment 1997, meaning any hunting or possession requires a licence. Unlicensed hunting is punishable with a maximum penalty of five years’ jail, a fine of up to RM50,000 or both.

    “I grew up in a village in Sandakan, surrounded by forest and I first saw a pangolin when I was 10 years old. I was playing outside and saw one walking towards the trees from around my house. I think I fell in love with pangolins that day because of its weird look, with its scales, the way it moved and so on.

    “I ran to my mom to show her the animal. She told me the creature was called ‘tenggiling’ (pangolin in Malay) – which also sounded weird to me at that time. Before this, I had never even heard of  ‘tenggiling’ let alone pangolins, but then they became one of my favourite animals.

    “I chose to study pangolins because they are so mysterious, understudied and sadly, endangered. I think there are many things about them that we don’t know and I am interested to uncover these mysteries as well as be the voice for the species.

    “I started my study on pangolins in 2011 so it’s almost seven years now. Working with poachers is not new to me. I am also a Sabah Wildlife Department Honorary Wildlife warden so I sometimes patrol known hotspots where poachers wander.”

    To appreciate what Elisa is doing is indeed good news? She turns out to be the only Sabahan and Malaysian ever to do a PhD on pangolin with Cardiff University, thanks to the opportunity provided by DGFC Kinabatangan.

    One must get at least a glimpse on the extent of the bad news.

    The bad news is at a staggering US$7,000 (approximately RM30,000) per head, wild pangolins are being rapidly hunted to depletion as it has become the most trafficked wild mammal in the world, for both its scales and meat.

    The spectre of doom is not far-fetched, given spectacular news like Vietnamese Customs seizing 6.2 tons of frozen pangolin meat from Indonesia not too long ago. Sabah contributed to 22,000 Sunda pangolins killed in 2009.

    In December 2011, a newly-formed Special Marine squad seized 178 containers holding 1,068 frozen pangolins worth US$1.26 million, Sabah’s largest seizure of pangolin meat in history, after a wild goose boat chase in the East Coast, making it part of the 23,400 pangolins confiscated worldwide between 2011 and 2013 alone.

    Elisa said she’s not surprised by it.

    “Sabah is considered one of the hotspots for smuggling, like a point for our pangolins and also other pangolins from

    the Philippines forward to Vietnam and China and so for me, enforcement, education and research is what we need to do to get more information, and this is very important,” she said.

    The IUCN estimated over one million pangolins were killed for meat and scales over the last decade.

    “I am a member of the IUCN Specialist Group on pangolins so I know this is true. It’s really bad and then in Sabah, despite it being protected, the authorities still find people capturing them, at road blocks,” Elisa said.

    But all these known reports are probably just the tip of the iceberg on this mushrooming illegal trade.

    “For me, we need to do something about the illegal trade. Without tough measures to cut down or shut down demand and effective measures to create pangolin strongholds in their home ranges in Africa and Asia, the survival of this uncharismatic armour-plated termite and ant-eating creature will be lost to a gruesome trade for its meat, foetus included, and scales.

    “The problem is captive breeding had proven very difficult and breeding in the wild is just one offspring per year, never really enough to replace the population lost at the current rate. Once a species is gone, it’s extinct forever.”

    To add to the problem, even conservationists tend not to give focus to this solitary, nocturnal creature as they are pre-occupied with bigger, more famous species like the elephants which are being killed at 35,000 per year for ivory and the rhinos being slaughtered at 810 heads per year.

    Elisa lamented: “It is really sad because right now pangolins are unpopular, not many people know about it, people don’t understand them and then we are losing them rapidly while the world still doesn’t know about them.”

    Under its new exciting series – Borneo Jungle Diaries – SZtv presents environmental photojournalist, Aaron ‘Bertie’ Gekoski, who follows Elisa to tag a Sunda pangolin for the first time ever in the jungles of Borneo.

    All episodes will have Bahasa Malaysia subtitles and be released on SZtv and DGFC Facebook page, as well as

    and Youtube @ScubazooTV. The episodes will also be featured on The Daily Express, Malay Mail Online and BorneoToday.

    What’s more, viewers are encouraged to take part in the competition that is being held; All you have to do is answer five questions from the episode correctly each week to win a 4 day / 3 night stay at the Danau Girang Field Centre.

    There will also be a grand prize at the end of the 10-series Borneo Jungle Diaries for those who got all questions right across all quizzes.

    For more information, check out

    What do you think of this story?

  • Photovoltaic materials: Present efficiencies and future challenges | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Photovoltaics (PV), which directly convert solar energy into electricity, offer a practical and sustainable solution to the challenge of meeting the increasing global energy demand. In recent years, the decreasing price of PV systems has levelized the cost of PV-produced electricity to the point that it can now compete with the variable portion of consumer electricity prices in many countries worldwide: The point of “socket parity” has been reached (1). Substantial further cost reduction is needed, however, to allow PV to compete in more electricity markets and to enter the multi-terawatt regime. Aside from the solar cell and module fabrication costs, a major and increasing fraction of the cost of PV generation (typically 50%) is related to component and installation requirements such as inverters, cabling, mounting structures, and labor (1). As a result, solar cell efficiency is a key lever for PV cost reduction: For a given output power, a higher cell efficiency directly translates into a smaller and therefore less expensive PV system, reducing the levelized cost of electricity. A higher power generation rate per unit area is also important in urban environments where space is limited. The development of PV materials is experiencing an enormous growth, and efficiency records are continually broken. Below, we systematically compare the state of the art of the 16 most studied geometries of PV materials, with emphasis on the limitations of each material and its potential for further improvement and large-scale application.

    Solar cells are made of semiconductor materials; given the broad solar spectrum, their fundamental efficiency limit is determined by several factors (Fig. 1). Photons with energies below the band gap are not absorbed, whereas photons with energies above the band gap are not fully converted to electrical energy because of thermalization of charge carriers (Fig. 1A, inset). Taking these two factors into account, ∼45% of the incident spectrum-integrated solar power remains for semiconductors with a band gap of 1.1 to 1.4 eV. This is the maximum power that would be generated if the cell were operated at a voltage corresponding to the band gap energy and a current corresponding to full capture of all photons with energy above the band gap, followed by full collection of all generated carriers.

    (A) AM1.5 solar spectrum with distinct dips due to molecular absorption in Earth’s atmosphere. Photons with energies below the band gap (Eg, dashed black line corresponds to the band gap of Si) are not absorbed, whereas photons with energies above the band gap are not fully converted to electrical energy because of thermalization of charge carriers. The maximum power generated by the cell is limited by voltage loss relative to the band gap voltage. Inset: Electronic band structure with the separation of the quasi-Fermi levels determining the open-circuit voltage Voc. (B) Theoretical Shockley-Queisser detailed-balance efficiency limit as a function of band gap (black line) and 75% and 50% of the limit (gray lines). The record efficiencies for different materials are plotted for the corresponding band gaps.

    Even in an ideal case, however, the open-circuit voltage Voc is always lower than the band gap energy because thermodynamic detailed balance requires the cell to be in equilibrium with its environment, which implies that there is spontaneous light emission from the cell. The corresponding radiative carrier recombination represents a dark current that causes Voc to be well below the band gap voltage Vg (Fig. 1A, inset). Furthermore, under maximum-power operation (at maximum J × V), the voltage Vmp is lower than Voc and the current density Jmp is lower than the maximum (short-circuit) current density Jsc (Fig. 2A, inset). The efficiency limit that takes all these factors into account was first derived by Shockley and Queisser (S-Q) in 1961 (2). Figure 1B shows this limiting efficiency for a single-junction solar cell under “one-sun” illumination with the standard AM1.5 solar spectrum as a function of band gap; the maximum efficiency occurs for a semiconductor with a band gap of 1.34 eV and is 33.7%.

    Single-junction solar cell parameters are shown as a function of band gap energy according to the Shockley-Queisser limit (solid lines) and experimental values for record-efficiency cells. (A) Short-circuit current Jsc. Inset: A typical current-voltage J(V) curve, with Voc, Jsc, Vmp, and Jmp indicated. The product of current and voltage is highest at the maximum power point (JmpVmp). (B) Open-circuit voltage Voc. The voltage corresponding to the band gap is shown for reference, with the voltage gap Vg-VSQ indicated by the gray shaded region. (C) Fill factor FF = (JmpVmp)/(VocJsc). All data are for standard AM1.5 illumination at 1000 W/m2.

    In practical solar cells, not all incident light is absorbed in the active layer(s) and not all generated carriers are collected; hence, Jsc is below the maximum value that can be achieved for a given band gap, Eg. The achievable Voc is also reduced below the S-Q value by such phenomena as Auger recombination, band tail recombination, and recombination at bulk, interface, and surface defects (3–5). Furthermore, resistance and contact losses and other nonidealities reduce the fill factor FF = (JmpVmp)/(VocJsc). Combined, these factors lead to practical efficiencies that are often substantially lower than the S-Q limit for a given band gap.

    Ideal and record-efficiency solar cells compared

    We distinguish three classes of PV materials: (i) ultrahigh-efficiency monocrystalline materials with efficiencies of >75% of the S-Q limit for the corresponding band gap: Si (homojunction and heterojunction), GaAs, and GaInP; (ii) high-efficiency multi- and polycrystalline materials (50 to 75% of the S-Q limit): Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (“CIGS”), CdTe, methyl ammonium lead halide perovskite [CH3NH3Pd(I,Cl,Br)3], and InP; and (iii) low-efficiency materials (<50% of the S-Q limit): micro- or nanocrystalline and amorphous Si, Cu(Zn,Sn)(Se,S)2 (“CZTS”), dye-sensitized TiO2, organic and polymer materials, and quantum dot materials.

    The record efficiency for each of these materials is plotted in Fig. 1B (see also table S1). The experimental values for Jsc, Voc, and FF for the record-efficiency cell reported for each individual material are shown in Fig. 2, A to C, together with the limiting values calculated using the S-Q model (2). The experimental values for Jsc generally follow the trend given by the S-Q limit, with some materials closely approaching this limit. Values for Voc and FF are much more scattered, with only a few materials approaching the S-Q limit. To analyze these trends, we evaluated two characteristic parameters for each material: (i) the current ratio j = Jsc/JSQ, which indicates the degree of light coupling, absorption, and trapping in the active layer(s) of the cell, and also depends on the carrier collection efficiency; and (ii) the voltage ratio v = Voc/VSQ, which is primarily related to the degree of recombination of carriers in the bulk, surfaces, and interfaces. Together, the voltage ratio v and fill factor ratio f = FF/FFSQ indicate the total electrical limitations of a cell (6). A plot of j versus v × f for all evaluated materials (Fig. 3) directly indicates to what degree the cell efficiency is limited by light management or charge carrier management. Next, we describe these data for all materials.

    Fig. 3 Fraction of Shockley-Queisser detailed-balance limit for voltage and current achieved by record cells.

    The current ratio j = Jsc/JSQ is plotted versus the product of the voltage and fill factor fractions (v × f = FF Voc/FFSQVSQ) for the record-efficiency cells of all evaluated materials. The lines around some data points correspond to a range of band gaps taken in the S-Q calculations according to uncertainty in the band gap of the record cell. Arrows on top and right axes indicate how improved light management and charge carrier collection improve the cell efficiency. ηSQ denotes maximum achievable efficiency according to the SQ model.

    Silicon (efficiency 25.0 to 25.6%)

    Silicon has a nearly ideal band gap (Eg = 1.12 eV) for reaching high efficiency (Fig. 1). Si homojunction cells are based on a p-n junction made into either p-type or n-type Si(100) substrates. Several advanced device architectures and contacting schemes have been developed for Si solar cells. Contact recombination represents a major source of loss, so the most successful approaches minimize contact area (e.g., by localized heavy doping or metal deposition), implement passivated contacts, or use a combination of these approaches. In parallel, surface passivation of Si using Si3N4, Al2O3, SiO2, or combinations of these materials has been developed to great perfection. The record efficiency for a monocrystalline Si homojunction cell was recently set at 25.1% (7) for a cell with a full-area tunnel oxide passivated rear contact and high-quality top surface passivation (the TOPCon design; Fig. 4A), slightly higher than the value of 25.0% (8, 9) reported in 1998 for a cell that used local contacts and high-quality surface passivation [the passivated emitter rear localized diffused (PERL) design].

    Fig. 4 Layer and contact geometry for solar cells with record efficiencies above 20%.

    (A) TOPCon crystalline Si (Fraunhofer). (B) IBC crystalline Si (SunPower). (C) Heterojunction IBC crystalline Si (Panasonic). (D) Multicrystalline Si (Trina Solar). (E) GaAs thin film (Alta Devices). (F) CIGS thin film (ZSW Stuttgart). (G) CdTe thin film (First Solar). (H) Perovskite thin film (KRICT). For industrial cells, the exact geometry is not publicly available.

    The TOPCon cell has excellent current generation and collection (j = 0.96), similar to the value achieved for two other record-efficiency Si solar cell designs (table S1). This results from a combination of very low surface reflection [achieved by a pyramidal (111)-faceted surface texture combined with an anti-reflection coating (ARC)] and very low recombination losses in the Si wafer and at the surfaces and contact interfaces. Low recombination is also reflected in the relatively high voltage of the TOPCon cell (v = 0.82).

