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HP2-B68 - HP AC Integration and Support Technical(R) - Job Accounting - BrainDump Information

Vendor Name : HP
Exam Code : HP2-B68
Exam Name : HP AC Integration and Support Technical(R) - Job Accounting
Questions and Answers : 40 Q & A
Updated On : November 16, 2018
PDF Download Mirror : HP2-B68 Braindumps
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HP2-B68 exam Dumps Source : HP AC Integration and Support Technical(R) - Job Accounting

Test Code : HP2-B68
Test Name : HP AC Integration and Support Technical(R) - Job Accounting
Vendor Name : HP
Q&A : 40 Real Questions

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HP HP AC Integration and

AC electric powered Motor sales in Oil & gas Market value $13.2 Billion by way of 2023 - unique document via MarketsandMarkets™ | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

No effect discovered, try new keyword!in accordance with the brand new market research report "AC electric powered Motor sales in Oil & fuel Market by using type (Induction & Synchronous), Voltage ( 1 KV, 1-6.6 kV, > 6.6 kV), Output vigor, HP ( 1 HP, > 1 HP), Outpu...

HP Honors Veterans Day with New Reinvent Mindsets film, 'question me About' | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

PALO ALTO, Calif., Nov. 12, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- these days on U.S. Veterans Day, HP is continuing its award-winning Reinvent Mindsets campaign with ‘question me About’, a brand new short film designed to honor and inspire the veteran group to pursue careers at HP, while working to establish and reduce unconscious bias in veteran hiring.

In a contemporary examine, one quarter (25%) of veterans stated that a job interviewer had preconceptions about them as a result of their time in the defense force, while just about a fifth (18%) felt their interviewer misunderstood what their military position entailed while serving1. ‘question me About’ elements testimonials and insights from true veterans, spanning a diverse range of age, race and gender. Two HP veteran personnel are additionally featured in the film: Jason Fraser, global head of VR working towards, and Beth Woloszyn-Redman, research analyst.

“variety is more than a values issue, it is a business critical. This Veterans Day, we're reminding all armed forces veterans that HP is hiring, and talent is our best criteria,” spoke of Lesley Slaton Brown, chief variety officer. “This movie is a bold example of making a choice on an perception and tackling it head on to cut back unconscious bias that may dangle accurate candidates returned from essential jobs.”

See the new film right here:  https://youtu.be/zTmMyJgICpY

‘inquire from me About’ follows 5 other effective films from HP within the Reinvent Mindsets crusade that each one aim to establish key insights in hiring distinct talent that help to address unconscious bias:

About HP’s EffortsHP presents unconscious bias practicing in any respect levels of the company, starting with international ability acquisition company and leaders. HP is increasing the practising courses for hiring managers throughout the company: via the conclusion of the year HP will have proficient over 1,000 hiring managers through the business’s unconscious bias program.

HP employs veterans in 40 US states spanning all business gadgets and capabilities. desirable five job features full of veteran candidates are features, engineering, engineering services, revenue, and provide chain & operations.

HP also launched the Veterans Hiring Invitational, a recruiting application that brings veteran candidates from native universities for an introduction to HP by means of panel discussions, tours, and conversations with hiring managers. local Veteran impact network (VIN) at HP campus sites comprises Boise, Corvallis, Vancouver, Rio Rancho, Houston and Palo Alto. HP also works with local veteran companies reminiscent of employ Heroes to help with resumes, translating militia work into company knowledge, and sourcing candidates.

moreover the Veterans Hiring Invitational, the enterprise turned into also the title sponsor for the Silicon Valley Veterans Summit at San Jose State university final week, the place HP participated in a morning of dialog round integration into the civilian body of workers, advantages for spouses/households, and the entertaining challenges and alternatives forward for veterans in the hunt for employment in the inner most sector.

extra tips

About HP

HP Inc. creates expertise that makes lifestyles more suitable for everyone, in all places. through our portfolio of printers, PCs, cell devices, solutions, and features, we engineer experiences that amaze. extra suggestions about HP Inc. is accessible at http://www.hp.com

1Barclays look at, may additionally 2016: Barclays armed forces Transition Employment and Resettlement (AFTER)

©Copyright 2018 HP building company, L.P. The information contained herein is area to alternate with out be aware. The simplest warranties for HP products and features are set forth within the categorical warranty statements accompanying such products and capabilities. Nothing herein should be construed as constituting an further warranty. HP shall not be liable for technical or editorial error or omissions contained herein.


HP Chromebook x360 14 unveiled with top class convertible design | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

HP has launched a brand new premium computer operating Google’s Chrome OS, the brand new HP Chromebook x360 14. This model boasts convertible performance, what HP calls a top rate design, and durability thanks partially to a defensive, decorative coating. in contrast to many Chromebooks, the Chromebook x360 has a pretty big screen at 14-inches, and it additionally packs 8th-technology Intel Core processors.

The HP Chromebook x360 14 features a 14-inch Full HD IPS monitor with a WLED backlight, multitouch help, and an area-to-side design. patrons have a couple processor options, the eighth-generation Intel Core i3 and i5, these joined by way of 64GB eMMC inner storage and 8GB of RAM.

The Chromebook can be used with Skype and equivalent video chatting application thanks to a developed-in HP vast vision HD webcam with dual-array digital microphones. A 360-diploma hinge makes the Chromebook x360 a “convertible” model, enabling the reveal to be rotated returned into one in all 4 distinctive modes.

The chassis is metallic and covered with what HP calls a “ceramic-like” finish, the influence being whatever that appears like ceramic but maintains an improved level of sturdiness. Connectivity is fairly commonplace with Bluetooth four.2 and 802.11b/g/n/ac WiFi. different features consist of battery life lasting up to 13 hours and 30 minutes per can charge, a “barely visible bezel,” and B&O PLAY audio alongside twin speakers.

The HP Chromebook x360 14 is now attainable to preorder from HP.com and BestBuy.com for $599 USD; the gadget should be available to purchase in optimal purchase retailers, as neatly, starting on October 21.




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HP2-B68 exam Dumps Source : HP AC Integration and Support Technical(R) - Job Accounting

Test Code : HP2-B68
Test Name : HP AC Integration and Support Technical(R) - Job Accounting
Vendor Name : HP
Q&A : 40 Real Questions

I got HP2-B68 licensed in 2 days coaching.
This is an absolutely valid and reliable resource, with real HP2-B68 questions and correct answers. The testing engine works very smooth. With additional info and good customer support, this is an incredibly good offer. No free random braindumps available online can compare with the quality and the good experience I had with Killexams. I passed with a really high score, so Im telling this based on my personal experience.


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The fine element about your question bank is the explanations provided with the solutions. It helps to recognize the subject conceptually. I had subscribed for the HP2-B68 query bank and had long past via it three-4 times. inside the exam, I attempted all the questions under 40 minutes and scored ninety marks. thanks for making it easy for us. Hearty way tokillexams.com team, with the help of your model questions.


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i am satisfied to tell that i have effectively exceeded the HP2-B68 examination. on this context I must admit that your query financial institution did assist (if now not completely) to tied over the exam because the questions asked within the examination have been not completely blanketed with the aid of your query bank. however I should congratulate your effort to make us technically sound together with your Q&As. way to killexams.com for clearing my HP2-B68 examination in first class.


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This chapter is from the book 

Remember, a system landscape exists for each mySAP solution—if you deploy R/3, APO, CRM, and PLM, you will in effect be creating four different SAP system landscapes, one for each product. The focus in this and the following few sections, though, is on what one of these system landscapes looks like from a design and planning perspective, for example R/3 alone or APO alone.

In the most general form, an SAP system landscape consists of SAP instances (installations of the SAP database and application software) and SAP servers. In the Microsoft world of SAP implementations, there is a one-to-one correlation between instances and servers nearly all the time. That is, the Development instance resides on a dedicated Development server, the Test instance resides on a dedicated Test server, and so on. In the world of UNIX implementations, though, multiple instances can be often found on a single "larger" server. For example, both Development and Test instances can reside on a single server. And multiple application instances can be installed on a single server as well.

Until last year's release of SAP's Multiple Components, One Database (MCOD) initiative, there was a one-to-one correlation between instances and database systems, too, regardless of the Operating System platform. MCOD is beginning to change this, such that a single "larger" database can be leveraged for multiple instances. However, an important difference between MCOD and multiple instances/one server exists—MCOD ties the same type of databases within different SAP system landscapes together. With MCOD, all Development databases used by your R/3, SRM, CRM, and Workplace implementations can be one and the same. Similarly, all Test databases across R/3, SRM, CRM, and Workplace can be bundled together, too, as illustrated in Figure 3.3. Note, however, that in many cases SAP AG frowns on mixing OLTP and OLAP systems, or combining different databases within the same system landscape. In that regard, forcing an MCOD database server to host your R/3 system's Development and Test databases would therefore be unsupported and contrary to best practices.

Figure 3.3Figure 3.3 A properly architected sample MCOD deployment is displayed for a typical mySAP enterprise consisting of R/3, CRM, SRM, and Workplace.

As we move forward with our basic understanding of SAP system landscapes, and seek to understand how your SAP solution vision impacts and is impacted by your landscape decisions, my hope is to achieve the following:

  • Note the relative importance and relationship of technology perspectives to our solution vision

  • Understand why each system landscape is important to fulfilling our vision

  • Note how the presence or absence of a particular system within a landscape impacts the other systems and ultimately the overall solution vision

  • All these design and planning approaches I cover tend to come into play in one manner or another across all mySAP implementations. It's how they are weighted or addressed that makes one system landscape different from the next.

    Simplifying Your SAP System Landscape

    After spending time with hundreds of customers and SAP implementations, I think it is safe to say that when all things are equal, the desire to simplify emerges as an important driver. Simplification takes many forms, too. In the case of the SAP system landscape and how it fulfills our SAP solution vision, the desire to simplify manifests itself in any number of ways:

  • First, the pure number of instances will be reduced to the fewest necessary to get the job done "right" for a particular company. An organization focused on simplifying administrative, change management, systems management, operations, and other tasks will deploy a three-system or even a two-system landscape, whereas similar organizations without the same simplification goals can deploy more. There are trade-offs, of course. A system landscape without a dedicated test instance will, for example, be forced to perform testing in the same system used for development. Because of these kinds of limitations, simplification achieved through instance reductions is not as common as it has been in the past.

  • Instead, a more popular approach to simplification seeks to reduce the number of physical servers in a particular system landscape, by installing multiple instances on a single server. Consolidation of instances is becoming quite common in SAP customer environments today, as displayed in Figure 3.4.

  • Figure 3.4Figure 3.4 Multiple SAP instances can be installed and configured on a single physical server, oftentimes reducing both acquisition and systems management costs down the road.

