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M2065-659 - IBM Smarter Cities Sales Sales Mastery Test v1 - BrainDump Information

Vendor Name : IBM
Exam Code : M2065-659
Exam Name : IBM Smarter Cities Sales Sales Mastery Test v1
Questions and Answers : 42 Q & A
Updated On : November 14, 2018
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M2065-659 exam Dumps Source : IBM Smarter Cities Sales Sales Mastery Test v1

Test Code : M2065-659
Test Name : IBM Smarter Cities Sales Sales Mastery Test v1
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 42 Real Questions

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IBM IBM Smarter Cities Sales

IBM group joins 'smarter city' task | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

IBM introduced a group of its executives has begun work with Chon Buri officials to collaborate and strengthen suggestions to support turn the city into a world tourist vacation spot and transport hub of the location.

The crew is to analyse and make techniques to aid Chon Buri turn into a smarter metropolis. The venture is part of IBM Smarter Cities challenge gives you to assist revolutionary, forward-considering municipalities.

The group contains Michael Preis, beginning executive, IBM world business functions; Krishnan Ramachandran, IBM wonderful engineer and chief technology officer, mobile solutions Leaders, Banking and fiscal Market; Anna Tassioula, client director, IBM fiscal Markets; Denise Freier, organisational change govt, IBM income Forces Automation; and Mauricio Sucasas Da Costa, director, ISV and developer relations, IBM increase Markets Unit.  

The group will spend the subsequent three weeks analysing the present situation and build on latest plans to tackle Chon Buri’s imaginative and prescient to be a better city.  

Chon Buri is one of 33 cities that have been chosen for the 2012 Smarter Cities challenge provide. A crew of 5 properly-performing IBM leaders from the U.S. and China has been chosen to work with the city.

The team of IBM specialists will work with city officers on two key priorities. First is to aid place the city as an international-famous tourist vacation spot and livable city for local citizens and foreigners. And second is to support radically change it into the logistics hub for the vicinity.  

The tourism assignment, in partnership with Pattaya metropolis, goals to enhance the city’s exceptional of dwelling by means of specializing in public safety and site visitors administration. 

For the logistics hub undertaking, the crew will collaborate with Laem Chabang Port to assist increase its operations and repair through leveraging expertise to develop into an incredible logistics hub and gateway to counties in the Mekong sub-vicinity.  

Launched in 2011, the Smarter Cities problem is a three-12 months, 100-city US$50-million (Bt1.5 billion) programme. it's IBM’s single-greatest philanthropic initiative, which dollars in-person engagements staffed via groups of correct IBM specialists, who look at after which make targeted thoughts addressing in the community critical urban issues.

teams of certainly chosen IBM consultants will supply city leaders with evaluation and recommendations to help a success increase, greater delivery of municipal services, more citizen engagement and superior efficiency.

remaining year, Chiang Mai became one of 24 cities worldwide selected to receive IBM Smarter Cities problem offers. The offers supply the cities with access to IBM’s good specialists to analyse and suggest approaches they could develop into even improved locations in which to live, work and play. Thailand has been selected as considered one of 20 boom countries that IBM will center of attention on intensively for investment.

in keeping with IBM, boom markets generated 22 per cent of the business’s world salary closing yr, and the business goals to have 30 per cent of its complete world salary come from boom markets with the aid of 2015. IBM identified 140 countries from a total of 170 the place IBM has a company presence.


IBM Crowdsources newest Smarter metropolis Effort | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

in the latest phase of its "americans for Smarter Cities" advertising push, IBM crowdsourced digital videos from world wide showcasing how residents would enhance their cities.

the primary phase, called "sensible concepts for Smarter Cities," ran last 12 months and featured IBM-branded structures comparable to benches, rain shelters and ramps that enhanced or stronger some point of city lifestyles. The Ogilvy France-created effort won a Grand Prix at Cannes.

the new push become executed through a partnership with Zooppa, which has over 200,000 individuals, together with filmmakers, bloggers and environmental communities. Out of almost eighty permitted entries, eight winners from world wide were chosen, with four coming from North america. different winners got here from ireland, Asia and Israel. The video clips covered a variety of issues from repurposing empty areas and helping the bodily challenged to spurring employment.

Awards ranged from $500 to $10,000. The properly prize went to the makers of a video entitled "Granby Park" from Dublin, which showcases how a group made stronger use of an empty public space.

The videos may be purchasable on the branded individuals For Smarter Cities web page, as well as YouTube and IBM social-media sites starting Wednesday.

"These video clips showed us what americans actually care about: transportation, biking, unused constructions that may still have more desirable use," talked about Jacelyn Swenson, supervisor, IBM manufacturer system. "through these reports metropolis leaders can see developments and check out to get ahead of the challenges they face in their metropolis."

Ogilvy France become as soon as once again a part of the hassle. The system started late last summer time when a notice concerning the video contest went out via Zooppa, which culled the submissions, in accordance with Susan Westre, govt creative Director, Ogilvy & Mather, Paris.