    In a radically different design, both the p-n junction and the contacts are placed at the rear of the cell. This interdigitated back-contact (IBC) design features alternating p-type and n-type contact regions (Fig. 4B). The IBC design eliminates front contact shading losses and reduces series resistance by allowing more metal to be used for current collection and transport. This comes at the cost of more challenging carrier transport in the device (carriers generated near the surface must be collected at the back) and requires the use of very high-quality material. Overall current generation and collection in the IBC cell is slightly lower than in the TOPCon cell (j = 0.95 versus 0.96), as is the record efficiency (25.0% versus 25.1%) (9–11). Note that the IBC cell has an area of 120 cm2, whereas the TOPCon cell measures 4 cm2. The IBC cell uses a doped surface layer, which creates a front surface field that repels carriers from the surface, and has a Si3N4 top layer that serves as both an ARC and a high-quality passivation layer for the Si surface. The lower surface and bulk recombination rates lead to a slightly higher voltage (v = 0.83) for the IBC cell relative to the TOPCon cell.

    An efficiency record of 25.6% was recently reported for an IBC Si solar cell that uses silicon heterojunctions (SHJs) rather than homojunctions for carrier collection (9, 12). In this approach, a thin stack of doped and intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) layers is deposited onto a crystalline Si surface to form a junction, replacing the process of junction formation by high-temperature dopant diffusion (Fig. 4C). The SHJ design avoids carrier recombination in highly doped p-type and n-type regions and is made using a low-temperature process, which better preserves the minority carrier lifetime of the Si wafer. The surface of the record SHJ cell is passivated with a-Si:H. This design led to the highest voltage observed for a Si solar cell (v = 0.84). The overall result of carrier generation and collection is similar to that of the TOPCon cell (j = 0.96). The origins of the small remaining losses in these high-efficiency Si cells are quite different because of their different design and mode of operation.

    As a result of the indirect band gap of Si, the absorption coefficient is relatively low and varies only gradually around the band gap energy, so that a relatively thick wafer is required to absorb all light with photon energies above the band gap. This, however, leads to higher bulk (Auger) recombination and thus reduces Voc. Moreover, it increases the material costs. The present tradeoff among cost, manufacturability, and performance leads to an optimum Si wafer thickness of 100 to 200 μm for commercial cells. These wafers are made by diamond wire sawing from monocrystalline Si rods produced by Czochralski crystal growth.

    Multicrystalline Si wafers are cut from cast ingots produced using directional (unseeded or seeded) crystallization, and their fabrication cost is lower than that of monocrystalline wafers. The typical grain size depends on the growth method and can be as large as several centimeters. Multicrystalline Si has a lower electronic quality, due to crystal grain boundaries and intragrain defects, as well as a higher concentration of impurities. As a result, the record-efficiency multicrystalline Si cell has large voltage loss (v = 0.76). Light trapping in these cells is less efficient because the ideal pyramidal surface texture normally formed by alkaline-etching Si(100) to the (111) surface facets cannot be realized on a multicrystalline surface. This, together with incomplete carrier collection due to recombination, leads to a reduced current (j = 0.91). Together, these voltage and current losses yield a lower efficiency (20.8%) (9, 13) than for monocrystalline Si cells. The record-efficiency multicrystalline Si cell has a passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC) p-n junction design (Fig. 4D).

    According to the S-Q model, the efficiency limit for Si solar cells is 33.3%, far above the experimental record of 25.6%. A key limiting factor that is not accounted for in the S-Q model is Auger recombination of free carriers that occurs under illumination. Taking this into account for Si, the efficiency limit for an undoped (monocrystalline) Si cell with optimized thickness (110 μm) was calculated to be 29.4% (14), leaving room for further development of existing technologies in the coming years.

    Today the global PV market is dominated by wafer-based crystalline Si solar modules, with a total market share of >90%. Multicrystalline Si represents ∼65% and monocrystalline Si ∼35% of this market segment (15). PV systems based on Si solar cells installed in the field have been shown to offer high reliability and very limited efficiency degradation over a period longer than 25 years.

    GaAs (efficiency 28.8%)

    The record efficiency for a single-junction solar cell under one-sun illumination has been achieved using GaAs (28.8%) (9, 16). This material has a direct band gap close to the optimum (1.42 eV; Fig. 1). Because of the high optical absorption coefficient of GaAs, the cell thickness can be kept relatively small (∼2 μm) to harvest the solar spectrum up to the band gap. The record-efficiency cell design has a n-GaAs/p-Al0.3Ga0.7As junction geometry with high–band gap window layers that serve to retain minority carriers in the GaAs active layer (Fig. 4E). The GaAs heterostructure is epitaxially grown using chemical vapor deposition, which is a relatively energy-intensive process. Interestingly, the record efficiency was achieved using a lift-off process, in which a GaAs foil ∼2 μm thick was exfoliated from the substrate (by chemical etching of an AlAs buffer layer) and laminated onto a Cu substrate. The voltage of the record-efficiency cell is very high (v = 0.97). Light reflection, top-finger shadowing, incomplete light trapping, and absorption in the metal back contact result in some current loss (j = 0.92), leaving room for improvement. Application of an IBC geometry, for example, could potentially further increase j. An intermediate dielectric back-reflecting geometry can reduce parasitic absorption in the metal back contact. The fill factor in these cells is very high (f = 0.97). Taking into account Auger recombination, the maximum efficiency that can be achieved for a practical single-junction GaAs cell is ∼32% (17), substantially greater than the current record value.

    Whereas III-V solar cells have traditionally been used in niche markets requiring high efficiency on a small area, such as space technology, the newly developed layer-transfer technology enables fabrication of large-area flexible (single-junction) GaAs technology at reduced cost for a much broader range of applications. Encapsulation and recycling of commercial GaAs modules is important because of the use of the toxic element As.

    InP (efficiency 22.1%) and GaInP (efficiency 20.8%)

    Two other III-V compound semiconductors that have achieved high efficiencies are InP and GaInP. InP (Eg = 1.35 eV) has a band gap similar to that of GaAs, but the maximum reported efficiency of 22.1% (9, 18) is much lower than for GaAs; this difference is due to both lower voltage and lower current (v = 0.81, j = 0.85). Because of the existing high-efficiency GaAs alternative and the scarcity and associated high cost of In, developments on InP cells have been minimal in the past decade. GaInP has a relatively high band gap (1.81 eV), for which the S-Q limit efficiency is 25.2%. The record efficiency achieved for a GaInP cell is 20.8% (9, 19). The voltage loss on the record cell is extremely small (v = 0.96), but current collection (j = 0.82) in these cells leaves much room for improvement. The record-efficiency GaInP cell has the highest fill factor achieved for any material (FF = 0.89; f = 0.98), which is partly related to the high band gap (Fig. 2C). Because of its large band gap, GaInP is used in III-V multijunction solar cell geometries. Recently, a mechanically stacked tandem composed of a GaInP top cell and a Si heterojunction base cell was reported with an efficiency of 29.8% (11).

    CIGS (efficiency 21.7%)

    The record efficiency of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) thin-film solar cells has steadily increased over the past 20 years, with the present record value at 21.7% (9, 20), making it the highest-efficiency thin-film solar cell material to date, very closely followed by CdTe at 21.5% (9, 21). CIGS has a chalcopyrite crystal structure and its band gap can be continuously tuned between ~1.0 and 2.4 eV by varying the In/Ga and Se/S ratios, with the low–band gap compositions so far always giving the best performance. Polycrystalline films of CIGS are made using sputtering or evaporation from the constituent elements and are typically deposited onto a Mo film that is sputtered on a soda-lime glass substrate. The typical active layer thickness is ∼2 to 3 μm. Sodium diffusing from the glass substrate into the CIGS layer has been found to play a key role in passivating defects in the CIGS layer; the record cell also incorporated traces of K. The CIGS composition is typically graded to form an electric field that repels minority carriers from the Mo back contact, which is a strong recombination sink. The cell is finalized by the chemical-bath deposition of CdS to form a heterojunction followed by an intrinsic ZnO buffer layer, a transparent ZnO:Al conducting layer (TCL), and a MgF2 ARC (Fig. 4F). In some recent high-efficiency devices, the CdS layer is replaced by the more transparent ZnOxS1–x. Indium is a key element in CIGS, and its scarcity is a concern for scaling up CIGS module production to the terawatt level.

    The voltage for the record-efficiency CIGS cells (Eg = 1.13 eV) is very high, with v = 0.84, equal to the best monocrystalline Si cells. Given the polycrystalline nature of the material, this implies that grain boundaries in this material do not act as strong carrier recombination sites. There is substantial current loss (j = 0.84) due to light reflection, incomplete light trapping, absorption in the Mo back contact, and parasitic absorption in the CdS and ZnO:Al layers. The absorption spectrum of CIGS shows a rather gradual variation with energy around the band gap, which leads to unavoidable current loss in the near–band gap spectral range. As with all polycrystalline materials, improving material quality is a complex process that requires optimization of many different parameters such as deposition conditions, (post-)annealing procedures, and ambients. Because of the complex stoichiometry of CIGS, many secondary phases are possible, and much of the progress in efficiency has been achieved by optimizing the deposition and annealing process to avoid such detrimental by-products. Creating a good ohmic electrical contact between Mo and CIGS (via a MoSe2 interfacial layer) is another important factor. Replacing the CdS buffer layer with a nontoxic and more transparent material is also a key research area.

    The possibility of band gap tuning makes CIGS an interesting material in tandem solar cells, either by combining CIGS layers with different band gaps or by using a high–band gap CIGS top cell on top of a Si base cell. So far, however, high–band gap (Ga-rich) CIGS cells have not yielded sufficient efficiencies for a CIGS/Si tandem to beat the record-efficiency Si cell.

    CdTe (efficiency 21.5%)

    CdTe is a binary semiconductor with a cubic zincblende crystal structure and a near-ideal band gap of 1.43 eV. It can be deposited at relatively low temperature using evaporation from CdTe powder. Cells are typically grown in a superstrate configuration starting from a glass substrate coated with fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). The subsequent layer stack usually consists of CdS (generally deposited by chemical bath deposition), followed by evaporated CdTe (thickness typically 2 to 3 μm) and a metal back contact such as Al or Ti, in some cases with a CuZnTe interfacial layer between the metal and the CdTe (Fig. 4G).

    The highest reported certified efficiency for CdTe is 21.5% (9, 21), although for the purpose of this review we analyze cells with the previous record of 21.0% (22) because detailed data for the new record-efficiency cell are not yet available. The steep absorption coefficient versus energy for CdTe enables very good current collection in CdTe cells (j = 0.96), far superior to any other thin-film technology and equal to that of the record-efficiency monocrystalline Si cells. The high voltage loss in CdTe cells (v = 0.75) is attributed to recombination losses in the crystal grains and at interfaces in the polycrystalline material; the exact nature of this recombination is still unclear.

    CdTe solar modules are commercially produced by several companies and have the largest market share among present thin-film technologies, which are dominated by CdTe, CIGS, and thin-film Si. Recycling systems have been set up for commercial CdTe modules, which is particularly important because of the use of the toxic element Cd; the scarcity of Te is also a concern.

    Methyl ammonium lead halide perovskite (efficiency 21.0%)

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells have recently taken the PV research world by storm, with efficiencies above 20% achieved after only 5 years of substantial work. These materials have the general formula ABX3, where A is an organic cation (most often methylammonium, CH3NH3), B is an inorganic cation (usually Pb), and X is a halide [typically I, often with a small fraction of Cl or Br: CH3NH3Pb(I,Cl,Br)3]. Depending on the halide used, the band gap can be continuously tuned from ~1.6 eV (pure I) to 3.2 eV (pure Cl), with the smaller–band gap materials providing better solar cell efficiencies (23). Even smaller band gaps can be achieved using a different organic cation (e.g., formamidinium, H2NCHNH2) or inorganic cation (e.g., Sn), and such compounds are desirable as they have a higher efficiency limit (Fig. 1B).

    The perovskite salts form polycrystalline films with a perovskite structure at or near room temperature by precipitation from a variety of polar solvents (commonly dimethyl formamide or dimethyl sulfoxide). The device geometry is usually very similar to, and inspired by, those used for solid-state dye-sensitized or polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. Typically, an FTO-coated glass substrate is coated with an electron-selective contact (usually TiO2). Subsequently, the perovskite is deposited either by spin-coating the soluble precursors (methyl ammonium iodide and lead iodide, bromide, or chloride) or evaporating the constituent powders. A low-temperature annealing process (<150°C) often helps to improve crystallinity, film morphology, and device performance. Finally, the hole-selective top contact (usually Spiro-OMeTAD, C81H68N4O8) is spin-coated on top, and the back contact (usually gold) is evaporated to finish the device (Fig. 4H).