  • Similarly, deploying a shared disk subsystem and tape backup/restore solution also simplifies a very complex piece of the SAP Solution Stack. This is why my colleagues and I have spent so much time in the last two years designing and implementing Storage Area Networks, or SANs—they provide outstanding performance while simultaneously reducing system landscape complexity and allowing expensive resources like enterprise tape libraries to be shared between systems.

  • Another customer of mine shared with me why they went with the WebGUI as opposed to the classic SAPGUI approach to system accessibility—to simplify desktop support and maintenance requirements.

  • Companies that value simplification will also standardize on a particular solution stack option or approach, too, as this simplifies support and maintenance, and minimizes the need for a variety of onsite/reserved spare parts, the time spent in change management activities, and more.

  • Although simplification tends to work in one direction by encouraging a "do more with less" philosophy, our next topic goes the other route in that it purposefully introduces complexity and differences between various systems within a system landscape—high availability.

    High Availability and the SAP System Landscape

    When it comes to high availability, many technology professionals automatically think about what it means to improve the availability of a particular system or hardware component—thoughts of basic HA offerings like clustering or redundancy come to mind. With regard to the broader topic of how your solution vision impacts your SAP system landscape, though, high availability equates to the following:

  • Business-driven requirements—HA offerings and approaches are normally implemented to satisfy specific business-oriented needs, and therefore form an integral part of your overall SAP solution vision.

  • Complexity—HA complicates the SAP system landscape, as HA offerings and approaches tend to only really exist or apply to the Production system and at minimum (hopefully!) another similarly configured system within the landscape.

  • Increased support needs—Because HA offerings are inherently complex, a very real need exists to prepare your SAP support organization in how to install it, update it, manage it, and troubleshoot HA issues.

  • To read more about how business requirements relate to high availability, see "Availability Planning—Documenting Requirements and Key Drivers," p. 167 in Chapter 6.

    Disaster Recovery Considerations

    All companies implement a method of addressing Disaster Recovery (DR), whether or not they actually realize it. Even companies that do not add a dedicated DR system to their system landscape address disaster recovery. That is, their de facto disaster recovery plan simply reflects the challenges and timeframes surrounding rebuilding their SAP system from scratch, restoring from their latest tape backup, and imposing upon their end users to manually rekey any new business transactions lost between the last successful tape backup and the point at which the disaster occurred. This doesn't sound like much of a "plan," of course, but it does represent a baseline against which all other disaster recovery approaches and solutions can be weighed.

    A host of DR approaches are discussed throughout Chapter 6, from those involving disk subsystem data replication solutions, to various clustering solutions, to database and mySAP-specific tactics. But when it comes to sifting the potential layout of your SAP system landscape through your solution vision, two general approaches fall out:

    Both approaches are valid, and the first is more traditional. But I believe that the time and expense related to setting up, configuring, keeping current, and managing your own DR system explains the recent increase in outsourcing I've seen over the last two years.

    To review some of the tasks and considerations inherent to addressing DR internally as opposed to outsourcing it, see "SAP General Availability and DR Best Practices," p. 207 in Chapter 6.

    Companies that outsource the DR component of their SAP system landscape help to preserve their data, and access to this data, in that the outsourcer operates a completely independent data center, typically in a very different geographic location. For smaller and mid-size companies with only a single data center, the expense relief is tremendous. On the other hand, if the DR solution is maintained "in-house," so to speak, it will need to be housed in a separate facility. This alone is sure to drive complexity, cost, and even the architecture and makeup of both the SAP system landscape and its individual systems.

    Addressing Training Requirements

    The SAP system landscape is directly impacted by the potential need to train SAP end users as well as the system's developers and technical support staff. Three different systems come into play, as illustrated in Figure 3.5:

  • A dedicated Training system is often implemented to assist in teaching users new to a particular mySAP component how to actually use the system. This amounts to business-process training as well as SAP user interface training (an excellent alternative to creating multiple training clients on the Test system, which is busy fulfilling integration responsibilities prior to Go-Live—the exact time when end users need to be trained!). To provide the most value to its students, the Training system needs to be an exact copy of Production.

  • A dedicated Technical Sandbox system is extremely useful in helping the SAP Technical Support Organization (SAP TSO) get up to speed on the entire SAP Solution Stack, especially with regard to new components and complex HA offerings (rather than attempting to get time on other systems for what could amount to crash-and-burn testing).

  • A dedicated Business Sandbox or Development Sandbox system allows developers unfamiliar with a particular mySAP component, or faced with integrating multiple components and other legacy systems, the opportunity to do so in a pure testing environment (rather than the real Development system).

  • Figure 3.5Figure 3.5 These SAP training systems support the different needs of different organizations, from end users, to developers and programmers, to technical implementation specialists.

    For details as to how the SAP system landscape satisfies the training needs of both the SAP Technical Support Organization and the production system's end users, see "Training and the Role of the SAP System Landscape," p. 314 in Chapter 9.

    It can represent quite a challenge for the "customers" of one of these training systems to convince everyone that such a system is truly required. In my own experience, I have seen the lack of a Technical Sandbox really hurt an organization in terms of downtime due to botched infrastructure upgrades and changes to DR processes.

    Another colleague of mine has more than once had to strongly push for the adoption of a Training system, too. Such a system allows for extensive informal user testing and practice outside of formally delivered training. He believes that this extra level of hands-on self-directed training is critical because your end-user community is best positioned of all groups to find business-process operational errors and limitations. And of course it is desirable to correct these issues well before Go-Live. But a consultant or even a senior super user is typically not positioned to push the adoption and use of a dedicated Training system. More often than not, it takes the SAP Steering Committee, the project's experienced management team, and the prodding of a knowledgeable SAP Solution Architect to do so. I cannot stress this enough—the risk is huge, in that you do not want to find out too late that not every business scenario works as it did during integration testing (for example, all types of contracts, all types of material movements, all kinds of accounting entries, and so on).

    The Performance-Driven System Landscape

    When it comes to evaluating your solution vision against the layout of your SAP system landscape, it is important to ensure that the performance of the systems meets the needs of their different end-user communities. Most of the time, of course, the focus is on designing, installing, and configuring a well-performing Production system. Performance considerations usually relate back to what an end user will experience while on the system, including

  • Business transaction response times, or how long it takes to refresh your SAPGUI after pressing the Enter key, for example.

  • How quickly a background or "batch" job will execute, otherwise known as throughput.

  • How quickly a report or other query will make it through the system and actually be printed, sometimes called latency.

  • To read more about verifying that a Production system can meet performance expectations, see "Key SAP Stress-Testing Considerations," p. 580 in Chapter 16.

    However, these same performance considerations apply to all of the other systems within the SAP system landscape, too. The Development system, for example, needs to exhibit excellent performance even while 25 or 50 or more developers are banging away at keyboards trying to build your custom mySAP solution. Similarly, your Test system needs to provide the performance necessary to get through integration testing. Even the Training system needs to provide adequate user response times so as to make the actual training experience more than something to be avoided.

    High-performance considerations cover the gamut, touching every facet of every system within the landscape. This means that everything—from the performance of the network connecting each system, to each server's CPU, RAM, and disk configuration, to each system's OS, database, and mySAP component—must be addressed. Starting off on the right foot (with properly sized and configured hardware and software elements) is paramount, of course, but tuning all these solution stack pieces to create a cohesive well-running machine is just as important to achieving excellent performance. Like the weakest link in a chain, a single underperforming solution component will only throttle back the maximum performance otherwise obtainable from your system.

    Driving Scalability into Your System Landscape

    The need for scalability, like high availability and excellent performance, is addressed primarily through the sizing process. Scalability does not pay off up front in terms of improved system availability or better user response times, though. Rather, scalability is all about paying for "headroom" in your system, headroom that is not actually needed at present but might be required in the near future. In other words, scalability addresses future planned and unplanned growth in your system.

    This growth can manifest itself in a number of ways. In my experience in the real world, I have seen the results of unplanned growth hurt companies where scalability was never addressed, as in the following cases:

  • The number of end users increased at one of my new accounts, not due to more hiring than was anticipated when their mySAP.com solution was crafted, but because they unexpectedly acquired their competitor and doubled in size. We had six months to project the delta needed in terms of database and application server processing power and RAM requirements, followed by stress-testing the new design and finally implementing it.

  • More than one of my customers' databases grew so fast that they outstripped the results of their comprehensive three-year database sizing methodology in the first year! In most cases, the system we put in place for these customers was scalable—more disk drives could be added, smaller drives could be swapped with larger ones, and so on. In three cases in particular, though, the database growth was so explosive that a whole new disk subsystem platform needed to be brought in, and the recently acquired current platform retired (or redeployed) years earlier than expected.

  • When databases grow quickly, the tape backup/restore solution implemented often grows less effective as well. I have seen this most often in relatively small SAP implementations, where an initial investment in tape backup technology needed to be tossed in favor of tape solutions that backed up more data per tape cartridge, and did so fast enough to not exceed the customer's backup window (time allotted to perform a backup, which usually equates to planned downtime in the case of offline full backups).

  • It's been a while, but I also had a customer outgrow their network, too. Today, with switched networks and Gigabit Ethernet providing more than adequate bandwidth to every mySAP.com server component, and cheap 10- and 100-Megabit Ethernet prevalent across end-user workstations, there's no excuse for lacking network scalability.

  • Outstripping the capabilities of your current system such that a new platform is needed probably represents a worst-case scenario. Not only does the current Production component need to be replaced, but to support sound change control principles, so does the same component in your Test, Staging, and/or Technical Sandbox environments.

    This is why hardware and software vendors tout things like "highly scalable system architectures," "enterprise versions" of particular Operating Systems and Database Systems, and so on—though not necessarily needed up front, the headroom that these approaches provide helps an organization feel more comfortable if they wind up growing faster than they expected. And hardware vendors in particular can position their SAP clients for improved scalability by practicing the following:

  • Specify server platforms that allow additional CPUs and RAM to be added as needed. In other words, avoid "maxing out" the box.

  • Alternatively, design SAP solutions such that they take advantage of SAP's support for horizontal scalability. This is one of my favorite approaches when it comes to SAP Application, Web AS, J2EE middleware, and ITS servers—I prefer to max them out with regard to processors, with the understanding that an incremental number of servers can be added at any time should the environment grow to require it (interestingly, although SAP has successfully tested a system running more than 160 application servers, it is rare to find customer implementations with more than 10 or 12).

  • Architect a solution for the appropriate level of vertical scalability. In other words, if a two-tier "Central System" (where all SAP software components execute on the same physical server) approach to sizing meets today's requirements, perhaps a three-tier solution will provide for unknown scalability requirements. In a three-tiered architecture, one database server and multiple application servers are configured as a single system image.

  • Architect a highly scalable database platform. As my real-world examples earlier in this list illustrate, this tends to be where a lack of scalability causes the most problems.