"we are in reality enthusiastic about relationship with Zooppa and the response we received for IBM," pointed out Ms. Westre. "even though the specific contest is over, we desired to exhibit the winning movies on the americans for Smarter Cities web site so that it will motivate others to make a contribution ideas as neatly."

~ ~ ~CORRECTION: An earlier edition of this story incorrectly cited that some contest winners got here from the U.okay. and Kazakhstan. Granby Park turned into also misspelled.


red Hat's co-founder was unemployed and working in a closet when he begun the business IBM is buying for $34 billion | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

in the early 1990s, young says, purple Hat changed into the simplest enterprise offering open-supply application, as larger opponents like Oracle, Microsoft, and even IBM, had been reluctant to relinquish the effective supply code to consumers. "i'm an historical typewriter earnings man," young says. "i love promoting things my valued clientele can not get anyplace else."

In 1993, younger begun a company out of his home selling application on the open-supply Linux and Unix working programs. younger joined forces with North Carolina-based utility engineer Marc Ewing (who gave the company the identify pink Hat, a reference to a pink baseball cap Ewing wore in school). young merged his fledgling enterprise with Ewing's personal open-supply Linux software distributor and moved to Durham, North Carolina (pink Hat is presently headquartered in Raleigh).

young served as CEO, the use of his sales history to focal point on the company's operations, whereas Ewing handled the software engineering.

because of his lack of money, young had to get inventive when it came to funding this bootstrapped assignment. So, he took steps that, in hindsight, may look sick-suggested: he and Ewing racked up bank card debt.

"The banks used to junk mail the realm with credit card purposes, and i would fill them out and send them in and they might send me yet another $5,000 bank card," younger tells CNBC Make It. "And, i would use the $5,000 to repay the previous bank card I had signed up for. I got these credit score cards up to $50,000, which in 1994 was a lot of money."

younger's bank card debt finally reached about $50,000, spread throughout at the least eight different cards. "i assumed of it as inventive finance," younger says. His spouse thought he should still "go to penitentiary," he jokes. actually, it turned into younger's spouse, Nancy, who made the bank card ploy work, due to the proven fact that she had a much better credit rating than young.

younger now calls his spouse "likely the only-most essential contributor" to the preliminary success of red Hat. "with out my spouse Nancy's sterling credit rating, i would not been capable of raise the money that obtained us to profitability," he says.

younger and Ewing have been capable of fund the company with their mounting bank card debt in the course of the fall of 1995, when the company launched a brand new edition of its open-source application that first begun turning a income, which allowed them to ultimately repay the playing cards.

by means of 1998, purple Hat become producing earnings of greater than $5 million per yr, and that quantity doubled to greater than $10 million by using the following yr. younger remained CEO via pink Hat's 1999 IPO, which gave the enterprise a multi-billion dollar valuation.

young stepped down as CEO after the IPO, handing the reins to Matthew Szulik, who had helped take the business public as red Hat's president. (Szulik led crimson Hat except 2007, when former Delta airlines COO Jim Whitehurst took over.)

despite his success, young has no issue expressing humility and a sense of humor about his career (his LinkedIn profile lists his title at Lulu.com as "coffee Mug Washer"), and he's quick to give the credit score for red Hat's large exit to his partners and successors, together with Ewing, Szulik and latest CEO Whitehurst.

"The $34 billion success has nothing to do with me. i will take some credit score for spotting the preliminary chance. The specific execution of that possibility, the credit goes to plenty smarter guys than me."

younger additionally left crimson Hat's board of directors for decent in 2005, explaining on the time that he was superior suited to the life of a serial entrepreneur than a corporate director with a less palms-on function.

For that motive, younger established Lulu.com in 2002 and he continues to serve as the enterprise's CEO. the following year, he purchased his place of birth Canadian soccer League group, the Hamilton Tiger-Cats. And, he's additionally spent his time investing in initiatives like drone know-how company PrecisionHawk (the place he served as CEO from 2015 to 2017) and his spouse's craft materials business, Needlepoint.com.

younger sold all of his shares in red Hat after leaving the company, he says, so he cashed out at a time when the enterprise turned into worth a fraction of what IBM is paying. young, who still walked away from crimson Hat with a net value of a few hundred million greenbacks, tells CNBC Make It that he does not remorseful about selling his pink Hat shares years earlier than the company's big sale to IBM. He used that cash to do "a big number of enjoyable issues," he says, from founding Lulu.com to supporting his native CFL crew.

"Had I hung on to my purple Hat stake, I may have carried out more desirable than I did with the aid of selling once I did," he says. "however I do not be apologetic about for 5 minutes my choice, as a result of my final 15 12 months have [gone] very in a different way than if I had just been a supervisor of a large crimson Hat investment."

don't pass over:

three issues Oculus co-founder Palmer Luckey splurged on when facebook purchased it for $2 billion

How these billion-dollar corporations begun as chuffed accidents and side gigs

Like this story? Subscribe to CNBC Make It on YouTube!