    The record perovskite solar cell efficiency is 21.0% (9, 24), although for the purpose of this review we analyze cells with the previous record of 20.1% (9, 24) because detailed data for the new record cell are not yet available. This cell has a very small area and exhibits a relatively small voltage loss (v = 0.83), even better than the record-efficiency monocrystalline Si homojunction cells, which is remarkable for a solution-processed semiconductor. Even though the absorption spectrum of perovskites shows a very sharp onset, comparable to that of the best semiconductor absorbers (CdTe and GaAs), the photocurrent loss is still substantial (j = 0.88). This loss comes primarily from parasitic absorption in the hole-conducting layer and the back reflector. The fill factor in these cells (FF = 0.73; f = 0.81) is the lowest of all cells with efficiencies greater than 20%, most likely because of a combination of nonuniformity in the absorber (e.g., pinholes) and carrier-selective contacts that lead to carrier shunting, along with resistive losses associated with nonideal carrier-selective contacts. The fill factor (and thus the efficiency) is expected to continue to increase as these factors are optimized further.

    Despite their excellent initial performance, hybrid perovskite solar cells are known to degrade within a few hours to days under standard operating conditions; at present this is the greatest barrier to commercial implementation. The origins of perovskite cell instability are currently a topic of active research, although photoreduction by ultraviolet light and reactions with water have already been identified as likely candidates. Also, measurements of the current-voltage characteristics can suffer from hysteresis, making efficiency analysis complex. The origin of this hysteresis is still unclear, but the leading hypothesis involves ion (or vacancy) migration under operating conditions. The perovskite salts are partially soluble in water, so the cells are sensitive to humidity. Because of Pb toxicity, encapsulation and recycling are important for this technology to become viable for large-scale application. The toxicity challenge is greater for this material than for CdTe and GaAs because the much higher water solubility and lower vaporization temperature make environmental exposure during module encapsulation failure (breakage, fire) more dangerous. Large–band gap perovskites may serve as a top cell in Si/perovskite tandem solar cells that have a potential efficiency above 30%; such an application provides a possible entry point to the market for the perovskite technology and is currently under intense research.

    CZTS (efficiency 12.6%)

    Cu(Zn,Sn)(S,Se)2 (CZTS) is a solar cell material similar to CIGS, but with the scarce element In replaced by Zn and Ga replaced by Sn. CZTS can crystallize to form either a kesterite or stannite crystal structure, with kesterite being preferable for PV applications. As in CIGS, the band gap of CZTS can be tuned over a substantial range (1.0 to 1.6 eV); the best results have been achieved for a Cu-poor, Zn-rich stoichiometry with the band gap controlled by the S/Se ratio (25). The cell structure is nearly identical to what is used for CIGS. Cell fabrication can also follow a similar process, although the record-efficiency CZTS cells have been made using solution deposition of chalcogenides dissolved in hydrazine followed by annealing in selenium vapor. The record CZTS cell has an efficiency of 12.6% (9, 26) and suffers from large voltage loss (v = 0.58) due to recombination at defects in the bulk material and at the charge extraction interfaces. As with CIGS, the complex nature of the material requires study of many different types of defects and careful engineering of the fabrication and device processing to minimize the most detrimental defects. Controlling interfacial reactions at the Mo metal contact is crucial for reducing interfacial recombination and minimizing series resistance. Current loss in CZTS cells is comparable to that of CIGS (j = 0.81). Finding an alternative back contact with lower optical loss (higher reflectivity) that can withstand the full device processing and maintain low series resistance would be a major breakthrough in the development of CZTS solar cells, although the biggest factor limiting efficiency is the low Voc, a consequence of the relatively poor material quality.

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (efficiency 11.9%)

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are a special class of devices, as they involve an electrochemical power generation process. In these cells, the absorber is not an extended solid semiconductor but a molecular dye (typically a ruthenium organometallic complex, although zinc porphyrin and even purely organic dyes have also given very high efficiencies) that is coated onto a highly porous nanostructured electrode (typically TiO2). The photoexcited dye injects electrons into the conduction band of the TiO2 and accepts electrons from a redox couple (typically I–/I3–, although higher voltages have been reached with Co-based redox couples) in a nonaqueous electrolyte. The redox active species must then diffuse to the counter electrode (usually Pt or graphite) to be regenerated and complete the current circuit. Dye-sensitized solar cells are made by depositing a very thin compact TiO2 layer typically on FTO, followed by formation of mesoporous TiO2 by printing a TiO2 nanoparticle paste, annealing, TiCl4 treatment to passivate surface traps, and finally dye adsorption by immersion in solution. A glass plate covered with the counter electrode is brought very close to the substrate using spacers, and the cell is filled with electrolyte and sealed. Here, we analyze these cells according to the S-Q model, which assumes a semiconductor absorber with an absorption band edge; although this is not the case for dye-sensitized cells, the numbers for v and j then provide a reference relative to a conventional semiconductor with a band gap equal to the peak of the dye absorption spectrum (1.50 eV).

    The record dye-sensitized cell has an efficiency of 11.9% (9, 27) with a large voltage loss (v = 0.60) due to the relatively low potential of the standard I–/I3– redox couple, which introduces a large energy loss when transferring electrons to the dye. No better dye-based alternatives have been found despite intense research over the past several years: Redox couples with higher potentials either react too quickly with electrons injected into the TiO2 (leading to recombination) or are too bulky for rapid ionic diffusion through the electrolyte (leading to strong losses in the fill factor at high light levels).

    An additional challenge for dye-sensitized solar cells is the relatively high energy and narrow bandwidth associated with molecular absorption, which makes it difficult to harvest a wide range of the solar spectrum (j = 0.78). Using multiple dyes introduces complications with the redox chemistry, whereas using dyes with broader spectra reduces oscillator strength and requires porous electrodes to become too thick for efficient charge extraction. Despite these difficulties, dye-sensitized solar cells have already been commercialized because of their relatively simple fabrication, low-cost materials, and availability in a variety of colors and opacities that are useful when aesthetics are important. Moreover, dye-sensitized solar cells have served as a model system or inspiration for the development of a new class of nanostructured device architectures for PV solar energy conversion and solar fuel generation.

    Organic solar cells (efficiency 11.5%)

    Organic solar cells offer inexpensive roll-to-roll fabrication on flexible substrates and a wide choice of materials for applications where flexibility and color are important. Organic solar cells come in two varieties: sublimed small-molecule solar cells and solution-processed polymer/fullerene solar cells. The highest reported certified efficiency for a single-junction organic solar cell is 11.5% (28, 29), although for the purpose of this review we analyze cells with the previous record of 11.0% (9, 30) because detailed data for the new record-efficiency cell are not yet available. The previous record was achieved using a polymer with a 1.66-eV band gap.

    Polymer solar cells are typically prepared on ITO-coated glass or foil with the active polymer donor–fullerene acceptor blend sandwiched between a hole-selective layer [typically poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) or MoO3] and an electron-selective layer such as ZnO, TiO2, or a low–work function material such as Ca. The typical active layer thickness is ~100 nm.

    Because of the low dielectric constant of organic materials, photogenerated electron-hole pairs remain tightly bound, necessitating the use of dedicated architectures such as bulk heterojunctions to achieve efficient charge separation and extraction. The energy offsets needed for the heterojunction to ensure efficient exciton dissociation lead to a voltage loss of ~0.3 eV in practice, which lowers the efficiency by about 2% absolute (31). Currently, the limiting problems for organic solar cells are the high rate of nonradiative recombination (via trap states or triplet excited states) and the large degree of static and dynamic disorder, together yielding very large voltage loss (v = 0.57). To a large extent, this voltage loss could be overcome by direct optical excitation of the charge-transfer state between electron donor and electron acceptor. So far, common material combinations show a very low oscillator strength of these charge-transfer states, rendering direct optical excitation nearly absent. Substantial current loss (j = 0.82) is due to parasitic absorption by the selective contacts, incomplete absorption by the polymer, and incomplete carrier collection resulting from nonradiative recombination (low mobility and diffusion length).

    As with thin-film Si solar cells, organic PV technology is suffering from the fact that efficiency is becoming an increasingly important driver to reduce the cost of large-area PV systems. Also, organic cells often show degradation under illumination. At the same time, a variety of attributes—relative ease of processing, nontoxicity, low weight, potential for low cost, and possibility of forming flexible modules of many different shapes, colors, and transparencies—enables applications that may not be achievable with thin-film flexible CIGS, CdTe, or perovskite cells that have much higher efficiency.

    Thin-film silicon (efficiency 10.1 to 11.4%)

    Thin-film microcrystalline or nanocrystalline Si solar cells can be made on a wide range of (flexible) substrates by means of chemical vapor deposition. Typically, a p-i-n geometry is grown on a ZnO:Al-coated textured glass substrate, followed by a ZnO:Al buffer layer and Ag back contact. The record efficiency is 11.4% (9, 32). The relatively slow deposition rate of crystalline Si limits the cell thicknesses that can be practically achieved to 2 to 5 μm, and the textured substrate often leads to defected growth of the microcrystalline film. As a result of this thickness limitation, light with energies near the band gap is not fully absorbed, leading to a very strong current penalty with j = 0.67, the lowest value of all cells reviewed here. Crystal grain boundaries and other defects in deposited micro- or nanocrystalline Si cells are strong sinks for minority carriers, leading to a large voltage loss as well (v = 0.61).

    Amorphous Si (a-Si:H) is a semiconductor with much stronger optical absorption than crystalline Si, but with a band gap well above the optimum (1.7 to 1.8 eV). It is made using vacuum deposition techniques, typically at a much higher rate than micro- or nanocrystalline films. Despite the incorporation of hydrogen in these films to passivate bulk defects, the electronic quality of this material is rather low, with a correspondingly large voltage loss (v = 0.61) for the record-efficiency single-junction cell (10.2%) (9, 33). In a-Si:H cells, the optimum efficiency is strongly determined by the trade-off between cell thickness and carrier collection efficiency: A large thickness is required to optimize the capture of incident light, but this reduces the carrier collection efficiency if the cell is thicker than the carrier drift/diffusion length, which is typically a few hundred nanometers; for the record-efficiency cell, j = 0.78. Amorphous Si cells are most often fabricated in a superstrate configuration using a textured glass substrate coated with ITO as a transparent conductor. This then forms the starting point for the subsequent growth of a-Si:H, ZnO:Al buffer layer, and Ag back contact.

    As cell efficiency becomes an increasingly important factor in PV cost reduction, the progress of thin-film Si technology has slowed in recent years. Yet the possibility of fabricating flexible modules using a roll-to-roll process provides unique application potential—for example, in building architecture. Thin-film Si triple-junction cells in which amorphous and microcrystalline Si cells are stacked together have shown a record efficiency of 13.4% (34).

    Quantum dot solar cells (efficiency 9.9%)

    Quantum dot (QD) solar cells take advantage of the fact that semiconductor quantum dots can be synthesized using (low-temperature) solution processing, with their band gap tunable by composition and size. The best QD solar cells so far are made using PbS or PbSe QDs as the active layer. The QDs are deposited by spin coating or dip coating and then passivated and functionalized using organic molecules or halide salts. A p-n junction is made in the QD layer using a combination of surface ligands. QD cells are typically made on ITO- or FTO-coated glass, using a metal oxide (typically ZnO or TiO2) as an electron-selective contact. Molybdenum oxide and Au or Ag are typically used as the back contact.

    The record published efficiency for QD solar cells is 9.9% using PbS QDs with a band gap of 1.4 eV, with an architecture similar to previous work (35). The 9.9% cells have very large voltage loss (v = 0.56), the largest loss of all cells reviewed here, which is attributed to the fact that the QDs have a distribution of sizes that results in a distribution of band gap energies. In addition, a high density of radiative sub–band gap states and strong nonradiative surface recombination due to the large surface-to-volume ratio in the quantum dots (diameter ∼5 nm) leads to recombination. Inefficient transport of carriers by hopping through the QD film limits the QD film thickness that can be practically used. Together, incomplete absorption and strong recombination contribute to a high current loss (j = 0.66). (Note that in the analysis we use the first excitonic peak in the absorption spectrum as the band gap of the quantum dots; taking a smaller electronic band gap correspondingly increases v and decreases j.)

    Historical efficiency trends

    There are large differences in the rate of efficiency improvement for the different materials discussed above. For example, after more than 60 years of research, single-crystalline Si is a mature technology, and the efficiency improvements that have been achieved in recent years have been relatively small and gradual. In contrast, the record efficiency for the new perovskite materials has climbed rapidly since the first cells were demonstrated, although cells with these record efficiencies are not yet stable in efficiency.

    To illustrate recent trends in cell development, Fig. 5 compares present efficiencies with the average annual increase in absolute efficiency over recent years. Crystalline and multicrystalline Si have recently shown only gradual absolute efficiency improvements in the range of 0.04 to 0.09% per year; the increase in crystalline Si efficiencies results from progress in Si heterojunction cells. The high-efficiency thin-film materials perovskite (2.7% per year), CdTe (0.9% per year), and CIGS (0.2% per year) have made important steps forward over the past few years.

    Fig. 5 Rates of improvement in solar cell efficiency over recent years.

    Average improvements were calculated over a period ending 1 January 2016 and starting with the date of the last record preceding 2010 [with two exceptions: perovskites (starting 2013, when the first certified efficiency was reported) and CdTe (starting 2011, as no recent record before 2010 was available and much progress occurred after 2010)]. Progress in efficiency from the pre-2010 record to the current values is indicated by the vertical lines. Colors correspond to cells achieving <50% of their S-Q efficiency limit (red), 50 to 75% (green), or >75% (blue). This analysis is based on data from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory efficiency chart, Green’s tables, and publications (11, 19, 29).