  • Hardware and software vendors alike spend a great deal of time "proving" how scalable their offerings are. As a first step, I suggest that benchmarks, customer references/feedback, and the results of tests published through white papers and other technical documents be reviewed by prospective mySAP customers. I also suggest that you begin considering new approaches to scalability. For example, HP's iCOD offering touts "capacity on demand." When a customer buys a server, for instance, it is fully populated with CPUs. The customer pays for only what is needed in the near term, however. Later, if it is determined that more processing power is required, the customer takes advantage of the in-place processors by merely applying for a license; no intrusive field upgrade or service call is required and therefore the need for planned downtime is drastically reduced.

    The TCO-Driven System Landscape

    More than anything else, Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) drives what a solution vision actually looks like at the end of the day, when a mySAP solution is implemented and really being used. Discussions on TCO might instead be labeled Return on Investment (ROI), or might fall under the heading of investment protection. Regardless, a focus on lowering TCO seeks to find less expensive solution-stack alternatives that still meet the needs of the business.

    To read more about the relationship between TCO and your SAP solution vision, see "How the SAP Solution Vision Drives TCO," p. 127 in Chapter 5.

    When all other things are equal, the following points apply from a hardware perspective:

  • A hardware vendor's use of common components like CPUs and memory boards allows flexible sharing of resources between different SAP system landscapes and in some cases hardware platforms, too.

  • Similarly, common disk drive form factors reduce cost of ownership by increasing reusability.

  • Support for hot-pluggable and/or hot-add hardware components eliminates or worst-case minimizes downtime (can include hard drives, tape drives, power supplies, fans, and even RAM and processors).

  • Support for redundant components, like power supplies, disk drives, fans, and so on, also eliminates or minimizes downtime.

  • The ability to run mixed-speed CPUs or RAM in a particular platform protects that investment—CPUs and RAM do not have to be tossed aside when additional processing power or memory is required.

  • Outsourcing your entire SAP infrastructure/operations team is another potential method of reducing TCO. In fact, outsourcing can represent the biggest potential TCO factor that a company will consider. At this level, though, outsourcing becomes more of a strategic business solution that impacts a lot more than simply TCO. True, outsourcing can cut labor costs by 50%, and enhance flexibility of a technical support organization to easily change as business requirements change, but there are drawbacks and disadvantages as well (discussed later in this chapter).

    Another solution vision approach that impacts the SAP system landscape from both a configuration and TCO perspective is the use of an Application Service Provider (ASP). ASPs can drive lower TCO by virtue of their application-specific expertise, above and beyond that provided by in-house staff and traditional outsourcing providers. For example:

  • An ASP can offer a preconfigured solution stack for the particular mySAP solution you want to implement. This is one reason why they look so good from a TCO perspective—design, deployment, manageability, operations, and other cost factors are substantially reduced due to a high level of both standardization and core competencies in the services they provide.

  • ASPs were more or less born out of the dot-com era, and by virtue of this, their data centers enjoy the benefit of fat redundant pipes to the Internet. Thus, mySAP.com applications are well positioned to take advantage of this flexible and powerful accessibility option.

  • ASPs offer interesting financing alternatives, in that they partner with various SAP technology partners to make leasing, pay-as-you-go, and other payment methods available.

  • The ASP provider market shrank over the last few years. The mySAP-focused companies that weathered these hard times seem even better prepared and well-positioned to host SAP solutions, however.

    Security Considerations

    I know of no company that does not envision protecting its corporate computing assets. From a solution-stack security perspective, not all software vendors are created equal, however. Oracle touts its unbreakable database, UNIX vendors tout the robust security features of their operating environments, and so on. In my eyes, security features are very important, but good security is more often about managing and testing changes to a solution stack, by carefully identifying security holes and other weaknesses in new solution stack components before these components ever find themselves in Production.

    However, companies that embrace and act upon the idea of protecting computing assets will prove to be better partners in the long run. This is why I believe that Oracle's focus on security will pay big dividends in terms of slowing the adoption of competing databases. And it is why I believe that the Trusted PC joint Intel, AMD, and Microsoft vision (once labeled by Microsoft as Palladium, and now referred to as the "next-generation secure computing base for Windows") will prove fruitful as well. Its goal is to build security into servers and PCs at a microprocessor level. New initiatives coming out of the Trusted Computing Platform Alliance promise to better secure our processing platforms, ensuring that only authorized applications and program executables can ever be executed by the system, and that all data housed on the system is encrypted so that it is useless to others. To this end, Microsoft considers Trusted PC a significant part of its Trustworthy Computing strategy—we should see something commercially available in this regard by 2004 that applies to server as well as desktop and other computing platforms.

    Manageability Considerations

    No customers of mine have ever started their initial SAP implementation planning discussions with me by saying:

    "George, all that high-availability and performance stuff is fine, but what we really want is a nice manageable system. Can you do that for us?"

    By the time Go-Live looms just over the horizon, though, every single one of them—without exception—has indicated a growing concern for manageability. Sure, it's there on the project plan, and any number of products can be used to support managing your mySAP environment. But the whole field of manageability is more complex and more work than you would imagine. Consider the following:

  • Each layer in the SAP Solution Stack must be managed; the risk of not keeping an eye on a particular layer or solution component affects the uptime of the entire system.

  • Because each layer is so different from the others, it's nearly impossible to find a single management product that can actually monitor and report on more than a few layers, much less the entire stack.

  • Therefore, the next best thing becomes trying to find a product that can at least interoperate successfully with other products.

  • At the end of the day, three, four, or even more tools and utilities must ultimately be fused together to provide a holistic view of a mySAP solution stack. This is challenging, to say the least!

  • To learn exactly how challenging piecing together a management approach can be, see "Systems Management Techniques for SAP," p. 511 in Chapter 14.

    Because of the challenges inherent to managing hardware and software products from a lot of different solution stack vendors, some of my customers have purposely chosen less than "best-of-breed" products for their SAP solutions, so as to minimize the number of software partners involved. Or they have decided to reduce the number of partners and vendors altogether by selecting one of the big enterprise hardware/services vendors. The obvious partners are clear—HP, IBM, and Sun. For example, if you go with HP and choose to implement an rp8400-based server platform with an HP StorageWorks SAN, running HP-UX 11i, and managed by HP OpenView, the challenges inherent to managing four different vendors' products just dropped tremendously. Similar arguments could be made for going with an IBM or Sun solution stack, too—IBM even throws a couple of databases into the mix.

    The System Landscape and Accessibility

    The last area I want to cover with regard to solution vision and the SAP system landscape is accessibility. Many companies over the last three or four years have started with a vision of dumping all application-specific interfaces in favor of browser-enabled solutions, so as to ease the burdens and costs associated with desktop/laptop management while opening up new accessibility approaches like hand-helds and other wireless devices. SAP has supported that vision since 1996, with the advent of Internet connectivity in R/3 3.1G. But only in the last few years have I really seen this take off.

    SAP AG offers quite a few accessibility options today when it comes to mySAP solutions. The classic SAPGUI and its revamped and more capable EnjoySAP SAPGUI represent one end of the spectrum. This approach is safe, very mainstream, and very easy to implement. And the SAPGUI we have today is extremely comprehensive, supporting all mySAP components through a single interface, which is unlike the approach a few years ago where each so-called "New Dimension" product like BW or APO required its own GUI. But the SAPGUI still represents a typical application-specific approach to accessibility; each end user installs the client on their desktop or laptop, or runs the SAPGUI from a network share, and off they go.

    Other accessibility approaches are available, however, as you see in Figure 3.6. The original WebGUI, for example, is based on HTML and provides connectivity via Microsoft's Internet Explorer and so on. And a more recent addition, the JavaGUI, allows native Java-based access to SAP. Both of these approaches fulfill an Internet-based approach to connectivity, and subsequently simplify the desktop (assuming Internet connectivity is a standard desktop offering at your particular company, of course).

    Figure 3.6Figure 3.6 Access to mySAP solutions is quite varied today, ranging from classic and updated SAPGUI options to newer Web-enabled versions.


    The Making Of Tesla: Invention, Betrayal, And The Birth Of The Roadster | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    unnamed 2Mike Nudelman/Business Insider

    Tesla Motors probably shouldn't exist.

    The last successful American car startup was founded 111 years ago. It's called Ford.

    Barely a decade old, Tesla is already gigantic and adored. Its market capitalization hovers around $28 billion. Morgan Stanley calls it "the world's most important car company," and a 2014 nationwide survey found that Tesla's Model S was the "Most Loved Vehicle in America."

    So how has Tesla flourished where others have flopped?

    Today, everybody thinks Tesla was created by its charismatic CEO, Elon Musk, a PayPal cofounder who is the face of the company.

    The truth is way crazier than that.

    Tesla was the brainchild of a tiny band of obsessive Silicon Valley engineers who would go on to collaborate with — and collide with — the young billionaire.

    This is the tale of that collision.

    In reporting the story, Business Insider conducted several in-depth interviews with most of the key players and pored over little-noticed documents made public in a lawsuit. We also met with a curious lack of cooperation from the usually press-friendly Tesla Motors.

    This is Tesla, the origin story.

    Elon Musk celebrates Tesla's initial public offering on June 29, 2010. AP Photo/Mark Lennihan

    Try And Touch The Dashboard

    In the summer of 2004, a product designer named Malcolm Smith got a call from a hardware guy he used to work with, one Martin Eberhard.

    "I can't tell you what we're doing," Eberhard said, "but why don't you come check out this car I have."

    Smith headed over to Eberhard's tiny office in downtown Menlo Park, California. Eberhard and his partner, Marc Tarpenning, showed Smith a rough business plan and some rough specifications for a new car they wanted to build.

    Not just any car: an electric car.

    Smith was skeptical, quizzical, curious.

    He realized that Eberhard and Tarpenning didn't need to reinvent physics; they just needed to combine barely available technologies to form a technological breakthrough.

    "Well," Eberhard said, "let's go for a ride."

    He hopped into this strange tiny yellow car with Eberhard.

    The tzero by AC Propulsion. Wikimedia commons It felt handmade — because it was.

    A decal on the side read "tzero," a reference to "To," a symbol that mathematicians use to denote the beginning of time within a system.

    As they pulled onto Sand Hill Road, the now famous thoroughfare that's home to Sequoia Capital, Kleiner Perkins, and every other venture capital firm you've ever heard of, the hobby car was noticeably quiet.

    Eberhard slowed the car to 10 mph.

    "Try and touch the dashboard," he told Smith.

    As Smith reached out, Eberhard hit the accelerator.

    Smith's hand never made it to the dash. The tzero, an all-electric two-seater built by AC Propulsion, could leap from zero to 60 in under 4 seconds. G-forces threw Smith deep into his seat.

    That's when it hit him. "I get it," Smith thought. "This isn't a nice little science experiment."

    It was a highly technical vehicle.

    No other car gives you 100% torque in an instant, he realized, but a high-performance electric ride does.