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5 Career Moves to Make in Your 30s That Will Pay Off Huge Later | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

The average American accumulates 90% of his or her net worth after age 40. And most people now have far more working years after 40 than before. So why is it that people in their 30s focus so much career anxiety on the short term — the next job, say, or a raise they hope to get?

A better approach is to use these early years of your career — and yes, your 30s are still early — to position yourself for the higher-paying and more rewarding jobs that come down the road in your 40s, 50s, and even 60s.

Here’s what you need to do to set yourself on a course for long-term success.

1. Find Your Sweet Spot

Your career sweet spot is the intersection of three things: what you’re good at, what you love to do, and what the world values. If you don’t know your exact sweet spot yet, you should start homing in on it. There is no straight line or formula to get you there, but you’re going to need to explore and try new things. Use your 30s to test out hypotheses: Am I good enough at graphic design to make a career of it? If I really did sales for a year or two, would I fall in love with it? I’m good at writing and I love it — why don’t I devote the next two years to seeing if can I really make it a career?

2. Fuel Your Career Tank

Use your 30s to fix any weaknesses in these three elements that are essential to a rewarding career: skills, experiences, and relationships. A few specifics on these:

  • Transferrable skills: These are skills that apply no matter what career, or role, you hold. They include things like effective communication, problem solving, emotional intelligence, time management, academic qualifications, mastery of computer or other languages, and an ability to meet deadlines. You’ll take these from job to job and even industry to industry for years to come — so seek new opportunities to gain, practice, and master them.
  • Meaningful experiences: If you work in a highly controlled environment doing just one or two things, your future is fragile — if your niche falls out of fashion, your entire career could be at risk. Instead, build your versatility. If you’ve worked in big corporations, consider an entrepreneurial one. Have you launched a new product, won new business, or worked internationally? Have you volunteered, traveled, worked on community projects? Push yourself beyond your comfort zone so that you’re constantly learning.
  • Enduring relationships. The people with whom you associate — the clients, bosses, business partners, and colleagues you work with — and the brands you represent will affect your career for decades to come. Surround yourself with quality people. Look at your LinkedIn contacts and your entire career ecosystem. Are you putting yourself in environments where you can learn from people who are smarter than you? If not, take action. Build relationships with five experts whose knowledge complements your own skills set, and one or two mentors who can give you candid advice and help champion your career.
  •  

    3. Future-Proof Your Career

    If you are in your mid-30s now, you’ll probably be working another 30-plus years. Will your chosen field last that long? If your work focuses on calculating, executing or repetiting tasks, you are at the highest risk. Protect yourself by building skills and attributes that machines find hard to replicate: creativity, judgment, insight, invention, and trust building.

    Then work with the machines — or rather, new software and other technology tools — that help you excel in your human skills. For example, use machines to test your hypotheses, drive analysis and insights, and develop your inventions. Don’t think in terms of human versus machine; the future will be about humans and machines working together in new relationships.

    4. Assess Your Personal Time

    Smart investors balance a mix of assets to get the greatest yield over the long haul. The same principle applies to time, which is your greatest life and career asset. Are you energized, or are you burning out? What trade-offs would increase energy, success and happiness?

    We each have about 100 waking hours to work with each week. Tally up where yours are going — it can be quite illuminating. When I was in my 30s, I gave 60% of my time to work, and 20% to my family. The rest was divided between community, fitness, teaching and/or learning, and chilling out. But there is no magic percentage formula. Even small amounts of time devoted to family, community, avocations, and fitness can deliver a disproportionate positive effect.

    5. Give Yourself a Career Day

    Once a year, take a full day to assess and strategize for the long view. Have in front of you an updated time portfolio, the number of years you expect to be working, and answers to these four questions:

  • Am I learning?
  • Am I having impact on my company, people or the world?
  • Am I having fun?
  • Am I fairly rewarded?
  • What do your four answers reveal? Depending on your stage in life, some will be more important than others. Take this into account. What needs to change?

    Now, write down your long-term career ambition, and map out both the skills and the time you will need to get there. What fuel do you have on board? What extra power do you need? And how can you get there? Write down several career pathways that can get you there.

    Then use the answers to plan out your next 12 months — and review as needed. Update annually.

    My key point: A successful lifelong career requires a long-term game plan. Use your 30s to turn short-term anxieties into actions that will prepare you for the road ahead.

    Brian Fetherstonhaugh is chairman & CEO of OgilvyOne Worldwide and author of The Long View: Career Strategies to Start Strong, Reach High and Go Far.