    Although these recently demonstrated efficiency increases are no guarantee of improvements in the future, the realization of large yearly increases in materials with remaining room for growth in v, j, and f hints that research efforts have not yet become constrained by fundamental limits. Additional research will tell whether the record efficiency of CIGS, CdTe, or perovskite cells (now 4 to 5% below that of Si IBC cells) can exceed that of Si cells. The efficiency record for thin-film GaAs cells has not been broken since 2012; a more recent record is for thin-film III-V dual-junction cells (31.6%) (29). In the low-efficiency (10 to 12%) category, quantum dot solar cells (1.3% per year) and organic solar cells (0.6% per year) continue to make strong progress. Dye-sensitized cells and CZTS have not reported efficiency improvements since 2012 and 2013, respectively. We note that historically, when materials are developed to the level of commercialization, further efficiency increases are often observed beyond the records first achieved in a research laboratory. For example, the present efficiency records for Si IBC, GaAs, and CdTe cells are realized in manufacturing laboratories.

    Solar module efficiencies

    Two important factors create a gap between the record efficiency of laboratory solar cells and the record efficiency of laboratory modules or average efficiency of commercial modules, respectively. First, record-efficiency cells are often small-area devices made using specialized laboratory techniques that may be too expensive for large-scale production. For example, thin-film vacuum deposition of metal contacts may be used in the lab, while screen printing of contacts, leading to much lower metal conductivity, is used in industrial fabrication facilities. Second, modules are made of a number of larger-area cells connected in series and encapsulated. In the case of wafer-based technologies, incorporation of cells in a module inevitably leads to current loss (due to incomplete filling of the module area) and fill factor loss (due to additional resistance in cell interconnects and the use of larger cells). Optical effects upon encapsulation may decrease or increase efficiency, depending on the specifics of module design. Efficiencies of typical thin-film modules are lower than those of corresponding record cells because of the “dead area” associated with monolithic interconnection of strip-like cells, inhomogeneities or imperfections in the larger areas of the cells, and series resistance because of larger current transport distances.

    Furthermore, in practice, solar modules never operate under conditions equal to the standard test conditions (STC). The solar spectrum and intensity change during the day and vary with the time of year. The dependence of efficiency on incident power is generally lowest for cells with high FF. Here the high-efficiency (mono)crystalline materials as well as thin-film CIGS and CdTe (all with FF > 0.79) have an advantage over perovskites and the lower-efficiency thin-film materials (FF < 0.73). Also, solar modules heat up under solar irradiation, sometimes reducing the efficiency by 1 to 2% (absolute) relative to their STC value defined at 25°C. The temperature coefficient of efficiency depends strongly on material and is lower for Si heterojunction cells, CdTe, and CIGS than for other materials (38, 39). Another difference between practical, average module efficiency and STC efficiency is related to the fact that in practice modules receive light from a wide range of angles rather than perpendicularly incident light only. This leads to additional reflection losses. Finally, we note that nearly all cell/module combinations show reduction in efficiency over time. This is attributable to factors including degradation of the cells, oxidation of metallic cell interconnects, and photodegradation of polymer encapsulating layers; the magnitude of these effects depends on the cell/module combination (40). Understanding these degradation mechanisms in different climates is a complex but very important research challenge.

    On the basis of their share in the market for PV systems, which had an estimated value of $96 billion in 2013 (1), it can be said that monocrystalline Si, multicrystalline Si, CdTe, and CIGS have evolved into mature high-efficiency technologies, with Si technology having >90% of the market share. Record efficiencies for large-area (>800 cm2) modules are 22.4% for monocrystalline Si (9, 41), 18.5% for multicrystalline Si (9), 18.6% for CdTe, and 17.5% for CIGS (9, 42). These materials all belong to the >75% S-Q limit (for monocrystalline Si) or 50 to 75% S-Q limit (for multicrystalline Si, CIGS, CdTe) classes in Fig. 1B, directly demonstrating the importance of efficiency as a lever for large-scale application.

    A recent development is the demonstration of single-junction GaAs solar modules with a record efficiency of 24.1% that are fabricated on an industrial scale and are now on their way to commercial exploitation (43). It will be interesting to see how the manufacturing costs for each of the >20% module technologies will decrease in the coming years. Thin-film solar cells deposited on thin foils are also expected to find new applications in areas where low weight-specific power (in terms of watts per gram) is desired, and in novel forms of building-integrated PV where flexible form factors or partial transparency for visible light are desired.

    Thin-film amorphous and crystalline Si modules and flexible foils have also been developed to a commercial level but are applied on a much smaller scale because of their lower efficiency (12.2% for a module based on a tandem geometry) and higher manufacturing costs (44). Furthermore, small-area modules of dye-sensitized solar cells (efficiency 10.0%) (45, 46) and organic solar cells (9.5%) (30) are commercially available but thus far represent a small market. Thin-film perovskite, CZTS, and quantum dot solar cells have been demonstrated in the lab, but modules have not yet been demonstrated on an industrial scale. For perovskites, long-term stability and manufacturability have not yet been demonstrated; for CZTS and quantum dot solar cells, the low efficiency limits commercial development. Table 1 summarizes technological strengths and selected research technology opportunities for all reviewed materials.

    Table 1 Technology strengths and key research opportunities for photovoltaic materials.

    Materials are grouped by degree of technological development. Record cell and module efficiencies are indicated, based on certified measurements. GaInP and InP are not included as no significant development toward commercial technology exists; n.a., not available.

    New Vanderbilt Faculty 2017 | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    A complete list of new Vanderbilt University faculty for the 2017-18 academic year Blair School of Music

    Zach Ebin, senior artist teacher of Suzuki violin and director of the Suzuki program

    B.A., Brandeis University, 2004M.M., Berklee College of Music, 2006M.A., Brandeis University, 2007Ph.D., York University, 2015

    Ebin served as the artistic director of the Belfountain Music Festival and Arco Violini. He is currently the artistic director of the Silent Voices Project. In high demand as a music educator, Ebin has taught and lectured across North America.

    Leslie Fagan, associate professor of flute

    B.M., Indiana University, 1993M.M., Northwestern University, 1995D.Mus., Northwestern University, 2005

    Fagan is assistant principal flute of the Omaha Symphony and is currently playing her second one-year contract with the Nashville Symphony on third flute/piccolo. She is also principal flute for the Britt Festival Orchestra in Jacksonville, Oregon. For many years she was an active freelancer and teacher in the Chicago area and has been a regular substitute for the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, participating in their 2009 Asia tour.

    Mitchell Korn, senior lecturer of music and educational outreach

    B.A., Bard College, 1974M.A., Columbia University, 1984

    The Wall Street Journal has described Korn as a “one-man arts education industry.” Symphony Magazine has called him a “music education guru.” He is credited with designing and implementing some of the nation’s most sustainable cultural strategic plans, including San Francisco Symphony’s Adventures in Music, New York’s Annenberg Initiative, Chicago Arts Partnerships in Education, The Cleveland Orchestra’s Learning Through Music, and many more.

    College of Arts and Science

    Valeriano Aiello, assistant professor of mathematics

    A.B., University of Rome, 2010A.M., University of Rome, 2013Ph.D., University of Rome, 2017

    Aiello’s main research interest is in Operator Algebras and some of its applications. In particular, he is interested in studying unitary representations of the Thompson groups introduced by Vaughan Jones, some of which are related to notions of low-dimensional topology. Other topics are Noncommutative Geometry and Noncommutative Topology.

    Maria Magdalena Campos-Pons, Cornelius Vanderbilt Chair and professor of art

    National School of Art (Havana, Cuba), 1980Higher Institute of Art (Havana, Cuba), 1985M.F.A., Massachusetts College of Art, 1988

    Campos-Pons’ work of the last 30 years covers an extended range of visual language investigations. She has focused on painting and the discussion of sexuality at the crossroads of Cuban mixed cultural heritage and insertion of the black body in contemporary narratives. Sculpture, painting, installation art, performative photography and performance define the core of her practice of the last two decades. She has had solo exhibitions at the Museum of Modern Art, the Venice Biennale 2001, Johannesburg Biennial, the First Liverpool Biennial, the Dak’ART Biennial in Senegal, and the Guangzhou Triennial.

    Anna Castillo, Mellon Assistant Professor of Spanish

    B.A., University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill, 2009Ph.D., Stanford University, 2017

    Castillo’s expertise is in 20th- and 21st-century Spanish American studies. She has extensive knowledge of contemporary philosophy and in post-humanism in particular. Her interdisciplinary work argues that focusing on the plasticity of three post-human figures—the android, the patient and the avatar—requires a reconsideration of human companionship and of what it means to be intimate. Her work shows that human sexuality has become progressively less human.

    Daniela D’Eugenio, senior lecturer in Italian

    B.A., Italian Literature and Language University (Chieti, Italy), 2007M.A., Italian Philology and Linguistics University (Florence, Italy), 2009M.A., University of Padua (Italy), 2012M.Phil., The Graduate Center–CUNY, 2015Ph.D., The Graduate Center–CUNY, 2017

    D’Eugenio investigates proverbs as literary elements able to affect the structure of a literary work, as linguistic tools featuring rhetorical and stylistic elements, and as repositories of a community’s culture. She shows how Vincenzo Brusantini, John Florio and Pompeo Sarnelli translated their proverbs in ways that are directly related to the literary context, the structure and purpose of their works, and sociocultural environment, thus manipulating them and the message they convey. The original perspective of the project allows the study of proverbial material across centuries, across space (from Ferrara to Naples to England), across genres (from a chivalric poem to a language manual to a collection of fables), and across languages (from standard Italian to dialect to second-generation Italian).

    Polina Dimova, lecturer of German, Russian and East European studies

    B.A., Smith College, 2001Ph.D., University of California–Berkeley, 2010

    Dimova holds a doctorate in comparative literature from the University of California–Berkeley and is a scholar of Russian and European literature, music and visual art. Nearing completion, her book The Synaesthetic Metaphor studies how Modernist multimedia experiments stemmed from a fascination with synaesthesia, the figurative or neurological mixing of the senses. She has published on synaesthesia in Russian Symbolism; on Evgenii Zamiatin’s literary appropriation of Alexander Scriabin’s music; on the Scythian elements in Prokofiev’s early ballets and songs; and on Oscar Wilde’s and Richard Strauss’ adaptations of the Salome legend.

    Christy Erving,
 assistant professor of sociology

    B.A., Rice University, 2007M.A. Indiana University, 2009Ph.D., Indiana University, 2014

    Erving comes to Vanderbilt following a Robert Wood Johnson Postdoctoral Fellowship at the University of Wisconsin–Madison and a year as assistant professor of sociology at the University of North Carolina–Charlotte. Her research examines the social factors that produce and maintain disparities in health. Her dissertation research investigates racial, ethnic and nativity distinctions in physical-psychiatric comorbidity, or the co-occurrence of physical and mental health problems. More specifically, she addresses the extent to which socioeconomic status, stress and social support predict racial, ethnic and nativity patterns in comorbidity, and whether these patterns are aligned with sociological theories pertaining to racial inequality.

    Megan Gallagher
, assistant professor of political science

    B.A., Vassar College, 2005M.A., University of California–Los Angeles, 2008Ph.D., University of California–Los Angeles, 2014

    Gallagher’s research combines the history of political thought and political theory, with an emphasis on 18th-century political thought, emotions and politics, and feminist theory. She has three primary areas of research: republicanism; politics and emotion, particularly as manifested in the discourses and practices of imperialism, nationalism and patriotism; and feminist political theory and the history of women in political thought. She also has a strong interest in politics and literature and related subjects, including rhetoric, tragedy, and law and literature.

    Emily Greble, associate professor of German and history

    B.A., College of William and Mary, 1999M.A., Stanford University, 2004Ph.D., Stanford University, 2007

    A specialist in Southeastern Europe, Greble’s first book, Sarajevo (1941-1945): Muslims, Christians, and Jews in Hitler’s Europe, analyzed the persistence of multiculturalism in World War II. She is currently researching how Ottoman Muslim communities transformed in the 19th and 20th centuries. As new states took shape in Ottoman lands, Balkan Muslims became Europe’s first Muslim citizens. By mapping the story of post-Ottoman Muslims onto the story of building modern European states, Greble seeks to shed light on how Islamic institutions shaped the structures of the European state; how Muslims negotiated a position for themselves in European legal, administrative and social structures; and how and why Muslims came to be understood in European discourse and policy as a fundamentally different kind of citizen.

    Karen Hammer, senior lecturer in women’s and gender studies

    B.F.A., Tufts University, 1998M.A., University of Wyoming, 2012Ph.D., The Graduate Center–CUNY, 2017

    Hammer works across the fields of queer, disability, transgender, critical race, and feminist theory. Her dissertation, “Butch Between the Wars: A Pre-History of Butch Style in the Twentieth-Century,” seeks a historical understanding of social masculinity that accounts for the textures of gender and sexuality across class, race and region in the United States. Additional research interests include film and media studies, postcolonial theory, postwar women writers, trans-Atlantic modernism(s), and Chicana/o literature.