    Another realization: Not all electric cars are clown cars or golf carts, even if the auto industry didn't have the will to show otherwise.

    Smith would become one of the first 20 employees of Eberhard's new car company. His official title: vice president of vehicle engineering for Tesla Motors.

    As Eberhard's young company grew, he'd continue to ask would-be recruits to touch the dashboard, before throwing them into their seats with the torque of an electric sports car, properly unleashed.

    Mark Cuyler, an operations manager at Tesla, walks a Model S through the company's factory in Fremont, California, June 22, 2012. REUTERS/Noah Berger The Start

    The Roadster, Tesla's flagship sports car, made waves when it was released in 2008. Car and Driver said, "It is not just a car, but one of the strongest automotive statements on the road."

    The Model S, the sports sedan released in 2013, earned the distinction of Motor Trend Car of the Year. That year, the Model S outsold the Mercedes Benz S Class, the BMW 7 Series, and every other large luxury sedan.

    But Tesla really began around 1990.

    An engineer named Marc Tarpenning was working for Textron in Saudi Arabia. On a visit home to his native California, he met up with a longtime friend, Greg Renda, who worked for Wyse Technology in San Jose. Renda insisted that Tarpenning come into his office to see the terminals that Wyse was working on.

    There he met Martin Eberhard, an engineer whose energy, thoughtfulness, volubility, and charisma were immediately apparent. Eberhard commanded a room. Tall and lanky, he brought Abraham Lincoln to mind for some, at least when he grew out his beard.

    Tarpenning was a different animal: shorter, quieter, unassuming, but with an intensely dry sense of humor.

    They quickly became friends, having long dinner-party conversations about the nature of government.

    Eberhard and Tarpenning nerded out with "Magic: the Gathering" cards. mordrack/flickr As the friendship went on, they would also get together every few weeks with a larger group of geeks and play "Magic: The Gathering," a vampire-and-dragon-filled collectible trading card game. Tarpenning recalls that Eberhard would always be experimenting with one clever strategy or another, some of which would work to devastating effect, while others fell apart in dramatic fashion.

    "He was always trying some new gambit to see how to hack the rules," Tarpenning told Business Insider.

    Eberhard would take the same approach to entrepreneurship.

    A PalmPilot. It used to be the future. movestill/flickr After a while, Eberhard and Tarpenning's bromance blossomed into a business relationship. They started doing consulting together for disk-drive companies, working from cafés with some embryonic forms of mobile computing — early cellphones, laptops, PalmPilots.

    Mobile products were clearly becoming a thing.

    Crucially, battery efficiency was ramping up. Tarpenning called it "slow Moore's law." Instead of doubling in power every 18 month, as was the case with processors, batteries doubled in power every 10 years.

    This got the two thinking: Could they start a company to take advantage of all this technological momentum?

    What product could benefit from a better battery?

    They settled on an electronic book.

    After all, this internet thing was going to allow people to buy books. Displays weren't perfect, but they were getting better. Amazon.com was selling people physical books, Tarpenning remembers thinking, but you could also buy an image of those pages, which at the time would download smoothly on 9,600-baud modems.

    Martin Eberhard and NuvoMedia's Rocket eBook. AP On April 15, 1997, the pair founded NuvoMedia. In late 1998, they released the Rocket eBook. They made it through two holiday seasons, shipping 20,000 units in 1999. Then, in 2000, they got an unsolicited offer to sell the company. Sensing a crash to come, they sold it, to the conglomerate Gemstar-TV Guide, for $187 million.

    By late 2000, they had a serious itch to start another company.

    About the same time, Eberhard got divorced.

    "I was thinking that I should do what every guy does and buy a sports car," he told Business Insider, but "I couldn't bring myself to buy a car that got 18 miles to the gallon at a time when wars in the Middle East seemed to somehow involve oil and the arguments for global warming were becoming undeniable."

    The better option, a high-performance electric vehicle, didn't quite exist.

    He started sorting through energy options, building out a spreadsheet with every power source he could think of. Hydrogen fuel cells, various kinds of gasoline and diesel, natural gas, several types of batteries. His calculus: How much of the energy that comes out of the ground makes your car go a mile?

    "The results were quite startling," Eberhard recalled.

    For one, "Hydrogen fuel cells are terrible. Their energy efficiency is no better than gas."

    And two, "Electric cars were head and shoulders above everything else," he said, "even if you made the electricity out of coal."

    He started looking into the electric-car hobbyist community and came upon AC Propulsion, a boutique electric-car maker that was doing lots of consulting for the major car companies in light of California's zero-emissions mandate. They had this bullet of an electric sports car called the "tzero."

    The tzero. 24208255@N07/flickr Eberhard felt vindicated as soon as he drove it. With its Lamborghini-level acceleration, the car was proof that an electric car didn't have to be slow. Sure, you didn't want to drive it in the rain (water would leak in and short out the computer), but it definitely didn't behave like any other electric vehicle.

    In the original Tesla business plan, Ian Wright, the company's first VP of vehicle development and original car guy, rhapsodized about the power of the tzero:

    The first time I drove the AC Propulsion tzero, I was immediately struck by the way the power didn't fade as the car accelerated — it felt like a race car in first gear, but a first gear that just kept going and going, all the way to 100 mph.

    The second revelation was how quickly I came just to expect the power or engine braking to be there when I wanted it — not even to think about downshifting. The power control had become as simple and instinctive as basic steering control.

    Thirdly, at the end of the run, I was amazed at how smooth, precise and easy the speed control was at parking speeds. After all, I'm still in the same gear I was just using to do 100 mph, and there's not even a clutch! How can this be? But it is.

    Intrigued by the tzero, Eberhard invested in AC Propulsion with hopes of getting a copy of the car.

    He thought about joining forces with the company. With his skills and AC Propulsion's expertise, they could make a production-level electric car rather than a hobbyist vehicle. But he soon realized it might be impossible to mesh his ambitions with the culture of the firm. He considered launching his own enterprise.

    But if the electric car was so powerful, why wasn't the auto industry taking advantage of it?

    Well, some of the big boys had taken a big swing and missed.

    GM said it gave it its best shot with the EV-1, star of the 2006 documentary "Who Killed The Electric Car." The Washington Post reported that GM had spent over $1 billion developing it.

    A commercial for the EV-1. Youtube

    And there was a lingering problem: The EV-1 could never get out of the green ghetto.

    GM said it couldn't market the car to anyone other than environmentalists and tech enthusiasts.

    "There is an extremely passionate, enthusiastic and loyal following for this particular vehicle," GM spokesman Dave Barthmuss told The Post. "There simply weren't enough of them at any given time to make a viable business proposition for GM to pursue long term."

    Nearly all the EV-1s, which had been leased, were repossessed. Many were crushed. Many EV-1s were crushed. Plug In America, Wikimedia Commons.

    To Tarpenning, the auto industry was sleeping on its would-be killer app: taking full advantage of electric power.

    "One of the things we kept running across was these articles that would say the reason why electric cars will never succeed is that battery technology has not improved in a hundred years," Tarpenning said. "Literally, articles would say that, and it's true of lead acid batteries."

    Yet it's not true of lithium-ion batteries.

    "They get better, on average, at around 7% a year," Tarpenning said. "It goes in fits and starts as they roll out new chemistries ... They get cheaper and better."

    So if he and Eberhard positioned the company the right way, they could ride the current of technological history.

    "What that [dynamic] implies is that you can design stuff now, and unless that trajectory is broken for some reason, you can be assured that, over the next 10 years, everything just gets better for you," Tarpenning said. "Everything becomes easier, and it just keeps getting easier and better, cheaper, higher energy density, perhaps higher power density depending on what you're looking for. You want to be in industries where everything gets easier for you."

    By the summer of 2003, Tarpenning and Eberhard knew that they wanted to found an electric-car company, starting with a two-seater sports car and then moving into more accessible markets.

    As their research — and Martin's ride in the original tzero — suggested, electric motors allow cars to do things that internal-combustion engines are terrible at, such as generating oodles of torque the moment you stomp your foot on the accelerator, or employing regenerative braking, where the energy usually lost when the car slows down is fed back into the car's battery.

    By the time summer hit, they knew they wanted to put together a two-seater sports car with lithium-ion batteries and an induction motor.

    "We had no experience making cars, and we had a lot to learn," Eberhard said.

    They had a realization: The automotive ecosystem had quietly made itself inviting to startups.

    "We discovered that in the preceding 20 or 30 years, the car industry had completely refactored itself," Tarpenning said. "It turned out that no car company made windshields anymore. They always bought them from the windshield makers, and the rear-view mirrors were purchased from the rear-view-mirror makers."

    The car companies had even outsourced their electronics people, he realized, since they didn't think that was a part of their core competency. They really only kept the internal-combustion-engine design, final assembly, and sales and marketing on the inside, plus auto financing, which is where they made most of their money anyway. Even styling was outsourced.

    Everyone loved the DeLorean, but the company collapsed in seven years. rjshade/flickr The auto industry had developed into a segmented network, one that, if the founders played their cards right, Tesla could become a part of.

    They'd always been confident about the electronics half of things — that's what Silicon Valley does — but they'd worried about the Detroit stuff, the nuts and bolts of automobile manufacturing.

    Now it seemed the manufacturing partners were already there. They just needed to connect with them.

    "In previous iterations, whether it was DeLorean or Tucker or whatever, which we were constantly asked about, those people really had to either sell their souls to get into GM's part bin, like DeLorean did, or they had to actually manufacture their own windshield wiper blade," Tarpenning said. "All of that stuff you can just buy now. You have to be Ford to get a good price, but at least you don't have to have an engineering group trying to make a windshield wiper motor. That would kill us."

    After all this education, Tarpenning was convinced it was time to start an electric-car company.

    The Incorporation

    On Jan. 25, 2003, Eberhard went on a date to Disneyland with Carolyn, his now wife. They walked around the park, settling into the Blue Bayou, a restaurant inside the Pirates of the Caribbean ride.

    It was about as romantic you could get at Disneyland.

    He had been pitching her on car-company names for months, but the right branding proved elusive. This was to be a high-performance car that happened to be electric, so any overly "eco" or "engineery" name sounded tone-deaf — volts, surges, and leaves would be set aside. It would have to be easy to say and remember, and sound like a car company, not another high-tech startup.

    Eberhard wanted to give credit to the man who patented the type of motor he planned on using, the AC induction motor, invented by the Serbian-American genius Nikola Tesla. Tesla's incorporation papers with the State of Delaware. Tesla Incorporation

    He said to her, "What about Tesla Motors?"

    Her reply: "Perfect! Now get to work making your car."

    On April 23, 2003, Tarpenning bought the domain name Teslamotors.com.

    On July 1, 2003, they incorporated.