    Machines beat us at our own game: What can we do? | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    In this undated publicity image released by Jeopardy Productions, Inc., host Alex Trebek, left, poses with contestants Ken Jennings, center, and Brad Rutter and a computer named Watson in Yorktown Heights, N.Y. On Monday, Feb. 14, 2011, "Jeopardy!" will begin airing two matches spread over three days between Jennings, Rutter and Watson, who was developed by IBM scientists. (AP Photo/Jeopardy Productions, Inc.) NO SALES (AP) -- Machines first out-calculated us in simple math. Then they replaced us on the assembly lines, explored places we couldn't get to, even beat our champions at chess. Now a computer called Watson has bested our best at "Jeopardy!"

    A gigantic computer created by IBM specifically to excel at answers-and-questions left two champs of the TV game show in its silicon dust after a three-day tournament, a feat that experts call a technological breakthrough.

    Watson earned $77,147, versus $24,000 for Ken Jennings and $21,600 for Brad Rutter. Jennings took it in stride writing "I for one welcome our new computer overlords" alongside his correct Final Jeopardy answer.

    The next step for the IBM machine and its programmers: taking its mastery of the arcane and applying it to help doctors plow through blizzards of medical information. Watson could also help make Internet searches far more like a conversation than the hit-or-miss things they are now.

    Watson's victory leads to the question: What can we measly humans do that amazing machines cannot do or will never do?

    The answer, like all of "Jeopardy!," comes in the form of a question: Who - not what - dreamed up Watson? While computers can calculate and construct, they cannot decide to create. So far, only humans can.

    "The way to think about this is: Can Watson decide to create Watson?" said Pradeep Khosla, dean of engineering at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh. "We are far from there. Our ability to create is what allows us to discover and create new knowledge and technology."

    Experts in the field say it is more than the spark of creation that separates man from his mechanical spawn. It is the pride creators can take, the empathy we can all have with the winners and losers, and that magical mix of adrenaline, fear and ability that kicks in when our backs are against the wall and we are in survival mode.

    What humans have that Watson, IBM's earlier chess champion Deep Blue, and all their electronic predecessors and software successors do not have and will not get is the sort of thing that makes song, romance, smiles, sadness and all that jazz. It's something the experts in computers, robotics and artificial intelligence know very well because they can't figure out how it works in people, much less duplicate it. It's that indescribable essence of humanity.

    Nevertheless, Watson, which took 25 IBM scientists four years to create, is more than just a trivia whiz, some experts say.

    Richard Doherty, a computer industry expert and research director at the Envisioneering Group in Seaford, N.Y., said he has been studying artificial intelligence for decades. He thinks IBM's advances with Watson are changing the way people think about artificial intelligence and how a computer can be programmed to give conversational answers - not merely lists of sometimes not-germane entries.

    "This is the most significant breakthrough of this century," he said. "I know the phones are ringing off the hook with interest in Watson systems. The Internet may trump Watson, but for this century, it's the most significant advance in computing."

    And yet Watson's creators say this breakthrough gives them an extra appreciation for the magnificent machines we call people.

    "I see human intelligence consuming machine intelligence, not the other way around," David Ferrucci, IBM's lead researcher on Watson, said in an interview Wednesday. "Humans are a different sort of intelligence. Our intelligence is so interconnected. The brain is so incredibly interconnected with itself, so interconnected with all the cells in our body, and has co-evolved with language and society and everything around it."

    "Humans are learning machines that live and experience the world and take in an enormous amount of information - what they see, what they taste, what they feel, and they're taking that in from the day they're born until the day they die," he said. "And they're learning from all the input all the time. We've never even created something that attempts to do that."

    The ability of a machine to learn is the essence of the field of artificial intelligence. And there have been great advances in the field, but nothing near human thinking.

    "I've been in this field for 25 years and no matter what advances we make, it's not like we feel we're getting to the finish line," said Carnegie Mellon University professor Eric Nyberg, who has worked on Watson with its IBM creators since 2007. "There's always more you can do to bring computers to human intelligence. I'm not sure we'll ever really get there."

    Bart Massey, a professor of computer science at Portland State University, quipped: "If you want to build something that thinks like a human, we have a great way to do that. It only takes like nine months and it's really fun."

    Working on computer evolution "really makes you appreciate the fact that humans are such unique things and they think such unique ways," Massey said.

    Nyberg said it is silly to think that Watson will lead to an end or a lessening of humanity. "Watson does just one task: answer questions," he said. And it gets things wrong, such as saying grasshoppers eat kosher, which Nyberg said is why humans won't turn over launch codes to it or its computer cousins.

    Take Tuesday's Final Jeopardy, which Watson flubbed and its human competitors handled with ease. The category was U.S. cities, and the clue was: "Its largest airport is named for a World War II hero; its second largest, for a World War II battle."

    The correct response was Chicago, but Watson weirdly wrote, "What is Toronto?????"

    A human would have considered Toronto and discarded it because it is a Canadian city, not a U.S. one, but that's not the type of comparative knowledge Watson has, Nyberg said.