    T.S. Harvey, associate professor of anthropology

    M.A., Old Dominion University, 1999Ph.D., University of Virginia, 2003

    Harvey is a linguist and medical anthropologist whose scholarship focuses
 on language use in health care and environmental health risk communications. He has conducted long-term field research in Guatemala with K’iche Maya, and comparative studies on environmental pollution in the U.S. Great Lakes region. His scholarship ranges from micro analyses of cross-cultural doctor-patient interactions, to macro analyses of media and public health campaigns, to studies on a global scale of language use and the role of media in international disaster relief and crisis management efforts. His current work investigates the uses of geographic information systems (GIS), global position systems (GPS), information-communication technology (ICT) and cell phones in the areas of public health risk assessment and reduction as well disaster prevention and environmental protection.

    Matt Haulmark, assistant professor of mathematics

    B.S., University of Texas–Brownsville, 2007M.S., University of Texas–Brownsville, 2010Ph.D., University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, 2017

    Haulmark studies boundaries of groups, relatively hyperbolic and CAT(0) groups, JSJ decompositions, growth in groups, and homological Z-sets.

    Stephanie Higgs, lecturer in English

    B.A., Washington University in St. Louis, 2006M.A., Vanderbilt University, 2010Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2016

    Invisible Threads: Fictions of Cotton in the Atlantic Triangle, 1833-1863

    Kari Hoffman, associate professor of psychology

    B.S., Rice University, 1997Ph.D., University of Arizona, 2003

    Hoffman’s research uses state-of-the-art technology to study the neural mechanisms underlying perception and memory formation in human and nonhuman primates. The goal of her research is to understand neural-circuit phenomena—in particular the emergence and control of oscillatory brain activity—and to determine the role these phenomena play in adaptive behaviors, such as memory-guided exploration of the environment, and in face and object recognition.

    David Ikard, professor of African American and diaspora studies

    B.A., North Carolina State University, 1994M.A., North Carolina State University, 1997Ph.D., University of Wisconsin–Madison, 2002

    Ikard’s research interests include black feminism, gender studies, black popular cultural studies, and whiteness studies. He has authored four books and a wide range of essays and chapters in national and international journals.

    Oliver Knabe, lecturer in German

    B.A., Free University of Berlin, 2008M.A., Free University of Berlin, 2011Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2017

    Knabe’s dissertation is titled ”Geist und Macht in den 1960er Jahren:
 Drei Wege zu einer ‘kurzen Ehe’ oder wie die westdeutschen Schriftsteller politisch wurden.” He has published on Georg Büchner and has given talks on Günter Grass, Volker Schlöndorff and Bettina von Arnim. His current research interests include 20th- and 21st- century German literature and film, the role of public intellectuals in the political sphere, digital humanities in the context of second language acquisition, and the intersections of sports and politics.

    Woden Kusner
, assistant professor of mathematics

    B.S., Haverford College, 2007M.A., University of Pittsburgh, 2010Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, 2014

    Kusner is interested in problems of discrete geometry and geometric optimization that are approachable by synthetic or analytic means and those where brute force computation is becoming tractable.

    Allison Leich-Hilbun
, senior lecturer in biological sciences

    B.S., College of William and Mary, 2009M.S., University of Northern Colorado, 2012Ph.D., East Tennessee State University, 2016

    Chenyun Luo, assistant professor of mathematics

    B.A., University of Rochester, 2011M.A., Johns Hopkins University, 2012Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 2017

    The goal of Luo’s research is to understand the motion of a fluid modeled by the compressible Euler equations with free surface boundary. His main results concern the behavior of the solutions of the compressible Euler equations when the “compressibility” tends to zero.

    Torben Lutjen, visiting associate professor of European studies and political science

    M.A., University of Göttingen (Germany), 2001Ph.D., University of Göttingen, 2006

    Lütjen is the DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service) visiting associate professor for European studies and political science. His research interests include comparative politics, American politics, political parties, sociology of knowledge, and methods of political ethnography. From 2009 to 2015, he headed a research group at the University of Düsseldorf that explored the mechanisms behind different levels of ideological polarization in the United States and Europe.

    Michelle M. Marcus, assistant professor of economics

    B.A., Miami University, 2010B.S., Miami University, 2010M.A., Miami University, 2011Ph.D., Brown University, 2017

    Marcus’ research interests lie at the intersection of health and environmental economics. Her research quantifies the health impacts of exposure to environmental toxins and explores the roles that governmental policy and increased information can play in mitigating these health effects. In a paper recently published in the Journal of Health Economics, she shows that California’s cleaner-burning gasoline requirements reduced childhood asthma hospitalizations by about 8 percent in high-exposure areas near highways. Marcus’ most recent research estimates the health impacts of petroleum pollution from leaking underground storage tanks, investigates the ability of preventative technology to mitigate negative health impacts, and shows how individuals respond to information about nearby petroleum leaks.

    Tatiana McInnis, lecturer in American studies

    B.A., Florida International University, 2012M.A., Vanderbilt University, 2013Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2017

    McInnis’ research interests include representations of diversity, the relationship between diversity and anti-Blackness, popular culture, immigration and migrant studies, critical race theory, global South studies, and urban studies. Her courses prioritize the intersections of these fields in dynamic classes that include rigorous interdisciplinary scholarship, film, literature and various other cultural artifacts. Her manuscript, Missing Miami: Anti-Blackness and the Making of the South Florida Myth, argues that celebrations of Miami’s diversity obfuscate prevalent anti-Blackness, a phenomenon McInnis examines in literature, film and other media set in Miami ranging from the 1950s to the present day.

    Andrew Moorhead, assistant professor of mathematics

    B.S./B.M., University of Texas–Austin, 2006Ph.D., University of Colorado, 2017

    Moorhead’s research interests are in algebra and logic. In particular, his research is in the area of presentations of noncommutative k-algebras, specifically, to advance the understanding of word patterns related to the Koethe Conjecture. He recently began an investigation into so-called higher commutator theory.

    Elyse Petit, senior lecturer in French

    Licence of Lettres Modernes, Université of Perpignan (France), 1995Maitrise FLE (Français Langue Etrangère), Université of Perpignan (France), 1999M.A., University of Louisiana–Lafayette, 2010M.A., University of Arizona, 2013Ph.D., University of Arizona, 2017

    Petit collaborated with colleagues to develop innovative pedagogical frameworks grounded in literacy-based approaches that incorporate a wide range of technological tools. She also developed research studies around these pedagogical pilots, in which she examines student learning outcomes and the development of voice in a second language. She had developed carefully structured digital storytelling activities to aid students’ comprehension of how language is socially and culturally constructed within communities, and how they can express themselves and construct their own meanings through media creation. Recently, she started another research project in collaboration with a colleague on the use of Digital Social Reading (DSR) through the tool Live Margin.

    Lars Plate, assistant professor of chemistry

    B.S., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007Ph.D., University of California–Berkeley, 2013

    The focus of Plate’s research group is to define the dynamics and the temporal coordination of protein interaction networks in diverse biological processes. Altered protein-protein interactions are intricately linked to disease states ranging from cancer due to disparate signal transduction, to protein folding diseases as a result of aberrant engagement with protein folding pathways, to pathogenic infection through host-pathogen protein interactions co-opting cellular pathways. Understanding the pathological consequences of mis-timed and uncoordinated protein interactions on disease states will guide the identification of new therapeutic strategies. The research in his group leverages multidisciplinary approaches at the interface of chemistry and biology, including protein biochemistry, enzymology, microbiology, cell biology, and proteomics and drug discovery.

    Raisa Rexer, assistant professor of French

    B.A., Yale University, 2004M.St., Oxford University, 2005M.A., University of Pennsylvania, 2007M.Phil., Yale University, 2010Ph.D., Yale University, 2014

    Rexer’s research and teaching interests encompass a variety of topics, including narrative fiction and poetry, early photographic history, and the connection between the visual arts (particularly the photograph) and the written text. Her current book project, The Art of Exposure: Literature and the Photographic Nude in Nineteenth-Century France, examines the literary and cultural influence of the pornographic photograph in 19th-century France. Her next book project, on the fin-de-siècle French photo-illustrated novel, will continue to explore these questions as she examines the genre’s use of text and image in relation to Orientalist cultural fantasies, female authorship, representations of history, and the future of the novel after the invention of cinema. Additionally, she has published an article on the Orient, pornography and Romanticism in Flaubert’s travel letters and L’Éducation sentimentale; an article on Aimé Césaire, Marxism and Negritude; and a catalog essay on Degas’ monotypes and the iconography of early pornographic photography for the 2016 show on Edgar Degas at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. In addition, she is a regular contributing critic for the British art magazine Apollo.

    Christine Richter-Nilsson, lecturer in German

    M.A., Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen (Germany), 2000Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2017

    Richter-Nilsson received her M. A. in rhetorics and cultural studies from the Universität Tübingen. Her dissertation, “Dramatic Palimpsests: Remaking the Classics in Contemporary German and American Theater,” examines new theater adaptations of classics by German and American minority writers. Her research focuses on migration, flight and travel and examines how transcultural and transnational identities are represented in contemporary German literature and visual cultures. Her next project will explore transcultural and multilingual authorship and the act of translation as a writing mode.

    Tasha Rijke-Epstein, assistant professor of history

    B.A., Loyola College, 1997M.Phil., University of Cape Town (South Africa), 2006Ph.D., University of Michigan, 2017

    Rijke-Epstein’s research interests lie in the creative, spatial strategies employed by urban inhabitants over time as they have navigated tensions of belonging and have found ways to imagine new possibilities for their lives amidst shifting political-economic, social and infrastructural constraints. Her dissertation, “Architectures of Belonging: Urban Materiality, Historical Imagination, and Shifting Moral Registers in Mahajanga, Madagascar, 1890s to present,” examines the history and practices of urban place-making, planning and inhabitance, and focuses on the intersecting work of Malagasy and Comorian city dwellers, laborers, and planning experts in the production of a mid-size African city.

    Renã A.S. Robinson, associate professor of chemistry

    B.S., University of Louisville, 2000Ph.D., Indiana University, 2007

    Robinson’s RASR Laboratory uses state-of-the art proteomics and mass spectrometry technology to further our understanding of aging and age-related diseases. She is particularly interested in Alzheimer’s disease and sepsis and how the periphery is involved in these disorders. Recently, she has focused on using the lab’s technology to understand the molecular basis of health disparities in Alzheimer’s disease and sepsis. These questions require high-throughput analytical methodology, and the lab specializes in developing novel proteomics approaches involving mass spectrometry that are useful for analyzing complex biological tissues, increasing sample multiplexing capability, and studying oxidative post-translational modifications.

    Yuya Sasaki, associate professor of economics

    B.S., Utah State University, 2002M.S, Utah State University, 2007M.A., Brown University, 2008Ph.D., Brown University, 2012

    Sasaki studies econometrics and has worked on micro-econometric topics such as dynamic discrete choice models, income dynamics, measurement error models, panel data analysis, production functions, program evaluation methods, and quantile regressions. Many of his current projects are concerned with robust and uniform nonparametric inference as well as nonparametric identification in the above topics. His research is often motivated by issues encountered by empirical practitioners, and he is also interested in conducting empirical research by applying the knowledge and techniques in his expertise.

    Peter Schram, assistant professor of political science

    A.B., Princeton University, 2009Ph.D., Stanford University, 2017

    Schram’s research uses empirical and microeconomic methods to study counterinsurgency, economic development, and grey zone conflict. His research is structured around three central questions: Why do individuals support militant groups? How do insurgent groups organize and operate? And how do features of the global community and technology influence the characteristics of conflict? Before starting at Vanderbilt, Peter is working as a research specialist for UCSD’s Cross Domain Deterrence project, where he is adapting existing and developing new game theory models of deterrence and grey zone conflict.

    Heeryoon Shin, Mellon Assistant Professor of History of Art

    B.A. Seoul National University, 2004M.A., Yale University, 2011Ph.D., Yale University, 2015

    Shin’s work focuses on Buddhist art and architecture of the 19th century, with a particular emphasis on Banaras, India. Her research addresses the processes by which temples and other buildings were commissioned, designed and constructed. In addition, she considers the relationship between indigenous Indian forms and Western influences in sacred and secular architecture of the period. Her scholarship represents a global perspective on Asian visual culture.

    Bradley C. Smith, assistant professor of political science

    B.A., University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill, 2012Ph.D., University of Rochester, 2017

    Smith’s research focuses on questions at the intersection of international conflict and international cooperation. He utilizes both formal theory and statistical methods to analyze military cooperation in the international system. He is interested in both the conditions that lead to military cooperation, as well as the influence of realized military cooperation on international conflict outcomes.

    Ann Tate, assistant professor of biological sciences

    B.S., Rice University, 2009Ph.D., Princeton University, 2014

    Tate’s research focuses on the evolutionary ecology of immune systems and host-microbe interactions, using a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches. She is particularly interested in connecting within-host and between-host dynamics to understand reciprocal feedbacks driving disease transmission, parasite virulence evolution, and the genetic architecture of host resistance and tolerance to infection.