    That August, Eberhard and Tarpenning moved into the company's first office in a professional office building in downtown Menlo Park, California. Eberhard said that before they rented the office the sign said "Bushtracks African Expeditions," whatever that was. So they just turned the sign over and wrote the car company's name on the back: Tesla Motors.

    Workshopping The High-Performance Electric Car

    Heading into the fall of 2003, Eberhard and Tarpenning set upon refining their idea before making formal pitches to investors, people they would have one shot at showing their outlandish idea.

    They came up with an alternative strategy for workshopping the Tesla business plan. They would mock-pitch it to VCs who would never consider Tesla, acquaintances they knew from three rounds of NuvoMedia financing who invested only in optical routing or website designs.

    By looking through their original plan, we can see the arguments they made to would-be investors.

    The executive summary of the original Tesla business plan. Martin Eberhard v. Elon Musk, Tesla Motors

    In the opening lines of the executive summary, the company promised it would build high-performance electric sports cars.

    "This sounds impossible — both the idea of building cars in the first place, and further, the idea of building a high performance electric car," the plan read. "But key technologies have recently been developed that make electric cars suddenly very attractive, and the international business climate makes it now possible to build a 'fab-less' car company — a car company without a factory."

    The summary went on to enumerate the promised Roadster's vitals:

    ● 0-60 mph in less than 3.9 seconds

    ● World-class handling

    ● 100 mpg equivalent

    ● Zero tailpipe emissions

    ● 300 mile range

    ● Zero maintenance for 100,00 miles (other than tires).

    ● A selling price less than half that of the cheapest competitive sportscar.

    The plan described the electric sports car as a "disruptive" technology, borrowing a phrase from Harvard professor Clayton Christensen. The Roadster would provide the value of a high-end sports car at a lower cost to the customer and a lower resource cost to the planet.

    Martin Eberhard v. Elon Musk, Tesla Motors

    The plan argued that "with a gasoline engine, performance comes with a big penalty — if you want a car that has the ability to accelerate quickly, you need a high-horsepower engine, and you will get poor gas mileage when you are not driving hard."

    This would not be the case with Tesla.

    "On the other hand, doubling the horsepower of an electric motor from 100 hp to 200 hp only adds about 25 pounds, and efficiency is, if anything, improved. It is therefore quite easy to build an electric car that is both highly efficient and also very fast."

    Therein lies the disruption.

    "At one end of the spectrum, the Tesla Roadster has higher efficiency and lower total emissions than the best of the most efficient cars," the report said. "At the other end of the spectrum, the Tesla Roadster accelerates at least as well as the best sports cars, but it's six times as efficient and produces one tenth of the pollution."

    With the business plan finally completed, the pitch honed, and the presentations prepared, Eberhard and Tarpenning were ready to try raising money in earnest.

    As VCs volleyed back with challenges, Eberhard and Tarpenning saw that there were details they hadn't thought through.

    Tesla realized it didn't want to deal with dealerships. Justin Sullivan/Getty For one, they didn't fully grasp the franchise sales model of the auto industry. After talking with a few dealership owners, they realized that a startup didn't want to be selling through dealerships — you'd lose opportunities to gather feedback from customers. Moreover, they learned that a company has few options if a franchisee fails to deliver, since all 50 states have laws on the books protecting franchisees.

    The Tesla partners also realized that they'd need to position themselves as palatable to both Democrats and Republicans. Those on the left would see benefits in decreased fossil-fuel use, while those on the right would see a path to energy independence.

    Another breakthrough: They quickly realized they couldn't possibly build an entire car — the human and financial costs would be way too much. They wouldn't have to. Instead, they'd simply build on top of, and within, an existing car.

    That appropriation is not uncommon in the auto industry. The tzero was built upon the Piontek Sportech kit car.

    The car needed to be small. The batteries were barely good enough, Eberhard recalled, and any heavier automobiles would rein in the car's range. Plus, he reasoned that the motor should be behind the driver for the sake of weight distribution and safety, so he focused the search on companies that made lightweight midengine cars.

    The Lotus Elise makes its debut at the Frankfurt IAA International car show, Sept. 12, 1995. Reuters After some deliberation, Eberhard and Tarpenning settled on the Elise, an elf of a sports car built by Lotus, the boutique British carmaker.

    Founded in 1952, Lotus had made a name for itself by building Formula One race cars and slick consumer sports cars.

    Lotus had its financially separate Lotus Engineering division, so they were already working with other carmakers. Eberhard briefly considered going after Porsche, which has a similar consulting arm, but he remembers the German company's rate being three times that of Lotus.

    So the Lotus Elise it was.

    The tiny British sports car had already been used as a base by other companies. The Vauxhall VX220, also known as the Opel Speedster in Europe and the Daewoo Speedster in Asia, was built on the Elise chassis.

    The Lotus Elise S1. nicolas-serre/flickr Eberhard and Tarpenning found a way to introduce themselves. At the Los Angeles Auto Show onDec. 28, 2003, the two founders muscled their way into the Lotus booth, introduced themselves, and invited a member of the Lotus team to drive the tzero.

    That same winter, Eberhard went back to AC Propulsion and sketched out a license to use some of the company's technology in the development of Tesla's motor and controller.

    With those pieces put together, the new year of 2004 became the time to start pitching to VCs in earnest.

    Actually Raising Funds

    The thing about having a product that's really "out there" — like building an electric sports car, as opposed to launching a messaging app — is that it screams risk to possible investors.

    In raising their first round in 2004, Eberhard and Tarpenning secured small investments from family, friends, and a handful of VCs, but there wasn't anybody to lead the round, to make the gigantic keystone investment to allow the young company to rapidly start maturing.

    But there was this one guy.

    Peter Thiel, left, and Musk in the early 2000s. AP Back in 2001, Tarpenning, being a bit of a space nerd, had dragged Eberhard along to see a PayPal cofounder speak at a Mars Society conference held at Stanford. His name was Elon Musk, and his ideas about what to do in the space industry were strikingly clear. Tarpenning and Eberhard introduced themselves.

    By this time in 2004, Musk was already deep into SpaceX, though the company had yet to successfully launch anything into orbit.

    Eberhard had previously made a handshake deal with the head of AC Propulsion, agreeing that they wouldn't pitch to the same investors.

    A young Elon Musk.Orlando SentinelMusk turned AC Propulsion down, so Tesla stepped to the plate.

    On March 31, 2004, Eberhard sent him an email.

    "We would love to talk to you about Tesla Motors," he wrote, "particularly if you might be interested in investing in the company. I believe that you have driven AC Propulsion's tzero car. If so, you already know that a high-performance electric car can be made. We would like to convince you that we can do so profitably, creating a company with very high potential for growth, and at the same time breaking the compromise between driving performance and efficiency."

    Musk replied that evening.

    "Sure," he said. "Friday this week or Friday next week would work."

    Eberhard and Ian Wright, the third member of their team, flew to Los Angeles, where SpaceX was based, and pitched Musk in his SpaceX office.

    The pitch was supposed to be 30 minutes, Eberhard recalled. It lasted two hours.

    Eberhard realized that Musk was the first guy he had met who shared his vision for electric cars: Make a vastly superior car, not just a car that sucks less.

    A car like that would redefine what an electric car could be. And given the relatively small size of the sports-car market, a new automaker could have an effect on its first at bat, rather than trying to force its way into the crowded economy market.

    Then, once the Roadster had destroyed the myth that electric cars had to apologize for being cars, Tesla could move into more accessible price points.

    Elon Musk, CEO and CTO of SpaceX, introduces the SpaceX Dragon V2 spaceship at the SpaceX headquarters on Thursday, May 29, 2014, in Hawthorne, California. AP Photo/Jae C. Hong Eberhard and Wright walked Musk through their business plan. For all their shared enthusiasm, Wright remembers Musk being skeptical about what the production and design of the car would cost.

    Tarpenning was out in Washington, D.C., and he spent the weekend getting peppered with due-diligence questions:

    "How do you know you're going to get your partnerships in line?"

    "Can you really build the electronics for the proposed amount of money?"

    Tarpenning returned to California, and he and Eberhard made a final pitch at SpaceX. Musk said he was in, but they would have to make it quick. His then wife was pregnant with twins, and once those boys came into the world he wouldn't have time to deal with the guys from Tesla.

    The paperwork was quickly drawn up and finalized on April 23, 2004.

    Musk led the $7.5 million round and became the chairman of the board.

    It was time for Tesla to grow.

    Funding

    The way Ian Wright describes it, working with Lotus was an education in Tesla's ignorance.

    A 1970 Lotus Europa. 28370466@N05/flickr The Tesla team had a long-standing relationship with the English automaker's work. Eberhard and Wright first bonded on a flight to Tokyo where they took turns damning and praising the Lotus Europa, an idiosyncratic 1970s-era sports car they had each owned.

    The New Zealand-born Wright, who used to build and race sports cars back in the day, had come on as the "car guy" for Tesla when he joined as the third member of the team in 2003. Thin, thoughtful, and unavoidably from Down Under, Wright had equal parts Gandalf and Crocodile Dundee.

    As part of the fellowship of Tesla, Wright's biggest responsibility was nurturing the relationship with Lotus.

    The first time he visited the Lotus factory, in Hethel, England, he was amazed by two things. The first was the ingenious way Lotus had managed to intersperse Vauxhall 220s with Lotuses on the assembly line. The second was what a ridiculously difficult project Tesla had signed up for.

    He was shocked when a Lotus engineer told him that it was easier to redesign an engine than remake a door. In what would become a theme for Tesla, seemingly simple parts revealed unending intricacies. You have to fit locks, switches, and windows into the confines of a door, all while keeping rain and wind out and getting that satisfying thunk when you close it. Perhaps most maddeningly, a would-be carmaker has to navigate manufacturing tolerances.

    In car manufacturing, a tolerance is the allowed variation of some measurement in a part, whether it be a dimensional factor such as length or an electrical one like resistance. Part of an engineer's job is to make sure that the car's design will work within those tolerated variations — so that, for instance, the longest length of one part still works when mated with the shortest allowable version of another.

    "All these things that we thought were easy were really not that easy," Wright said. "We didn't know anything about building cars."

    What made things harder, of course, was that Tesla was trying to build a new kind of car. The Elise chassis would require tons of modifications — with Tesla's electric powertrain and battery pack included.

    The other big task for Wright, who would amiably leave the company about a year after joining, was to form a relationship with AC Propulsion, the manufacturer of the tzero, which was so effective at convincing people that electric cars didn't have to suck. Tesla's original plan was to acquire the company and get its powertrain technology, motor tech, and the management system. The AC Propulsion executives didn't want to be acquired, but they agreed to a license deal instead.

    With those partnerships in place, Tesla could start creating cars.

    Designing The Roadster

    The Roadster quarter-scale clay model, circa January 2005. Martin Eberhard Malcolm Powell had been working as a project manager at Lotus for over 15 years when he walked into a meeting with Eberhard and Wright in early 2004. They were in England to talk about building a car.