    "A human working with Watson can get a better answer," said James Hendler, a professor of computer and cognitive science at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. "Using what humans are good at and what Watson is good at, together we can build systems that solve problems that neither of us can solve alone."

    That's why Paul Saffo, a longtime Silicon Valley forecaster, and others, see better search engines as the ultimate benefit from the "Jeopardy!"-playing machine.

    "We are headed toward a world where you are going to have a conversation with a machine," Saffo said. "Within five to10 years, we'll look back and roll our eyes at the idea that search queries were a string of answers and not conversations."

    The beneficiaries, IBM's Ferrucci said, could include technical support centers, hospitals, hedge funds or other businesses that need to make lots of decisions that rely on lots of data.

    For example, a medical center might use the software to better diagnose disease. Since a patient's symptoms can generate many possibilities, the advantage of a Watson-type program would be its ability to scan the medical literature faster than a human could and suggest the most likely result. A human, of course, would then have to investigate the computer's finding and make the final diagnosis.

    IBM isn't saying how much money it spent building Watson. But Doherty said the company told analysts at a recent meeting that the figure was around $30 million. Doherty believes the number is probably higher, in the "high dozens of millions."

    In a few years, Carnegie Mellon University robotic whiz Red Whittaker will be launching a robot to the moon as part of Google challenge. When it lands, the robot will make all sorts of key and crucial real-time decisions - like Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin did 42 years ago - but what humans can do that machines can't will already have been done: Create the whole darn thing.

    Explore further: 'Jeopardy!' to pit humans against IBM machine

    More information: IBM's Watson: tinyurl.com/4r8w6grJeopardy: jeopardy.com

    ©2010 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.


    Understanding the Telecommunications Revolution | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    While traditional telecommunications networks have allowed us to cross barriers associated with time and distance, the new multimedia realm is allowing us to include vital physical cues in the information stream, introducing a physical reality into the world of electronic communications, goods, and services. Not surprisingly, some of the industries that are being most radically revolutionized are those that deal with the human senses, including entertainment, health care, education, advertising, and, sadly, warfare. Simply put, technology changes your way and pace of life.

    This sample chapter from Telecommunications Essentials presents the big picture of the telecommunications revolution.

    This chapter is from the book 

    In recent years, the word telecommunications has been used so often, and applied in so many situations, that it has become part of our daily lexicon, yet its definition remains elusive. So, let's start with a definition. The word telecommunications has its roots in Greek: tele means "over a distance," and communicara means "the ability to share." Hence, telecommunications literally means "the sharing of information over a distance." Telecommunications is more than a set of technologies, it's more than an enormous global industry (estimated to be US$2.5 trillion), it's more than twenty-first-century business and law that is being re-created to accommodate a virtual world, and it's more than a creator and destroyer of the state of the economy. Telecommunications is a way of life. Telecommunications affects how and where you do everything—live, work, play, socialize, entertain, serve, study, teach, rest, heal, and protect. Telecommunications has served a critical role in shaping society and culture, as well as in shaping business and economics.

    It is important to examine telecommunications from the broadest perspective possible to truly appreciate the depth and complexity of this field and thereby understand the opportunities it affords. The best way to learn to "think telecom" is to quickly examine how it is changing both business and lifestyle.

    Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, much of the IT&T (information technologies and telecommunications) industry's focus was on how to reengineer the likes of financial institutions, manufacturing, retail, service, and government. These technology deployments were largely pursued and justified on the grounds of reducing costs and enhancing competitiveness by speeding communications.

    Today, we are shifting our focus to another set of objectives: Our technology deployments are targeted at supporting not just the needs of a business enterprise, but also those of the consumers. The revolution in integrated media is transforming all aspects of human activity related to communication and information. We are moving to computer-based environments that support the creation, sharing, and distribution of multimodal information. Whereas traditional telecommunications networks have allowed us to cross barriers associated with time and distance, the new multimedia realm is allowing us to include vital physical cues in the information stream, introducing a physical reality into the world of electronic communications, goods, and services. Not surprisingly, some of the industries that are being most radically revolutionized are those that deal with the human senses, including entertainment, health care, education, advertising, and, sadly, warfare. In each of these key sectors, there are telecommunications solutions that address the business need, reduce costs, or enhance operations by speeding business processes and aiding communications. These industries are also examining how to virtualize their products and/or services—that is, how to apply telecommunications to support electronic services targeted at the consumers of that industry's products. Not surprisingly, changing the way you attend a class, see a doctor, watch a movie, get a date, shop for software, take a cruise, and stay in touch creates significant changes in how you use your time and money. Simply put, technology changes your way and pace of life.

    This chapter presents the big picture of the telecommunications revolution, and the rest of the book gives greater detail about the specific technologies and applications that will comprise the telecommunications future.

    A quick orientation of how emerging technologies are affecting industries and lifestyle highlights the importance of understanding the principles of telecommunications, and, hopefully, to inspire you to "think telecom." The changes discussed here are ultimately very important to how telecommunications networks will evolve and to where the growth areas will be.