    Caglar Uyanik, assistant professor of mathematics

    B.S., Middle East Technical University (Turkey), 2008M.S., Middle East Technical University, 2010Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, May 2017

    Uyanik studies geometric group theory, geometric topology and dynamics—specifically, mapping class groups, outer automorphism groups of free groups and translation surfaces.

    Georgina White, lecturer in classical and Mediterranean studies

    B.A./M.A., Brasenose College, University of Oxford, 2008M.A., University of Pennsylvania, 2009M.A., Princeton University, 2013Ph.D., Princeton University, 2015

    White is an expert in Latin and Greek literature who specializes in the intellectual history of the Roman Republic, ancient political thought and its reception, and the theory and practice of translation. Her major research program explores the philosophy of Cicero, in which she has explored the themes of natural structure, time and medicine.

    Rhonda Williams, professor of history and John L. Seigenthaler Chair in American History

    B.S., University of Maryland, 1989Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, 1998

    Williams’ research interests include the manifestations of race and gender inequality on urban space and policy, social movements, and illicit narcotics economies in the post-1940s United States. She is the author of Concrete Demands: The Search for Black Power in the 20th Century (2015) and the award-winning The Politics of Public Housing: Black Women’s Struggles against Urban Inequality (2004). Williams is also the co-editor of the book series Justice, Power, and Politics published by the University of North Carolina Press and is co-editor of Teaching the American Civil Rights Movement. Her current research is focused on illicit narcotics economies in the post-1930s United States, and she continues to examine the history of black power politics in the United States.

    Thilo Womelsdorf, associate professor of psychology

    Diploma Psychology, Ruhr University Bochum (Germany), 2001Ph.D., Georg-August University (Göttingen, Germany), 2004

    Womelsdorf’s research strives to realize a far-reaching vision that combines the use of advanced neurotechnology and dynamical systems neuroscience approaches to develop a neuropsychiatric framework of brain network functioning, particularly in regard to attention and memory. The goal of this framework is to predict functional and dysfunctional attention and learning processes in primate brains (human and monkey) across several scales of neurobiological analyses.

    Mary Zaborskis, senior lecturer in women’s and gender studies

    A.B., Bryn Mawr College, 2012M.A., University of Pennsylvania, 2013Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, 2017

    Research and teaching interests include queer theory, childhood studies, critical race theory, Native American literature, disability studies, and 20th-century and contemporary American literature and culture. Her work has appeared in GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, WSQ and Journal of Homosexuality, and she is a contributing editor at Public Books.

    Matthew D. Zaragoza-Watkins, assistant professor of economics

    B.S., Cornell University, 2008M.S., University of California–Berkeley, 2011Ph.D., University of California–Berkeley, 2014

    Zaragoza-Watkins studies the intersection of industrial organization, energy and the environment. His research explores the design and performance of economy-wide and sector-specific environmental policies. Applying econometric techniques from labor economics to test theory from industrial organization and consumer behavior, his work provides new evidence on the nature of firms’ and households’ responses to regulation, often shedding light on the unanticipated consequences of existing policy.

    Law School

    Karla McKanders, clinical professor of law

    B.A., Spellman College, 2000J.D., Duke University School of Law, 2003

    McKanders’ scholarship interests are primarily in immigration and refugee law. Her scholarship grapples with the intricacies of national and international migration systems as well as the profound impacts of such systems on individuals and nations. Her articles have been published in the Harvard Journal on Racial and Ethnic Justice, the University of Iowa’s Gender Race and Social Justice Law Journal, Catholic Law Review and other law journals. She also has been cited as an authority on immigration and refugee law by Reuters, ABC News and Al-Jazeera, as well as many state and local news outlets.

    Lauren Rogal, assistant clinical professor of law

    B.A., University of Pennsylvania, 2004M.A., Johns Hopkins University, 2012J.D., University of Michigan Law School, 2011L.L.M., Georgetown University Law Center, 2017

    Rogal’s research focuses on tax and investment law as it pertains to community economic development and the charitable sector. The past two decades have seen rising interest in mission-based financing structures, innovative charity and social entrepreneurship. However, the regulatory landscape has not kept pace either with innovations in the field or with applicable economics scholarship. Rogal’s scholarship explores ways to more closely align tax and investment policies with legislative intent by incorporating contemporary economics research and evidence from practice.

    Owen Graduate School of Management

    Kelly Goldsmith, associate professor of management

    B.A., Duke University, 2001M.A., Yale University, 2006M.Phil., Yale University, 2007Ph.D., Yale University, 2009

    Goldsmith’s research interests include consumer response to risk and uncertainty, goals and consumer behavior, behavioral theory, and construal level theory. Her scholarship draws on and extends aspects of behavior theory, in showing that consumers can behave in ways counter to normative predictions and in demonstrating when and why consumers do so.

    Rita Nevada Gunn, assistant professor of accounting

    B.A./B.S., North Carolina State University, 2012Ph.D., Northwestern University, 2017

    Gunn’s research focuses on business acquisitions. She examines situations such as those where additional contingent payments are made if certain target levels are met (earn-outs) and those where privately held target firms possess large amounts of intangible assets. Paradoxically, she shows that when managers overstate the expected value of the earn-out to manage future earnings, these smoother earnings better predict future cash flows. She also compares the variance of synergies in private versus public targets.

    Peter H. Haslag, assistant professor of management (finance)

    B.S., Arizona State University, 2010M.S.F., Vanderbilt University, 2011Ph.D., Washington University in St. Louis, 2017

    Haslag is pursuing a broad research agenda that spans corporate finance and market microstructure. He examines how the organization of capital markets can impact decisions at the corporate level, and also in the context of liquidity provision as a function of the degree of fragmentation of order flow across trading venues.

    Kejia Hu, assistant professor of operations

    B.S., Fudan University (China), 2011M.S., University of California–Davis, 2013M.A., Northwestern University, 2017Ph.D., Northwestern University, 2017

    Hu’s research interests include empirical operations management, structural modeling and causal inference, service operations, sustainability management, and statistics and stochastic modeling. Her scholarship investigates consumer retrial by connecting customers’ decisions with their preferences on service aspects: the speed in service access and the quality in service delivered. She also studies product life cycle curves from historical demand data for use in forecasting demand of ready-to-launch new products.

    Berk A. Sensoy, Hans Stoll Professor of Finance

    B.S., Duke University, 1999M.B.A., University of Chicago, 2006Ph.D., University of Chicago, 2006

    Sensoy is an internationally recognized scholar in the research fields of private equity. He studies the capital formation process in the context of both venture capitalists (for firms before they trade publically) and leveraged buyouts (taking firms private after being held publically). These two research streams address issues in the fields of entrepreneurship and mergers and acquisitions.

    Melissa C. Thomas-Hunt, vice provost for inclusive excellence and professor of organization studies

    B.S., Princeton University, 1989M.S., Northwestern University, 1995Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1997

    Thomas-Hunt has several streams of scholarship. One stream of research, which she calls “Status and Group Members’ Influence,” studies how different people within a team can influence group decisions. A second stream of work, “Status and Managerial Assessment,” investigates how nonperformance-based characteristics of an employee affect how their work is assessed within organizations. Her earliest work was on negation addressing how negotiators process data during the negotiation process.

    Joshua T. White, assistant professor of management (finance)

    B.S., University of Tennessee, 2007M.B.A., University of Tennessee, 2008Ph.D., University of Tennessee, 2012

    White’s research focuses on the impact of securities regulation and disclosure requirements on the information differences between managers and investors and among different market participants (retail versus institutional investors). His current research interests are voluntary and mandatory corporate disclosure, analysts, cost-benefit analysis at the SEC, and over-the-counter markets.

    Peabody College of education and human development

    Amy Booth, professor of psychology and human development

    Sc.B., Brown University, 1993M.A., University of Virginia, 1995Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, 1998

    Booth studies cognitive development and learning in young children. In much of her work, she has explored interactions between categorization, conceptual knowledge and word learning in infants and preschoolers. With the support of a grant from the National Science Foundation, she is currently investigating the role of individual differences in children’s word-learning skills in explaining disparities in vocabulary and early literacy as children enter school. In another line of work, also supported by the National Science Foundation, Booth is investigating the origins of children’s scientific literacy by examining early interests in, and the ability to reason about, causal information. The long-term goals of both projects are to develop early interventions to close persistent achievement gaps and to optimize academic success for all children in both language and science.

    James Booth, professor of psychology and human development and Patricia and Rodes Hart Professor of Educational Neuroscience

    B.A., University of Michigan, 1990M.S., University of Maryland, 1993Ph.D., University of Maryland, 1995

    Booth is the Patricia and Rodes Hart Professor of Educational Neuroscience in the Department of Psychology and Human Development at Vanderbilt University. The overall goals of his research are to understand the brain mechanisms of the development of reading, math and scientific reasoning in typical and atypical populations. He has been continuously funded for close to two decades and has published extensively in diverse journals. He has served in various roles both within and outside of the university, such as departmental chairperson, review panel member and associate editor. Booth aims to facilitate the interaction between the fields of cognition, neuroscience and education.

    Brian Christens, associate professor of human and organizational development

    B.A., Auburn University, 2002M.S., Vanderbilt University, 2004Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2008

    Christens studies processes that enhance people’s and organizations’ ability to take action to benefit their communities and alter power structures. His research provides insights into the mechanisms linking civic participation to individual and collective well-being, and how different approaches to civic action can lead to different outcomes. His research lies at the intersection of community psychology, human development, community development and public health.

    Nicole Cobb, senior lecturer in human and organizational development

    B.S., Tennessee Technological University, 1996M.A., Tennessee Technological University, 1998Ed.D., University of Tennessee, 2011

    Cobb has worked in education for 21 years as a teacher, school counselor and administrator at the district and state levels. Her professional experience has allowed her to link research to practice in the field of school counseling, specifically as it relates to school climate, crisis response, college access and school counselor effectiveness.

    Bradley Erford, professor of human and organizational development

    B.S., Grove City CollegeM.A., Bucknell UniversityPh.D., University of Virginia

    Erford’s research specialization falls primarily in the areas of outcome research and the development and technical analysis of psycho-educational tests. He is most interested in determining what we know that works in counseling, especially in our work with school-aged youth.

    Ocheze Joseph, lecturer in teaching and learning

    B.S., Lincoln University, 1996M.A., Johns Hopkins University, 1999Ed.D., University of Maryland, 2009

    Joseph’s research has focused on school districts’ best practices and programs to retain novice teachers. She has gained additional interest in analyzing the literacy needs of new teachers and best practices that support students’ reading achievement.

    Yolanda McDonald, assistant professor of human and organizational development

    B.A., University of Texas–El Paso, 2009M.A., University of Texas–El Paso, 2012Ph.D., Texas A&M University, 2017

    McDonald focuses her research interests on health disparities, health care access, cervical cancer prevention, public water infrastructure and quality, and big geospatial data uses. Her research applies an interdisciplinary focus on the intersections of health geography, geographic information systems, and epidemiology on health disparities and health inequalities.

    Jessica Perkins, assistant professor of human and organizational development

    B.S., Davidson College, 2005S.M., Harvard School of Public Health, 2008Ph.D., Harvard University, 2015

    Perkins’ broad areas of research expertise within community and global health include social epidemiology and social psychology. Her main line of research focuses on how social networks and misperceptions of social norms impact health-related behaviors and attitudes, typically among low-resource and secondary school populations. The goal of her work is to inform the development of behavioral health interventions to reduce negative behaviors such as risky alcohol use and violence in rural Uganda, as well as promote positive behaviors such as HIV testing. Perkins also uses a similar framework to study bullying, substance use, and food and beverage consumption among youth across middle schools and high schools in the United States and the United Kingdom.

    Matthew Shaw, assistant professor of public policy and education

    A.B., University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill, 2002J.D., Columbia University, 2005Ed.M., Harvard University, 2014Ed.D., Harvard University, 2016

    Shaw is a sociologist of law whose research focuses on educational institutions and the students, educators and communities who engage with them. As a scholar in the law and society tradition, his work brings together critical legal studies and econometrics to enhance his sociological methods. His current projects are on laws that shape the experiences of undocumented youth as they transition from high school to college; Title IX as a directive on educational institutions; and funding challenges experienced by Historically Black Colleges and Universities.

    Anita Wager, professor of the practice of mathematics education

    B.S., University of Delaware, 1983M.B.A., Columbia University, 1986M.A.T., Johns Hopkins University, 2000Ph.D., University of Wisconsin–Madison, 2008

    Wager’s research focuses on teacher education that supports culturally relevant and socially just mathematics teaching in early childhood and elementary school. She is particularly interested in practices that draw on children’s multiple mathematical resources, including mathematical thinking, mathematics (and other) experiences in homes and communities, and the mathematics children engage with in play.

    School of Engineering

    Daniel Arena, senior lecturer in computer science

    B.A., Rutgers University, 1986M.A., Rutgers University, 1990

    Arena teaches the following courses: CS
1101 Programming and Problem Solving, CS 1151 Computers and Ethics, and CS 2212 Discrete Structures.