    Powell couldn't help feel skeptical. While Lotus was always a progressive company, he said lots of people would approach the carmaker trying to make their ill-conceived ideas into a reality.

    "Most people outside of the industry have little idea how complex and difficult it is to design and develop a production vehicle, even one using conventional technology," Powell told Business Insider. "Don't forget, at that time, no one was making a high-performance electric vehicle, nor was anyone achieving adequate range. Their product was therefore out of the ordinary."

    And Eberhard and Tarpenning — two dudes who blew up by making an e-book — were unconventional automakers, to say the least.

    "They didn't have experience building production cars," he said, but "they knew they didn't have that experience."

    After serving as the point of contact within Lotus for Tesla, Powell moved to the other side, taking a job as the VP of vehicle integration about six months after that first meeting. He acted as a bridge between the companies — he knew everything you could about the Elise, and he had worked intimately with the whole team at Lotus.

    In those days, Lotus held a lot of the cards. Tesla was an unheard-of startup; Lotus was an established name in racing. Powell recalls that Lotus didn't want to do anything that might dent the reputation of its ace product.

    The Roadster was to be new in a way that almost every other new car was not, Powell recalls, because when GM or Ford or Toyota wanted to roll out a product line, they were limited to a pool of parts from preexisting vehicles.

    In that sense, a new car from one of the major manufacturers couldn't be truly new.

    But the Roadster — with parts sourced from the dispersed ecosystem of auto manufacturers and Tesla's proprietary technology — was legitimately new.

    With that came headaches and opportunities.

    How would it look? Equally as important, how would it feel?

    The following summer, Eberhard had a clear understanding of what he wanted the Roadster to look like, so he sent out his first call for design submissions.

    The proposals that came back were "awful," he recalled. They were all loaded with doodads and thingamajigs that screamed "electric."

    No matter how clearly he could picture the Roadster in his mind, he couldn't communicate the vision to designers.

    IDEO cofounder Bill Moggridge helped shape the Roadster's styling. AP In the fall of 2004, Bill Moggridge, a long-time friend who happened to be a legend in design, had Eberhard over to his elegant, modernist home two doors down from Eberhard in rural San Mateo, California.

    The London-born Moggridge, now deceased, was something of an elder statesman of industrial design. He was a cofounder of IDEO, the legendary design consultancy. He's credited with styling the first modern laptop. He served as the director of the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum in New York City.

    In his upper-crust English accent, the Santa Claus-looking Moggridge spent two afternoons with Eberhard talking about what he wanted out of the car and the place it would have in the world.

    The Tesla intrigued Moggridge because IDEO had designed almost every consumer product the world had seen, but never a car.

    Ignoring the view of the Pacific stretched out before them, the two slowly untangled what this mystery car would look like. After a few glasses of wine, Moggridge suggested a way for Eberhard pinpoint his vision.

    "OK, let's consider this axis, from retro to futuristic," Moggridge said. "On one end here's a car that's an electric car and on the other end, here's the car that's futuristic. Where would you want your car to be on that axis?"

    Eberhard leaned toward retro. The Roadster needed to say "sports car" the moment you laid eyes on it, plus anything futuristic would put the vehicle in the uncomfortably crunchy territory of the Prius or Leaf.

    "Here's another axis, masculine to feminine" Moggridge said. "Where do you imagine your car on that axis?"

    In the middle, Eberhard replied. It should be appealing to men, but it didn't need to be a Mustang.

    Another axis.

    "Curvaceous or boxy," Moggridge said. "You could look at the classic old Ferraris, which are very curvaceous, and the modern Lamborghinis, which are very boxy."

    "Where do you see your car?" he asked.

    "Somewhere in between, but closer to the curvaceous end," Eberhard replied.

    While the Roadster certainly leaned toward the future, it was designed to be rooted in timeless forms.

    After all that articulation, Moggridge created a presentation. It was "magic," Eberhard said. Moggridge had translated his engineerspeak into something design people could understand.

    Eberhard put out another call for styling, and this time people understood it.

    Submissions came back, and he knew just the way to evaluate them.

    For the company Christmas party, Eberhard invited the 15 other members of the Tesla team, advisers, and their families to a company holiday party at his home in San Mateo County. Aside from Elon Musk, everyone who mattered to the company was there.

    Eberhard stripped his guest bedroom of anything but the white walls. On those walls he placed the sketches and computer renderings from the four design finalists. The guests were each given three red Post-it notes and three green Post-it notes.

    The contestants for the Roadster design contest. Martin Eberhard

    He told his guests that red was bad, green was good, and they could put the Post-its wherever they wanted.

    Throughout the course of the night, guests drifted down to the guest room, studied the designs, and placed their Post-its.

    By the end of the night, one wall was full of green: that of Barney Hatt, then principal designer for Lotus Design Studio.

    The Roadster had found its form.

    Barney Hatt of Lotus Engineering won the design contest. Martin Eberhard

    The Roadster's First Flight

    By November 2004, Tesla built their first "mule," an Elise stuffed full of Tesla technology.

    The Mule being built. Martin Eberhard Malcolm Smith recalled that when the time finally came to take the mule for a spin, there was some debate about who should drive. A few people suggested that Eberhard do it, but the CEO thought that JB Straubel, now the CTO, would like to take the wheel.

    In interviews with other employees, Straubel was repeatedly described as a wunderkind. The guy rebuilt an electric golf cart when he was 14. He had cofounded the Aerospace firm Volacom. The MIT Tech Review wrote that "more than anyone else, [Straubel] is responsible for the car's impressive acceleration," the engineer who engineered the Roadster's electronic controls, electric motor, and battery pack.

    Pretty fitting, then, that he got the first ride in the first true Tesla.

    The car was missing all its body panels, but it had a revised battery pack, software, and hardware.

    Straubel hopped in and stepped on the accelerator. The mule rocketed down the pavement.

    Everybody stood slack-jawed.

    The wheels didn't fall off, the software didn't crash.

    The Roadster, embryonic as it was, could drive, and drive like hell.

    "The first fully functioning mule was the real proof of concept and would lead us to the production design," said Smith. "Any time you have some new tech that you're not sure is going to work or not, you get a little bit of that Wright Brothers feeling — it did get off the ground."

    That proof helped secure more funding too. A $13 million Series B came in February 2005, led by Valor Equity Partners and Elon Musk.

    Tesla Roadster wireframe, June 2006. Martin Eberhard

    The Roadster Meets The World

    In the spring of 2006, Tesla was still in stealth mode.

    But it's hard to stay stealthy when you're making something as crazy as a high-performance electric vehicle. The creators of the documentary film "Who Killed The Electric Car" had already come a-knocking, and more buzz was gathering around Silicon Valley.

    Though it wasn't his quite his job, Mike Harrigan, who was brought in as VP of customer service and support, realized that the time for staying quiet had passed. Tesla needed to announce itself to the world. It would need to do something spectacular.

    A publicity plan was hatched. Tesla hired one PR firm to set up the event and another to wrangle Hollywood stars.

    On July 19, 2006, the Roadster had its debutante's ball at the Barker Hangar in Santa Monica.

    For Eberhard, the day was a "complete panic," between setting up the event, getting the whole team arranged, and taking care of the friends and family who had flown in from all over the world for the big day.

    It was showtime.

    Hollywood responded. The 350-strong guest list included Ed Begley Jr., Michael Eisner, and Arnold Schwarzenegger, who was then governor of California. Everybody who came to the party was told to bring a checkbook. Tesla would be taking preorders for what they called the "Signature One Hundred" — 100 cars sold at $100,000 each with the signature of the company's principles written on a plaque inside.

    At the center of the hangar was a stage. A track looped around the inside of the hanger, went out the door, ran down the airport runway, looped around on a straightaway, then back into the hanger, as if you took a long rubber band, made a rough T shape out of it, and laid it on the tarmac of Santa Monica Airport.

    A fan shot of the Tesla launch party in Santa Monica on July 19, 2006. ori/flickr Most guests got a short ride in the prototype, piloted by Tesla engineers who had put long hours into test drives.

    By the end of the day, both cars were making some alarming noises.

    The drivers were hearing a loud clunk in the back of the car whenever they punched the accelerator. The upper motor mount — which they had built out of magnesium — had broken. You couldn't see it by popping open the trunk; you had to crawl around inside the car.

    "The cars nonetheless did a perfect service," Eberhard said. "From the audience perspective they didn't have a problem. Anybody who got into one of those cars had their opinion of electric cars instantly changed."

    Stephen Casner was a friend of Eberhard's and a colleague when they both worked at Packet Design, attended the event. Now retired, Casner had a long-time interest in electric vehicles; he had once given Martin a ride in his own EV-1.

    Another fan shot of the Tesla launch party in Santa Monica on July 19, 2006. ori/flickr Both Musk and Eberhard spoke at the event. But Eberhard made by far the bigger impression, according to those who were present.

    At the time, Eberhard was Mr. Tesla, Harrigan said. He was confident and knowledgeable enough to inspire a following, but nerdy enough to feel accessible.

    Musk, who had nowhere near the cult following that he has today, was still finding his footing as a public figure. His presentation wasn't as free-flowing. He seemed nervous.

    "Elon's ability to speak in public and convey the sense of the company was not nearly as good as what Martin had done," Casner said. "I don't know if its a matter of what language is used or colorful phrases. He just didn't seem to be nearly as effective in making people excited and believe in this trend."

    As a result, Casner remembered, Eberhard was the one doing one media interview after another. He did dozens that day — some in front of a camera, some for radio, some for print, with some reporters just listening while he spoke with others.

    In any case, the event worked.

    Within two weeks of the event, Tesla had sold 127 cars, Harrigan recalled.

    One of those was Stephen Casner's. On July 28, he and his wife gave Tesla a $100,000 check to become "Signature One Hundred Members," which meant they had a reservation for one of the Signature One Hundred special-edition Roadsters.

    People put the money down to get the Signature One Hundred series cars received this thank-you note. Stephen Casner They received the following thank-you note from Tesla:

    Congratulations on becoming a member of the Tesla Signature One Hundred

    You have joined an elite circle of automotive visionaries who have chosen to reserve the world's first high performance, electric sportscar.

    We look forward to delivery dates in summer of 2007 and will keep in touch with you on a regular basis regarding the status of the Tesla Roadster as well as Tesla Motors company updates.

    As a Signature One Hundred Member, we welcome you to the Tesla Motors Family

    The note was signed by Eberhard, Tarpenning, and Musk.

    Meanwhile, the media plan appeared to be working.

    The reverse. Stephen Casner Harrigan remembered putting together three full binders of clippings. He said the company was careful not to limit itself to the automobile press but also work hard to get attention in financial magazines like Fortune and landed a massive, splashy spread in Wired.