    An enormous amount of the activity driving telecommunications has to do with the emergence of advanced applications; likewise, advances in telecommunications capabilities spur developments in computing platforms and capabilities. The two are intimately and forever intertwined. The following sections discuss some of the changes that are occurring in both telecommunications and in computing platforms and applications, as well as some of the changes expected in the next several years.

    Incorporating Human Senses in Telecommunications

    Telecommunications has allowed a virtual world to emerge—one in which time and distance no longer represent a barrier to doing business or communicating—but we're still lacking something that is a critical part of the human information-processing realm. The human mind acts on physical sensations in the course of its information processing; the senses of sight, sound, touch, and motion are key to our perception and decision making. Developments in sensory technologies and networks will allow a new genre of sensory reality to emerge, bridging the gap between humans and machines. One of the most significant evolutions occurring in computing and communications is the introduction of the human senses into electronic information streams. The following are a few of the key developments in support of this more intuitive collaborative human–machine environment:

  • Computers are now capable of hearing and speaking, as demonstrated by Tellme, a popular U.S. voice-activated service that responds to defined voice prompts and provides free stock quotes, weather information, and entertainment guides to 35,000 U.S. cities.

  • The capability to produce three-dimensional sound through digital mastery—a technology called "virtual miking"—is being developed at the University of Southern California's Integrated Media Systems Center.

  • Virtual touch, or haptics, enables a user to reach in and physically interact with simulated computer content, such as feeling the weight of the Hope diamond in your hand or feeling the fur of a lion. Two companies producing technology in this area are SensAble Technologies and Immersion Corporation. They are producing state-of-the-art force feedback, whole-hand sensing, and real-time 3D interaction technologies, and these hardware and software products have a wide range of applications for the manufacturing and consumer markets, including virtual-reality job training, computer-aided design, remote handling of hazardous materials, and "touch" museums.

  • The seduction of smell is also beginning to find its way into computers, allowing marketers to capitalize on the many subtle psychological states that smell can induce. Studies show that aromas can be used to trigger fear, excitement, and many other emotions. Smell can be used to attract visitors to Web sites, to make them linger longer and buy more, to help them assimilate and retain information, or to instill the most satisfying or terrifying of emotional states (now that's an interactive game!). Three companies providing this technology today are Aromajet, DigiScents, and TriSenx. Aromajet, for example, creates products that address video games, entertainment, medical, market research, personal and home products, and marketing and point of sales applications.

  • The visual information stream provides the most rapid infusion of information, and a large portion of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information. To help humans process visual information, computers today can see; equipped with video cameras, computers can capture and send images, and can display high-quality entertainment programming. The visual stream is incredibly demanding in terms of network performance; thus, networks today are rapidly preparing to enable this most meaningful of information streams to be easily distributed.

  • The Emergence of Wearables

    How we engage in computing and communications will change dramatically in the next decade. Portable computing devices have changed our notion of what and where a workplace is and emphasized our desire for mobility and wireless communication; they are beginning to redefine the phrase dressed for success. But the portable devices we know today are just a stepping stone on the way to wearables. Context-aware wearable computing will be the ultimate in light, ergonomic, reliable, flexible, and scalable platforms. Products that are available for use in industrial environments today will soon lead to inexpensive, easy-to-use wearables appearing at your neighborhood electronics store:

  • Xybernaut's Mobile Assistant IV (MA-IV), a wearable computer, provides its wearer with a full-fledged PC that has a 233MHz Pentium chip, 32MB memory, and upward of 3GB storage. A wrist keyboard sports 60 keys. Headgear suspended in front of the eye provides a full-color VGA screen, the size of a postage stamp but so close to the eye that images appear as on a 15-inch monitor. A miniature video camera fits snugly in a shirt pocket. Bell Canada workers use MA-IVs in the field; they replace the need to carry manuals and provide the ability to send images and video back to confer with supervisors. The MA-IV is rather bulky, weighing in at 4.4 pounds (2 kilograms), but the soon-to-be-released MA-V will be the first mass-market version, and it promises to be lightweight.

  • MIThril is the next-generation wearables research platform currently in development at MIT's Media Lab. It is a functional, operational body-worn computing architecture for context-aware human-computer interaction research and general-purpose wearable computing applications. The MIThril architecture combines a multiprotocol body bus and body network, integrating a range of sensors, interfaces, and computing cores. It is designed to be integrated into everyday clothing, and it is both ergonomic and flexible. It combines small, light-weight RISC processors (including the StrongARM), a single-cable power/data "body bus," and high-bandwidth wireless networking in a package that is nearly as light, comfortable, and unobtrusive as ordinary street clothing.

  • To be truly useful, wearables will need to be aware of where you are and what you're doing. Armed with this info, they will be able to give you information accordingly. (Location-based services are discussed in Chapter 14, "Wireless Communications.")