    Joshua D. Caldwell
, associate professor of mechanical engineering and of electrical engineering

    B.A., Virginia Tech, 2000Ph.D., University of Florida, 2004

    Caldwell’s research focuses on the confinement of electromagnetic energy and charged particles in the nano- to atomic-scale dimensions and the interactions between such confined systems. This involves the sub-diffractional confinement of light using “polaritons” within the optical spectral domain (primarily the infrared), the design of nanoscale optical components, and identifying and characterizing novel optical, electro-optical and electronic materials.

    Yuche Chen, research assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering

    B.S., Central South University of Technology (Changsha, China)
, 2006M.S., Zhejiang University (Hangzhou, China), 2008Ph.D., University of California–Davis, 2014

    Chen’s research involves sustainable transportation systems, including the impact of energy and the environmental aspects of autonomous vehicles; all mobile emissions impact with air quality and alternative transportation infrastructure and operational designs; and big data analytics of these options.

    Neal P. Dillon, research assistant professor of mechanical engineering

    B.S., Villanova University, 2008Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2017

    Dillon focuses on medical robotics and image-guided surgery, design of medical devices, dynamics and control, biomechanical modeling, medical image processing, error modeling and analysis of surgical systems, and parallel robot design and analysis.

    Shannon L. Faley, research assistant professor of mechanical engineering

    B.E. (Biomedical Engineering), Vanderbilt University, 1999B.S. (Physics), Vanderbilt University, 1999M.S., Vanderbilt University, 2002Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2007

    Faley’s research focuses on developing biomimetic in vitro tissue models for disease modeling and regenerative medicine applications. Using sacrificial materials that are 3D printed, spun into fibers, or readily available, they are currently fabricating fluidic hydrogels that mimic capillary- to arteriole-sized vasculature and examining the effects of fluidic shear upon endothelial barrier integrity.

    Ana Gainaru, research assistant professor of computer science

    B.S., University Politehnica of Bucharest, 2008M.S., University Politehnica of Bucharest, 2010Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2015

    Gainaru’s main research focus is on applying machine learning and signal analysis methods to solving big data problems in general, and specifically for sparse graph applications used in neuroscience. Her work will be divided among all levels of the software stack, starting with the application and the middleware it uses. While software solutions are the first step for better understanding these applications, she is also interested in creating new hardware architecture models designed specifically for them. Optimizing the communication patterns and workflow will allow scientists to gather and analyze data at a new level of detail.

    Kelsey B. Hatzell, assistant professor of mechanical engineering

    B.A. (Economics), Swarthmore College, 2009B.S. (Engineering), Swarthmore College, 2009M.S., Pennsylvania State University, 2012Ph.D., Drexel University, 2015

    Hatzell’s group seeks to understand far-from-equilibrium multiphase colloidal material systems for energy and water applications. They examine multicomponent inks for advanced additive manufacturing of energy storage and conversion, sensors and biomedical applications. To probe the complex interactions in multicomponent material systems, they use a host of in-situ and ex-situ electron, neutron and X-ray characterization techniques. The group broadly seeks to understand how it can use novel materials processing approaches and manufacturing platforms to combine materials in synergistic ways that can contribute to augmented material properties and performance in engineered devices.

    Richard J. Hendrick, research assistant professor of mechanical engineering

    B.S., Texas A&M University, 2011Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2017

    Hendrick’s focuses are hand-held deployment of intelligent, robotic tools for surgery that seamlessly fit into the clinical workflow; embedded robotic system design and control for minimally and non-invasive surgery; continuum robot design, modeling and optimization for minimally invasive surgery; and robotic system design for natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery.

    Piran Kidambi, assistant professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering

    B.S., National Institute of Technology (Tiruchirappalli, India), 2006M.S., Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Zurich, Switzerland), 2010Ph.D., University of Cambridge, 2014

    Kidambi’s research leverages the intersection between in-situ metrology, process engineering and material science to enable bottom-up novel materials design and synthesis for energy, novel membranes, electronics, catalysis, metrology and health care applications. Kidambi’s research in two-dimensional materials synthesis, device integration and processing for applications has been recognized by several awards and honors, including the Lindemann Trust Fellowship U.K., the Elizabeth Mabel Burnett Prize from Cambridge, and first prize in the ABTA Doctoral Thesis Awards. Kidambi anticipates being an active participant in the Vanderbilt Institute for Nanoscale Science and Engineering.

    Michael King, professor of biomedical engineering and radiology and radiological sciences and J. Lawrence Wilson Chair in Biomedical Engineering

    B.S., University of Rochester, 1995Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 2000

    King’s research combines concepts of cellular engineering, drug delivery and nanotechnology. He focuses on the receptor-mediated adhesion of circulating cells, and has developed new computational and in vitro models to study the function of leukocytes, platelets, stem and circulating tumor cells under flow. Additionally, King has written textbooks on the subjects of statistical methods and microchannel flows.

    Yiorgos Kostoulas, associate professor of the practice of engineering management

    B.S., University of Thessaloniki (Greece), 1989M.A., University of Rochester, 1991Ph.D., University of Rochester, 1996M.B.A., Boston College, 2001

    Alice Leach, research assistant professor of materials science and engineering

    M.Chem., University of Oxford, 2012Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2017

    Leach is primarily focused on the development and implementation of undergraduate courses in the VINSE cleanroom. Current areas of focus include nanoscale fabrication and characterization, semiconductor materials processing, and microfluidic device design. She also contributes to the research and teaching initiatives of VINSE faculty.

    Ilwoo Lyu, research assistant professor of computer science

    B.S., Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 2009M.S., Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 2011Ph.D., University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill, 2017

    Lyu’s research interest is mainly in developing novel algorithms for medical image analysis. His current research focuses on surface-based analysis to understand/explore highly convoluted shapes such as the brain. In particular, he is working on surface registration, anatomical/geometric feature extraction/recognition, statistical shape analysis and 3D visualization.

    Justus Ndukaife, assistant professor of electrical engineering

    B.S., University of Lagos (Nigeria), 2010M.S., Purdue University–Calumet, 2012Ph.D., Purdue University–West Lafayette, 2017

    Ndukaife’s past and current research work is at the interface between the fields of nanophotonics and microfluidics; micro and nanoscale motors; and novel bio-inspired soft actuators and robots for applications in nanoparticle assembly, sensing, imaging, food security, energy harvesting, quantum photonics and on-chip nano-manufacturing.

    Dominique Piot, lecturer in computer science

    M.Eng., Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon (France), 1974Master of Applied Mathematics and Informatics, Université de Lyon, 1977

    Piot teaches the following courses: CS1101: An introductory class to problem- solving and Java language; CS2231: Processor architecture and assembly language (more specifically ARM); and CS2212: Discrete structures – how to prove that a program is correct.

    Cynthia Reinhart-King, Cornelius Vanderbilt Professor of Biomedical Engineering

    S.B., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2000Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, 2006

    Reinhart-King’s research focuses on how cells interact with their environments and how mechanical and chemical changes in tissues can promote disease. Her work brings together tools from engineering, biology and medicine to build and utilize novel models of disease. Her research seeks to develop new tools and identify new targets to prevent disease progression.

    Janos Sallai, research assistant professor of electrical engineering, computer engineering and computer science

    M.Sc., Technical University of Budapest, 2001Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2008

    Sallai is a research assistant professor at the Institute for Software Integrated Systems. His research areas include model integrated computing and cyber-physical systems, with emphasis on low-power localization and sensor fusion algorithms. He has worked on collaborative, component-based modeling and metamodeling environments for chemical and material science applications, and he has an extensive track record on sensor network-based shooter localization applications and has recently developed data-driven and machine learning techniques for acoustic shot detection. He has published more than 70 scientific papers, and he is the co-author on two patents. In addition, Sallai has worked on several DARPA projects related to acoustic shooter localization and has been the co-P.I. of an effort to build a smartphone-based counter-sniper system.

    Carlos A. Silvera Batista, assistant professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering

    B.E., City College of New York, 2005Ph.D., University of Florida, 2011

    Formerly a President’s Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Michigan, Silvera Batista plans to establish a multiscale control over the assembly of colloids. He seeks to improve control over the structure of soft materials through the manipulation of the shape and chemistry of colloidal building blocks as well as interparticle forces. He also will investigate the design of materials with high barrier properties for food packaging. Silvera Batista plans to engage broadly with the Vanderbilt Institute for Nanoscale Science and Engineering. He has extensive experience in service and outreach and has proposed an innovative set of plans to bolster the engagement of the Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering at Vanderbilt with Latin America.

    Vikash Singh, assistant professor of the practice of computer science

    B.Arch, Birla Institute of Technology (Ranchi, India), 2002M.S., Mississippi State University, 2006Ph.D., University of North Carolina–Charlotte, 2015

    Singh’s research interests include human-computer interaction, collaboration tools and computer science pedagogy. His recent research has focused on team-based and video-centered active learning. He has received National Science Foundation I-corps and STTR grants to study, develop and commercialize tools for detailed and accurate discussion of video material targeting the flipped classroom model for STEM higher education.

    Eric Spivey, research assistant professor of biomedical engineering

    B.S.E., Duke University, 1997Ph.D., University of Texas–Austin, 2012

    Spivey’s focuses include the development of tools for single-cell culture, segregation and analysis through fabrication of defined cellular micro-environments; and the construction of high-throughput microfluidic and optical systems to enable registration of mass spectrometry data to other analytical techniques at the single-cell scale.

    Hongyang Sun, research assistant professor of computer science

    B.Eng., Nanyang Technological University
 (Singapore), 2005M.Sc., National University of Singapore and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006Ph.D., Nanyang Technological University, 2011

    Sun’s research focuses on improving the performance, energy efficiency and resilience of high-performance computing (HPC) systems and Cloud computing systems, with applications for processing data-intensive workload and performing big data analytics. His work so far has included establishing solid theoretical foundations as well as solving practical problems for both HPC and Cloud. He has proposed novel algorithms and techniques that span multiprocessor and multicore scheduling, energy-efficient or green computing, datacenter power and thermal managements, and HPC fault tolerance. His most recent research starts to consider data-intensive computing by looking at clustering and partitioning algorithms for large datasets (e.g., represented by sparse graphs/matrices), and by applying the research findings to help enhance and advance medical/neuroscience research while doing data analysis from these domains.

    Manav Vohra, research assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering

    B.Tech., Indian Institute of Technology (Dhanbad, India), 2010M.S.E., Johns Hopkins University, 2012Ph.D., Duke University, 2015

    Vohra has served two years as a postdoc, one at Corning, Inc. and the other at the University of Texas at Austin. He has strong research experience in uncertainty quantification and experimental design, with applications in fluid mechanics and materials. He also has a strong background in heat transfer and numerical methods. He is working with Sankaran Mahadevan, John R. Murray Sr. Chair in Engineering, on his research in civil and environmental engineering.

    Daniel M. Work, associate professor of civil and environmental engineering

    B.S., Ohio State University, 2006M.S., University of California–Berkeley, 2007Ph.D., University of California–Berkeley, 2010

    Work’s research is traffic modeling and transportation systems in interdisciplinary contexts, specifically civil, electrical, computer engineering and applied mathematics. He also concentrates on traffic engineering by improving human mobility while mitigating its negative environmental impacts.

    School of Medicine (Basic Sciences)

    Jun-Song Chen, research instructor 
in cell and developmental biology

    B.S., Zhejiang University, 1994Ph.D., Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry, 2011

    Chen studies function and regulation of proteins involved in cell division using fission yeast as the model organism. He currently focuses on a protein called Fic1, which is involved in cytokinesis regulation. He also uses liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) to identify protein-protein interaction and protein post-translational modification in fission yeast and mammalian cells.

    Rocco G. Gogliotti, research instructor in pharmacology

    B.S., Eastern Michigan University, 2004Ph.D., Northwestern University, 2012Postdoctoral research fellow, Vanderbilt University, 2016

    Gogliotti’s two main projects have focused on the role of the mGlu5 and mGlu7 receptors in MeCP2-related disorders. His research interests are in pediatric diseases of the nervous system focused on autism spectrum disorder. He has been a driving force behind what is now a major research focus of Rett syndrome.

    Erkan Karakas, assistant professor of molecular physiology and biophysics

    B.S., Middle East Technical University (Turkey), 2002Ph.D., Stony Brook University, 2006

    Karakas’ research focuses on understanding the molecular mechanism of mitochondrial calcium signaling that regulates cellular bioenergetics and cell fate decisions. He uses a multidisciplinary approach that includes structural biology, biophysics and biochemistry to study the structure and function of ion channels involved in calcium signaling.

    Teresa H. Sanders, research assistant professor of pharmacology

    B.S., University of Alabama–HuntsvilleM.S., University of California–Los AngelesPh.D., Georgia Institute of Technology
, 2014Postdoctoral fellow, Emory University

    Sanders’ research focuses on the emerging area of cognitive enhancement and neuroepigenetics. Specific research areas include learning and memory, basic molecular biology, molecular neurobiology, synaptic plasticity and behavior, neuropharmacology, and pharmacoepigenetics.