    The press was glowing. CNET reported that "as soon as the driver hits the accelerator, you are thrown back against the seat." The Washington Post raved "This is not your father's electric car. The $100,000 vehicle, with its sports car looks, is more Ferrari than Prius — and more about testosterone than granola."

    The New York Times told readers that Tesla was making a car that was "very specialized, very expensive and very, very fast."

    Eberhard was becoming a star. He was featured as a face of Research in Motion's campaign for the BlackBerry Pearl in 2006. His claim to fame, according to the ad, was that he "created the first electric sports car."

    While the media attention may have been good for Tesla, it left Musk feeling neglected.

    In an email to Harrigan on July 18, 2006, he wrote that he would "like to talk with every major publication within reason."

    He continued:

    The way that my role as been portrayed to date, where I am referred to merely as 'an early investor' is outrageous. That would be like Martin [Eberhard] being called an 'early employee.'

    Apart from me leading the Series A & B and co-leading the Series C, my influence on the car itself runs from the headlights to the styling to the door sill to the trunk, and my strong interest in electric transport predates Tesla by a decade. Martin should certainly be the front and center guy, but the portrayal of my role to date has been incredibly insulting.

    I'm not blaming you or others at Tesla — the media is difficult to control. However, we need to make a serious effort to correct this perception.

    Two days later, after The Times ran its write-up of the Signature One Hundred event, Musk felt slighted again.

    "I was incredibly insulted and embarrassed by the NY Times article" — he wrote in an email cc'd to Eberhard and Harrigan on July 20, 2006 — "where I am not merely unmentioned, but where Martin is actually referred to as the chairman. If anything like this happens again, please consider the PCGC [public relations firm] relationship with Tesla to end immediately upon publication of such a piece. Please ensure that the NYT publishes a correction as soon as possible."

    In a column about Tesla a week later, the paper of record gushed that "Martin Eberhard, the company's chief executive, recognizes that new technologies usually start out as high-end products. He and his team are making their car the newest hot gadget, a status symbol. If rappers and football stars buy them, maybe the company can make a dent in the market."

    There was no mention of Musk.

    "The first time we really bumped heads was over that press coverage of the debut," Eberhard said. "We had technical disagreements that we worked through, and it was always very collegial. We would work through our opinions and come to a conclusion. That was the first time where it was this emotional."

    Shortly thereafter, Musk took Harrigan aside, letting him know that if he wanted to keep his job with Tesla, he'd have to start getting him some recognition.

    A Bump In The Road

    Eberhard thought that Tesla would start shipping the Roadster in 2006, ramp up to 500 cars by 2007, and be profitable by 2008.

    He was off by a few years. The Roadster wouldn't ship until February 2008.

    In October 2006, it seemed to Musk that the Roadster was at a crossroads: Tesla could either "sacrifice a six month first mover advantage in a market that is like the Internet circa 1992 (but slower moving) or focus every bit of energy on getting our product right," he said in an email.

    "We have a tremendous number of difficult problems to solve just to get the car into production," Eberhard wrote to Musk that November, "everything from serious cost problems to supplier problems (transmission, air conditioning, etc.) to our own design immaturity to Lotus's stability. I stay up at night worrying about simply getting the car into production sometime in 2007."

    When he'd originally promised a 2006 delivery date, Eberhard said, the Roadster was a lower-risk proposition. The original plan was simple: Tesla would supply the drivetrain components for Lotus to build. Production would be low cost and low friction. As Smith remembers, the idea was to reduce cost and headcount by sourcing as complete a vehicle as possible, then adding a few pieces of swank technology and finishing the car. They'd throw on a few body panels and make sure it didn't look like a Lotus.

    But that didn't happen, thanks to what Smith called "elegance creep." They could keep making the car a little nicer, so they did.

    The original plan called for Tesla to be responsible for five or so subassemblies in the car — discrete chunks of car that come in complete and are bolted on. Tesla would be in charge of the battery-pack subassembly, for instance, then Lotus would take care of most of the chassis (wheels, tires, shock absorbers) and Tesla would bolt on the parts.

    But instead of Tesla being responsible for five assemblies, it wound up taking care of hundreds of them.

    The complications began piling up.

    The custom headlight decision naturally pushed the Roadster's delivery back. Martin Eberhard

    They decided to go with a carbon-fiber body instead of a polyester glass composite. At Musk's request, they lowered the doorsills — the lowermost part of the door — to make it easier to get in and out of the car. They switched out standard headlights for bespoke ones. Musk thought that the seats were uncomfortable, so they were retooled. Musk didn't like the material of the dashboard, Eberhard recalls, "and wanted something less cheap." Then there was the transmission, which got delayed again and again. As Musk put it, the transmission "is not an inherently difficult item, but if you have two suppliers screw the pooch on you," then you're looking at some tardiness.

    "Each of these is a reasonable decision," Eberhard said. "You have to consider that it's going to cost more money and cost on the schedule, and that was never accounted for."

    With all those switches, Tesla became responsible for the entire supply chain of a diverse set of automobile ingredients.

    "We had to figure out how to supply hundreds of components for a company in England by a team in Silicon Valley that had never done that before," Eberhard said. "That was the hardest thing that I didn't expect."

    While all this was going on, Eberhard realized that Tesla would have to switch its bookkeeping to the enterprise software management system SAP, a project he recalls as a "bloody nightmare." All the while, Tesla rolled along without a chief financial officer. Between those factors, the finances at the company were getting "very murky," Eberhard said.

    "I had never run a company that was getting that big," he added. "It was time for us to bring in some professional management capability."

    Over dinner with Musk in San Carlos the following January, the night before the board of directors meeting, Eberhard floated the idea of bringing in a new CEO, pointing out that sorting out the company's financial picture and getting SAP up and running was beyond his skill level. He couldn't pull SAP together because of its complexity, and he couldn't get a handle on costs because SAP wasn't working.

    And, oh yeah, there was the challenge of running the organization, which had grown to 140 people.

    The next day at the board meeting, Musk and Eberhard pitched the idea of bringing in a new CEO so that Eberhard could focus on product, particularly the next car, codenamed "Whitestar," what we know today as the Model S sedan.

    Eberhard received a lot of support.

    "Several board members thanked me for my service thus far, and encouraged me to remain with the company in a technical and visionary role," he recalled. "It was a completely friendly discussion, with a couple of speeches from board members about how it was very much the normal course of a startup for the entrepreneur-founder to move into a different role as the company grew. Someone on the board cited Google as an example."

    That same month, Musk traveled to Lotus Engineering headquarters to check on the progress of the Roadster — without Eberhard. According to Powell, the purpose of the visit would have been to "give Lotus confidence in the financial commitment so that Lotus would continue supporting the program."

    "I'm sure you can imagine I find this a rather awkward situation where Elon has asked for Lotus' own view of the production timing of the project," Lotus Engineering director Simon Wood subsequently wrote to Eberhard.

    According to Lotus, which bore much of the responsibility for the success of the Roadster and Tesla as a whole, the car that would change the world was already three months behind schedule.

    In his presentation to Musk, Wood noted that Lotus was worried about the number of "concerns," or outstanding issues, with the Roadster, from production design to procuring parts to reliability testing. While 94 had already been taking care of, 846 remained incomplete in the tracking system.

    Musk's voice grew more urgent after the visit to England.

    Musk with New Mexico Gov. Bill Richardson in February 2007. AP "There are several burning Roadster issues that need Martin's attention right now," he wrote in an email on Jan. 24. "We have slipped delivery significantly already and are at risk of slipping even more. I feel strongly that Martin should minimize any optional activity, particularly low to moderate value PR and finance meetings, and focus on company execution, which will have a major effect on our financing and valuation."

    Musk said the greatest value he saw in hiring a CEO is that it would allow Eberhard to concentrate on making the Whitestar and future models "superlative."

    Stress was building — as is perhaps to be expected given the magnitude of Tesla's ambitions — but, fortunately, Musk and Eberhard were still on speaking terms.

    "We certainly disagree sometimes," Musk wrote to Eberhard, "but 90% of the time are on the same page or can get there with a short discussion."

    But according to employees who worked at Tesla at the time, Musk himself bore some responsibility for the Roadster's delays. While he had a keen eye for styling and always offered constructive feedback, he was rarely present in the office — which meant that his infrequent dictates created chaos.

    "Musk wasn't the CEO, and he wasn't the president," Malcolm Smith, the VP of vehicle engineering, told Business Insider. He would "sweep in every few weeks" to see the development, learn the details, then want changes for a variety of reasons. And disrupt the workflow.

    "It wasn't the most efficient way of working, because the development teams and the marketing teams moving along trying to get the job done," Smith said. "It was three steps forward, one and half steps back."

    Tesla employees cited the doorsills, the door handles, and the seat as the primary Musk-related delays.

    Powell said that the biggest challenge was the doorsill.

    Doors, as we now know, are rather complex.

    The shape of the aluminum chassis made getting in and out of the vehicle difficult, and Musk was adamant that they needed to lower the side rails by three full inches, Smith said. The original design required some yoga-style contortions on the part of the driver. If you had the ragtop on, you had to get in butt-first, fold yourself over your legs, get your head under the ragtop, and swing your legs into the footwell. Pretty hard to do gracefully.

    Elon had spent some time with one of the mule prototypes, and Smith recalls that he was really trying to push the car into a swankier space — more accessible to potential buyers who were used to more elegant cars.

    "This was going to be a $100,000 car," Smith said. "In that marketplace you're dealing with nicely refined vehicles, yet we're forcing our users to go through this gymnastics exercise."

    Still, the structure of Elon's involvement made it a difficult situation to work in. While employees say that his reasoning for making changes was nearly always quite sound, he wasn't able to deliver his feedback in real time. The feedback came in chunks.

    Meanwhile, Musk had heeded Eberhard's request to move out of the CEO role. Musk emailed about getting the CEO search started in earnest in February 2007. The executive search firm Russell Reynolds was engaged to pull in a successor.

    But none of the candidates were good enough. And neither, apparently, was Eberhard.

    Emails indicated that on June 13 he began receiving calls from reporters asking if Tesla's board was planning to hire a new CEO to replace him.

    The "best strategy would be to get out in front of this and embrace it, just as Larry and Sergey did at Google," Musk advised in an email.

    "I would be happy to correct the perception that you are being fired," he wrote later that day. "The objective fact is you brought up the CEO search yourself several months ago."

    In August, Eberhard was speaking at a conference put on by the Motor Press Guild, the trade group for automotive magazines, when he got a call from a nervous-sounding Musk.

    Michael Marks. Riverwood Capital The chairman had some tough news for him: Michael Marks, the former CEO of the manufacturer Flextronics and early Tesla investor, was taking over as CEO.

    The Tesla board had held a meeting without him, Eberhard said, and decided that it was time for him to go.

    "There was no discussion," Eberhard said. "I didn't get to hear what they said. I didn't get to defend myself. I felt totally stranded."