    Bandwidth

    A term that you hear often when discussing telecommunications is bandwidth. Bandwidth is a critical commodity. Historically, bandwidth has been very expensive, as it was based on the sharing of limited physical resources, such as twisted-pair copper cables and coax. Bandwidth is largely used today to refer to the capacity of a network or a telecom link, and it is generally measured in bits per second (bps). Bandwidth actually refers to the range of frequencies involved—that is, the difference between the lowest and highest frequencies supported—and the greater the range of frequencies, the greater the bandwidth, and hence the greater the number of bits per second, or information carried.

    Figure 1.1 The analogy of a hose is often used to describe bandwidth.

    Moving Toward Pervasive Computing

    As we distribute intelligence across a wider range of devices, we are experiencing pervasive computing, also called ubiquitous computing. We are taking computers out of stand-alone boxes to which we are tied and putting them into ordinary things, in everyday objects around us. These new things, because they are smart, have a sense of self-awareness and are able to take care of themselves. When we embed intelligence into a device, we create an interesting new opportunity for business. That device has to have a reason for being, and it has to have a reason to continue evolving so that you will spend more money and time on it. To address this challenge, device manufacturers are beginning to bundle content and applications with their products. The result is smart refrigerators, smart washing machines, smart ovens, smart cabinets, smart furniture, smart beds, smart televisions, smart toothbrushes, and an endless list of other smart devices. (These smart devices are discussed in detail in Chapter 15, "The Broadband Home and HANs.")

    Devices are becoming smaller and more powerful all the time, and they're getting physically closer to our bodies, as well. The growing amount of intelligence distributed throughout the network is causing changes in user profiles.

    Moving Toward Machine-to-Machine Communications

    We are moving away from human-to-human communications to an era of machine-to-machine communications. Today, there are just over 6 billion human beings on the planet, yet the number of microprocessors is reported to be more than 15 billion. Devices have become increasingly intelligent, and one characteristic of an intelligent system is that it can communicate. As the universe of communications-enabled devices grows, so does the traffic volume between them. As these smart things begin to take on many of the tasks and communications that humans traditionally exchanged, they will change the very fabric of our society. For example, your smart washing machine will initiate a call to the service center to report a problem and schedule resolution with the help of an intelligent Web agent long before you even realize that something is wrong! These developments are predicted to result in the majority of traffic—up to 95% of it—being exchanged between machines, with traditional human-to-human communications representing only 5% of the network traffic by 2010.

    Adapting to New Traffic Patterns

    Sharing of information can occur in a number of ways—via smoke signals, by letters sent through the postal service, or as transmissions through electrical or optical media, for example. Before we get into the technical details of the technologies in the industry, it's important to understand the driving forces behind computing and communications. You need to understand the impact these forces have on network traffic and therefore on network infrastructure. In today's environment, telecommunications embodies four main traffic types, each of which has different requirements in terms of network capacity, tolerance for delays—and particularly variations in the delay—in the network, and tolerance for potential congestion and therefore losses in the network:

  • Voice—Voice traffic has been strong in the developed world for years, and more subscriber lines are being deployed all the time. However, some three billion people in the world haven't even used a basic telephone yet, so there is yet a huge market to be served. Voice communications are typically referred to as being narrowband, meaning that they don't require a large amount of network capacity. For voice services to be intelligible and easy to use, delays must be kept to a minimum, however, so the delay factors in moving information from Point A to Point B have to be tightly controlled in order to support real-time voice streams. (Concepts such as delay, latency, and error control are discussed in Chapter 6, "Data Communications Basics.")

  • Data—Data communications refers to the exchange of digitized information between two machines. Depending on the application supported, the bandwidth or capacity requirements can range from medium to high. As more objects that are visual in nature (such as images and video) are included with the data, that capacity demand increases. Depending again on the type of application, data may be more or less tolerant of delays. Text-based exchanges are generally quite tolerant of delays. But again, the more real-time nature there is to the information type, as in video, the tighter the control you need over the latencies. Data traffic is growing much faster than voice traffic; it has grown at an average rate of about 30% to 40% per year for the past decade. To accommodate data communication, network services have been developed to address the need for greater capacity, cleaner transmission facilities, and smarter network management tools. Data encompasses many different information types. In the past, we saw these different types as being separate entities (for example, video and voice in a videoconference), but in the future, we must be careful not to separate things this way because, after all, in the digital age, all data is represented as ones and zeros.

  • Image—Image communications requires medium to high bandwidth—the greater the resolution required, the greater the bandwidth required. For example, many of the images taken in medical diagnostics require very high resolution. Image traffic tolerates some delay because it includes no motion artifacts that would be affected by any distortions in the network.

  • Video—Video communications, which are becoming increasingly popular and are requiring ever-greater bandwidth, are extremely sensitive to delay. The future is about visual communications. We need to figure out how to make video available over a network infrastructure that can support it and at a price point that consumers are willing to pay. When our infrastructures are capable of supporting the capacities and the delay limitations required by real-time applications, video will grow by leaps and bounds.