    Jenny Schafer, 
 research assistant professor
 of cell and developmental biology

    B.S., Rhodes College, 1998Ph.D., University of Alabama–Birmingham, 2006

    Schafer is a trained cell biologist and experienced microscopist currently working as the managing director of Vanderbilt’s Cell Imaging Shared Resource (CISR). Her research background has focused on studying cilia formation in C. elegans as well as researching vesicle trafficking in mammalian cells. Her current position within CISR allows her to stay on the cutting edge of modern microscopy by training users on current microscopes, assisting researchers with experimental design, and collaborating with Vanderbilt research centers and investigators on center grant support.

    School of Medicine

    Mingfeng Bai,
 assistant professor of radiology and radiological sciences

    B.S., Nankai University (Tianjin, China), 2001M.S., Vanderbilt University, 2003Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2007

    Bai’s research interests are fluorescent probe and photosensitizer development, fluorescence imaging, photodynamic therapy, multifunctional drug delivery systems, and intraoperative imaging. The Bai laboratory develops targeted molecular probes for cancer imaging and therapy purposes, particularly fluorescence imaging agents and photosensitizers, with the ultimate goal of moving their basic science discoveries to the clinic.

    Jennifer Below, assistant professor of medicine

    B.A., Carleton College, 2003Ph.D., University of Chicago, 2011

    Below is interested in developing and applying computational methodologies to further our understanding of the genetic basis of human disease. She’s solved the problem of maximal unrelated set identification in arbitrarily large genetic datasets using a novel application of graph theory, and is tackling the reverse problem of reconstructing pedigrees from estimates of genomic sharing. She’s expanding this work to genetically heterogeneous and admixed populations. She’s also worked through the Center for Mendelian Genomics to develop and apply methods to identify the genetic cause of Mendelian diseases using high- density next-generation sequence data.

    Laura Beskow, professor of health policy

    B.S., Iowa State University, 1985M.P.H., Boston University, 1995Ph.D., University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill, 2005

    Beskow’s research focuses on ethics and policy issues in biomedical research, particularly human subjects issues in large-scale genomic and translational research. Her work integrates both qualitative and quantitative social science methods. Examples of topics she has studied include research recruitment, informed consent, confidentiality protections, the return of research results to participants and families, and research use of electronic health records.

    Jordan Everson, assistant professor of health policy

    B.A., Duke University, 2008M.P.H., Georgetown University, 2012Ph.D., University of Michigan, 2017

    Everson’s research exemplifies an interest in how information, practice and patients move through the health care delivery system. He studies the adoption and use of health information technology and explores opportunities to facilitate better coordination as patients traverse the complex delivery system through electronic health information exchange. Principally, he aims to help shape how public programs are designed to facilitate achieving high-value coordinated care supported by the well-designed use of information technology.

    Ayush Giri, assistant professor of obstetrics and gynecology

    B.A., Knox College, 2006M.S., University of Massachusetts–Amherst, 2011Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2015

    Giri’s primary research interests involve the genetics of racial health disparities and gene-environment interactions as it relates to various chronic women’s health conditions. His interests also encompass understanding the epidemiology of thyroid disease and genetics of several quantitative traits, including BMI, height and blood pressure.

    Jacob Houghton, assistant professor of radiology and radiological sciences

    B.A., Carleton College, 2007Ph.D., University of Michigan, 2012

    Houghton’s research focuses on the development of molecular imaging tools for cancer. His primary focus is the development of antibody-based PET imaging agents as diagnostic and staging tools for pancreatic cancer. Additionally, his laboratory develops optical, molecularly targeted imaging tools for surgical navigation.

    Brian Lindman, associate professor of medicine

    B.S., Duke University, 1997M.A., Reformed Theological Seminary, 2001M.D., Vanderbilt University, 2003M.S.C.I., Washington University, 2012

    Lindman’s research is focused on clinical and translational projects on calcific aortic stenosis, using sophisticated imaging techniques and a biobank of specimens to elucidate the pathology of aortic stenosis and the effects of pressure overload on the left ventricle and pulmonary vasculature. He has a particular interest in how diabetes affects these processes and aims to identify novel targets for adjunctive medical therapy to improve clinical outcomes in patients with aortic stenosis.

    Jeffrey Neul,
 professor of pediatrics
 and director of the Vanderbilt Kennedy Center

    B.S., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1991Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1998M.D., University of Chicago, 2000

    Neul joins Vanderbilt as head of the Division of Child Neurology and as the director of the Vanderbilt Kennedy Center. A child neurologist and an internationally recognized expert in genetic neurodevelopmental disorders, specifically Rett syndrome, Neul conducts clinical research and clinical trials, research to identify other genetic causes of neurodevelopmental disorders, and translational research using disease models to identify and test novel treatment modalities for these disorders.

    Tuya Pal,
 associate professor of medicine

    M.D., McGill University, 1992

    Pal’s research interests focus on epidemiological studies of inherited cancer predisposition. Her research has spanned the continuum of cancer prevention and control, with evaluations of genetic etiology, cancer risks and outcomes, including efforts among underserved populations. She also has evaluated the care delivery of genetic services, including identification, access, utilization, quality of care and follow-up care. Her efforts among underserved ethnically and racially diverse populations of young women with breast cancer have focused on both the prevention and control of cancer, as well as care delivery, including development of educational and outreach efforts to enhance awareness about inherited breast cancer.

    Kristine Phillips, associate professor of medicine

    B.S., Louisiana State University, 1988Ph.D., Louisiana State University, 1993M.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1995M.S., University of Michigan, 2016

    Phillips’ research interests have been directed at improving the outcomes of patients with arthritis and related autoimmune diseases. She and her colleagues have studied the pathophysiology and epidemiology of rheumatologic diseases in prospective longitudinal cohorts. Related translational studies have focused on the role of inflammation in the development of chronic disease.

    Cassianne Robinson-Cohen, assistant professor of medicine

    B.S., McGill University, 2004M.S., Université de Sherbrooke (Québec, Canada), 2008Ph.D., University of Washington, 2012

    Robinson-Cohen’s research interests lie in the areas of cardiovascular, clinical and genetic epidemiology. She focuses on understanding risk factors for and consequences of mineral metabolism disturbances in the general population and in chronic kidney disease. Further interests include identifying risk factors for and potential treatment options to address the disproportionate burden of cardiovascular disease in the setting of chronic kidney disease.

    Douglas Ruderfer, assistant professor of medicine

    B.S., Johns Hopkins University, 2004M.S., Johns Hopkins University, 2004Ph.D., Cardiff University (Wales), 2013

    Ruderfer has spent the last 10 years applying computational approaches to answering fundamental questions in genetics, specifically elucidating the genetic causes of psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. His work has contributed substantially to what is currently known about the genetic architecture of these diseases, including seminal publications on the polygenic nature of these disorders. In particular, his work has provided integral contributions to the ability to analyze and assess the role of copy number variation to disease risk. He developed some of the earliest methods to analyze these data and demonstrated extensive contribution of this class of variation to schizophrenia risk.

    Jere Segrest, professor of medicine

    B.A., Vanderbilt University, 1962M.D., Vanderbilt University, 1967Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 1969

    Segrest has a broad background in chemistry, physics and biochemistry, with specific training and experience in proteins, membranes and lipoproteins. He has a particular interest in computational and experimental structural biology of lipoproteins. Recently, he took the high-risk approach of using a computational approach—molecular dynamics (MD) simulations—to aid in exploring the dynamic structure of both discoidal and spheroidal (circulating) HDL. In spite of the high risk, he has published 13 high-impact papers that, for the first time, provide a robust model of HDL structure at the all-atom level.

    Staci Sudenga, assistant professor of medicine

    B.A., Luther College, 2007M.P.H., University of Alabama–Birmingham, 2009Ph.D., University of Alabama–Birmingham, 2013

    Sudenga’s research program focuses on infections and cancer, the natural history of infections, and the synergy between infections. The goal is to identify modifiable factors associated with acquisition of infections and to identify biologically meaningful associations between the host and pathogen that can be translated into primary prevention efforts, early diagnosis or treatment.

    Ran Tao, assistant professor of biostatistics

    B.S., Tsinghua University (Beijing, China), 2010Ph.D., University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill, 2016

    Tao’s research focuses include developing novel statistical methods to solve problems arising in the design and analysis of modern biomedical and public health studies, including genome-wide association studies, next-generation sequencing studies, and electronic health records systems. His current research topics include design and analysis of two-phase studies and association analysis under complex survey sampling.

    Eric Tkaczyk, assistant professor of medicine

    B.S., Purdue University, 2003M.S.E., University of Michigan, 2007Ph.D., University of Michigan, 2010

    Tkaczyk is a physician-scientist with a research interest in biophotonics for diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases. His current projects focus on cutaneous imaging in cGVHD and its impact on disease diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

    Norman Trevathan, professor of pediatrics

    B.S., Lipscomb University, 1977M.D., Emory University, 1982M.P.H., Emory University, 1982

    Trevathan joins Vanderbilt having previously served as the executive vice president and provost, as well as professor of neuroscience, at Baylor University. As a former administrator and senior leader with the CDC, Trevathan facilitated the research efforts of his faculty and colleagues. At Vanderbilt, he will pursue his own research, writing, clinical activity and teaching in his specialty of pediatric neurology.

    Vivian Weiss, assistant professor of pathology, microbiology and immunology

    B.A., Columbia University, 2004M.D., Johns Hopkins University, 2012Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 2012

    Weiss’ research focuses on merging molecular diagnostics and cytopathology, as well as understanding the molecular basis underlying thyroid lesions. Her projects include developing a qPCR expression assay that can be used as an adjunct to next-generation sequencing to establish sampling adequacy in thyroid lesions to obtain diagnostic, prognostic and targeted therapy information.

    School of Nursing

    Jennifer David, instructor in nursing

    B.S., Valdosta State University, 2000M.S.N., Vanderbilt University, 2014

    Cristy DeGregory, assistant professor of nursing

    B.S.N., University of Pittsburg, 2002M.S.N., Drexel University, 2006Ph.D., University of South Carolina, 2014

    Diane Folk, instructor in nursing

    B.S.N., Jacksonville University, 2008M.S.N., State University of New York Health Science Center, 2010D.N.P., Chatham University, 2012

    Ruth Kleinpell, professor of nursing and assistant dean for clinical scholarship

    B.S.N., University of Illinois, 1986M.S., University of Illinois, 1988Ph.D., University of Illinois, 1991Ns. Pract., Rush University, 1995

    Kleinpell has conducted research in several areas of focus, including roles of acute care nurse practitioners, outcomes of advanced practice nurses, quality of life of critically ill elders, and use of telehealth to promote post-operative recovery. She has received funding for several clinical projects, including one targeting hypoglycemia prevention funded by the American Association of Critical Care Nurses; a falls prevention initiative funded by the American Organization of Nurse Executives; and a project focused on improving workplace morale for nurses funded by the Prince Foundation, among others.

    Mariann Piano, professor of nursing and senior associate dean for research

    B.S.N., Loyola University of Chicago, 1979M.S.N., University of Illinois–Chicago, 1984Ph.D., University of Illinois–Chicago, 1989

    Piano’s program of research focuses on elucidating the adverse cardiovascular risks, outcomes and mechanisms associated with unhealthy patterns of alcohol consumption, such as binge drinking. Her research team has established that binge drinking in young adults is associated with changes in vascular biology and function that may increase their risk for future adverse cardiovascular events. Other studies are underway to examine techniques for the measurement of binge drinking behavior among young adults and how the use of alcohol consumption biomarkers, such as phosphatidylethanol, can be used in research settings to validate drinking behaviors.

    Susan Piras, instructor in nursing

    B.S.N., Cedar Crest College, 1982M.S.N., Duke University, 2009Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2016

    Piras’ focus is nursing research, specifically that exploring the relationship between role modeling and health care behaviors and enforcing and redirecting behaviors related to safe practice.

    Patty Sengstack, associate professor of nursing

    B.S.N., University of Maryland, 1982M.S.N., University of Maryland, 1988Post-master’s in nursing, University of Maryland, 2002D.N.P., Vanderbilt University, 2010

    Sengstack teaches informatics at the master’s and doctoral levels, focusing the last several years on health information technology’s impact on patient safety. She recently published the book Mastering Informatics: A Healthcare Handbook for Success. She is also the chief nursing informatics officer for the Bon Secours Health System and past president of the American Nursing Informatics Association. She also serves on the Health and Human Service’s Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT’s (ONC) Standards Committee. She currently co-chairs ONC’s Consumer Task Force to provide insight on HHS/ONC initiatives with a consumer focus.

    Terrance Sims, instructor in nursing

    B.S.N., Kaplan University, 2013M.S.N., Kaplan University, 2016

    Julia Steed, assistant professor of nursing

    B.S.N., Middle Tennessee State University, 2006M.S.N., Vanderbilt University, 2010Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2017

    Steed’s focus is health services research. Her dissertation study examines the influence of perceived health risk on smoking behaviors among hospitalized smokers.

    Dominique Stratton, lecturer in nursing

    B.S.N., George Mason University, 2009M.S.N., Vanderbilt University, 2014

    Stratton’s research includes the competency tools used to measure the manner in which nurses use clinical research for effective resource allocation in daily practice.

    Marci Zsamboky, lecturer in nursing

    B.S.N., Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 1985M.S.N., University of Pittsburg, 1994

    Zsamboky’s focus is nursing science.

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