    Eberhard had an uncle who was a lawyer, so he sought some insight from him. He learned that the board meeting had been held in violation of the company's bylaws. So the board agreed to have another board meeting via conference call so Eberhard could actually step down.

    On Aug. 8, 2007, Eberhard resigned from his executive position, taking the title "president of technology."

    Marks became the new CEO.

    "I never figured out what was said about me to those people," Eberhard said.

    Though he stayed on the board and remained on staff with the company, Martin was off everything but troubleshooting and tending to peripheral issues.

    He'd been shut out of the company he founded.

    The whole exchange was classic Musk, said Harrigan, the VP of customer service and support who would become the VP of marketing.

    "[Musk] is the kind of boss where day to day you don't know if you have a job or not," he said.

    "Once he's convinced that you can't do the job, there's no way you can convince him back again," Harrigan added. "That happened many times to many people, and that's what happened with Martin. Once he determined that Martin couldn't be the CEO of Tesla any longer, that was it. He was fired."

    The Roadster Is Born

    Then-US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice gets a ride in a Roadster in May 2007. AP

    The divorce between Eberhard and Musk got messy — suits and countersuits were thrown in either direction.

    It was messy inside the organization, too.

    "There was a lot of turmoil after Martin left, " Harrigan said. "Everybody knew Marks was a temporary CEO until we supposedly found the right guy. He didn't know anything about electric vehicles or our business — he's a manufacturing guy. He didn't try to do a lot of house cleaning. He just ensured that the company kept running."

    Michael Marks had made a name for himself running Flextronics. In the 13 years he served as CEO, he expanded the company into 35 countries, made 100 acquisitions, and grew the manufacturer's annualized revenue from $93 million to about $16 billion. Like Eberhard and Musk, Marks was the kind of guy who could walk into a room and command everybody's attention. With a forelock of dark brown hair, Marks was your classic California executive. You could work with him for years and never see him wear a tie.

    He had invested about $2.5 million in Tesla in 2007, simply because he had worked with Malcolm Smith at Flextronics, and stopped by to visit every few months.

    Earlier in the summer of 2007, Musk had asked if he'd come in and serve as interim CEO. It wasn't going to be an easy gig.

    "Clearly the cost of the product was going to be well beyond the opportunity to make any money," Marks told Business Insider. Plus, projections were being missed on a regular basis.

    "That created a lot of distress in the company," he said, and so "Elon was concerned and asked if I would be willing to come in and stabilize it. I had made an investment in the company and it was obvious that my skill set would be valuable there in the near term."

    Marks was never an elected officer of the company. He didn't take any pay, he never signed any paperwork to be the executive, and he wasn't officially "hired to be the CEO," he said.

    The story of Eberhard's exit is the story of Silicon Valley, Marks said.

    "Martin is a very good technical guy, and he had a vision, but he wasn't a particularly good CEO," Marks said. "But that's not the least bit unusual. Martin is an engineering visionary, not the guy to run a business. If he was, he would have done the things I did. He came up with a lot of the technical aspects of the car. Most guys who can do what Martin could do aren't very good at running businesses. Maybe they should have made that move earlier. The company wasn't getting the best use out of him, he was spending a lot of time running the business where he wasn't well equipped."

    Marks likened his time at Tesla to a relay race: In the months he helmed the company, he did what he had to do to move the baton forward before passing it along — as Eberhard did before him.

    "When I got there, the economics, the business structure were terrible." Marks said. "If it wasn't terrible, they wouldn't have brought me in."

    Marks said he did three things for the company.

    First, when he arrived that summer, Marks learned that Tesla was planning on bringing $30 million worth of materials to build the car in their California office, even though the product design wasn't finished yet. Realizing that disconnect, Marks promptly killed the shipment.

    Second, Tesla had started doing R&D for other companies, just like Lotus Engineering did. But Tesla still didn't have its own car, so that had to go, too.

    Third, within a few weeks of being hired on, he got all the executives in a room together and created what became known as the "Marks List," a tally of 30-some items that needed to be completed before the Roadster could be shipped. Then each item was assigned its own caretaker on the executive team, and weekly meetings were initiated to make sure that all those things got done.

    "This is how you manage," Marks said. "I'm no rocket scientist. I had to get my arms around what I needed to spend my time on. Eventually those problems all got solved."

    Ze'ev Drori took over as Tesla CEO on Nov. 27, 2007. Robert Galbraith/Reuters Marks was replaced by Ze'ev Drori, the former CEO of car-alarm maker Clifford Electronics, on Nov. 27, 2007.

    "There is a lot of activity, and a lot of things to be done," Drori said in an interview two weeks after he took over. "And we are doing it. We will get the car out there into the hands of our customers."

    He promised that Tesla was on schedule for shipping the Roadster in the first quarter of 2008.

    Regular production started on March 18, 2008.

    In keeping company style, Drori announced it in a blog post.

    "Our key focus with the Roadster will be on gradually ramping up our production in a deliberate and controlled manner, reaching a rate of over 100 Roadsters per month early next year," he wrote. "With this milestone, the Tesla Roadster is the only zero emission electric vehicle in production today."

    The Roadster, like the Vauxhall VX-220 and the Opel Speedster before it, was slotted into the production schedule at Lotus.

    Stephen Casner had plunked down the dough to snag No. 33 of the Signature One Hundred series back in the summer of 2006. It would finally be delivered in the fall of 2008.

    That October, he and his wife flew to the UK to see his car as it was being born. Eberhard helped arrange the tour with the Lotus team.

    They arrived in Hethel about 10 o'clock for the hour-plus tour.

    "It normally takes about two and a quarter days to complete the assembly process," Casner wrote in a blog post about his trip. "About 12 Roadsters get started down the assembly line each week, and Tesla is steadily ramping up production starts. The number of vehicles finishing the line varies depending on parts availability, quality controls and inspections, planned stops and other factors."

    Lotus had a test track just beside the factory.

    That's where Casner and his wife headed next.

    A Roadster is assembled at the Lotus Factory in Hethel, England. Stephen Casner Casner got in the car.

    The driver asked him if fast driving made him feel concerned.

    "Don't hold back," Casner replied.

    And they were off.

    "I think we got up to about 115 on the straight," Casner said in the blog post. "This car sticks like glue in the corners. Coming around to the skid pad, he intentionally threw the car into oversteer to demonstrate recovery."

    After about 15 minutes of careening around the test track, they were done.

    "I enjoyed this immensely, and I only wish I had the time and opportunity to develop some of that driving skill for myself," Casner wrote. "What I took away from this demo ride was that there is a significant margin between this car's limits and my own."

    Casner's Roadster would meet him in California on Oct. 31, 2008.

    He's been driving it ever since.

    The Casners in their Roadster at the end of the assembly line at the Lotus factory in Hethel, England. Stephen Casner

    The Musk Era Begins

    Drori stayed on as CEO until October 2008, when Musk took the helm and fired a quarter of Tesla's employees.

    By that time, Musk had invested $55 million in Tesla himself.

    Musk in December 2008. AP

    "I've got so many chips on the table with Tesla," he said in an interview. "It just made sense for me to have both hands on the wheel."

    By May 2009, Tesla had recalled 75% of its Roadsters made between March 2008 and April 2009, promising to send technicians to people's homes to fix loosened bolts that were critical to handling.

    The car's dependability was leaving a few of those high-profile customers disappointed.

    George Clooney told Esquire he ended up selling his.

    "I had a Tesla," he said. "I was one of the first cats with a Tesla. I think I was, like, number five on the list. But I'm telling you, I've been on the side of the road a while in that thing. And I said to them, 'Look, guys, why am I always stuck on the side of the fucking road? Make it work, one way or another.' "

    Musk, who by this time was being treated in the media as the love child of Tony Stark and Steve Jobs, had the perfect response.

    "In other news, George Clooney reports that his iPhone 1 had a bug back in '07," he tweeted.

    In 2010, Musk would navigate Tesla all the way to filing a $100 million initial public offering. The stock promptly went bonkers.

    The Future

    On Oct. 1, 2014, Musk sent out a provocative tweet to his 1.2 million followers.

    "About time to unveil the D and something else," he said, igniting a firestorm of poorly told penis jokes and automotive speculation.

    What could it be? Tesla had taken long strides in making good on its proposal of delivering a supercar that changed everyone's minds about electric vehicles with the Roadster, then making a more affordable sedan in the Model S. The Model X SUV is next on the line-up — originally scheduled for 2013, then delayed to 2014, then delayed again to early 2015.

    The unveiling happened at the Hawthorne Municipal Airport in Los Angeles on Oct. 9.

    The Tesla D at the reveal. Kevork Djansezian/Getty Images

    The tech, business, and automobile press all swooped in to see Musk do the honors, with some assistance from a gigantic robotic arm that swung the skeleton of the new car around.

    Social analytics firm Crimson Hexagon told Business Insider that there were more than 7,500 tweets about the event, with the top topics being "Model D Car," "New Tesla Model D," and "Elon Musk."

    There were 377 news articles published about the event within a day, according to LexisNexis.

    The spotlight was entirely on Musk, who sent the thousands assembled into a roar when he appeared on stage.

    "The whole thing felt more like a concert than a product unveiling," Ashlee Vance wrote in Bloomberg Businessweek.

    Musk was the rock-star solo act, sending the crowd into stitches with his newly discovered easygoing style.

    "There's been a lot of speculation as to what the D stands for," Musk said. "You'll notice that my pants have Velcro seams."

    The crowd howled.

    Then he got serious.

    Elon Musk holds court during the Tesla D unveiling on Oct. 9, 2014. Kevork Djansezian/Getty Images "The D stands for Dual Motor," he said. "Motor in the front, motor in the back, hence the dual nature of it."

    And hence the insane speed: the D is a sedan that goes 0-60 in 3.2 seconds, same as a McLaren F1 supercar.

    The media ate it up.

    Our headlines in Business Insider were representative: "ELON MUSK REVEALS TESLA D SUPERCAR, PLUS AUTOPILOT FEATURES" and "Watch Elon Musk Unveil The New Tesla In True 'Iron Man' Fashion."

    Though Eberhard got the invite and still holds stock in the company, he skipped the festivities.

    "I don't pay attention to Elon's superlatives," he said.

    The two no longer speak.

    Eberhard can't say what exactly he was doing that day. He thinks he read about the launch online with his coffee the following morning.

    Meanwhile, Musk had become quite the showman.

    "This car is nuts," he said during the reveal. "It's like taking off from a carrier deck. It's just bananas. It's like having your own personal roller coaster."

    Even though the Model X SUV was just pushed back again to late 2015, Musk insisted that the Tesla D is going to ship in February. And it just might.

    In true Tesla fashion, the performance modes on the D are as unconventional as they are maximal.

    "In fact, in the option selection, you'll be able to choose three settings," Musk said. "Normal, sport, and insane."Mark Ralston/AFP



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