  • All this new voice, data, and video traffic means that there is growth in backbone traffic levels as well. This is discussed further later in the chapter, in the section "Increasing Backbone Bandwidth."

    The telecommunications revolution has spawned great growth in the amount and types of traffic, and we'll see even more types of traffic as we begin to incorporate human senses as part of the network. The coming chapters talk in detail about what a network needs in order to handle the various traffic types.

    Handling New Types of Applications

    The new traffic patterns imply that the network will also be host to a new set of applications—not just simple voice or text-based data, but to new genres of applications that combine the various media types.

    The ability to handle digital entertainment applications in a network is crucial. In some parts of the world, such as Asia, education may have primary focus, and that should tell us where we can expect greater success going forward. But throughout much of the world, entertainment is where people are willing to spend the limited numbers of dollars that they have to spend on electronic goods and services. The digital entertainment realm will include video editing, digital content creation, digital imaging, 3D gaming, and virtual reality applications, and all these will drive the evolution of the network. It's the chicken and the egg story: What comes first, the network or the applications? Why would you want a fiber-optic broadband connection if there's nothing good to draw over that connection? Why would you want to create a 3D virtual reality application when there's no way to distribute it? The bottom line is that the applications and the infrastructures have to evolve hand-in-hand to manifest the benefits and the dollars we associate with their future.

    Another form of application that will be increasingly important is in the realm of streaming media. A great focus is put on the real-time delivery of information, as in entertainment, education, training, customer presentations, IPO trade shows, and telemedicine consultations. (Streaming media is discussed in detail in Chapter 11, "Next-Generation Network Services.")

    E-commerce (electronic commerce) and m-commerce (mobile commerce) introduce several new requirements for content management, transaction platforms, and privacy and security tools, so they affect the types of information that have to be encoded into the basic data stream and how the network deals with knowledge of what's contained within those packets. (Security is discussed in detail in Chapter 11.)

    Increasing Backbone Bandwidth

    Many of the changes discussed so far, but primarily the changes in traffic patterns and applications, will require immense amounts of backbone bandwidth. Table 1.1 lists a number of the requirements that emerging applications are likely to make on backbone bandwidth.

    Table 1.1 Backbone Bandwidth Requirements for Advanced Applications

    Application

    Bandwidth Needed

    Examples

    Online virtual reality

    1,000–70,000 terabits per second

    Life-size 3D holography; telepresence

    Machine communications

    50,000–200,000 terabits per second

    Smart things; Web agents; robots

    Meta-computing

    50,000–200,000 terabits per second

    Weather prediction; warfare modeling

    In addition, advances in broadband access technologies will drive a demand for additional capacity in network backbones. Once 100Gbps broadband residential access becomes available—and there are developments on the horizon—the core networks will require capacities measured in exabits per second (that is, 1 billion Gbps). These backbone bandwidth demands make the revolutionary forces of optical networking critical to our future. (Optical networking is discussed in detail in Chapter 12, "Optical Networking.")

    Metric Prefixes and Equivalents

    The following table defines commonly used metric prefixes:

    Prefix

    Abbreviation

    Meaning

    Deca

    da

    10 (10)

    Hecto

    h

    102 (100)

    Kilo

    K

    103 (1,000)

    Mega

    M

    106 (1,000,000)

    Giga

    G

    109 (1,000,000,000)

    Tera

    T

    1012 (1,000,000,000,000)

    Peta

    P

    1015 (1,000,000,000,000,000)

    Exa

    E

    1018 (1,000,000,000,000,000,000)

    Deci

    d

    10–1 (0.1)

    Centi

    c

    10–2 (0.01)

    Milli

    m

    10–3 (0.001)

    Micro

    μ

    10–6 (0.000001)

    Nano

    n

    10–9 (0.000000001)

    Pico

    p

    10–12 (0.000000000001)

    Femto

    f

    10–15 (0.000000000000001)

    Atto

    a

    10–18 (0.000000000000000001)

    For example, 10Gbps = 10,000,000,000bps, and 4KHz = 4,000Hz (that is, cycles per second).

    The following shows the relationships of commonly used units of measure to one another:

    1Kbps = 1,000bps 1Gbps = 1,000Mbps 1Tbps = 1,000Gbps 1Pbps = 1,000Tbps 1Ebps = 1,000Pbps Responding to Political and Regulatory Forces

    New developments always bring with them politics. Different groups vie for money, power, the ability to bring new products to market first and alone, and the right to squash others' new ideas. A prominent characteristic of the telecommunications sector is the extent to which it is influenced by government policy and regulation. The forces these exert on the sector are inextricably tied to technological and market forces.

    Because of the pervasive nature of information and communication technologies and the services that derive from them, coupled with the large prizes to be won, the telecommunications sector is subjected to a lot of attention from policymakers. Particularly over the past 20 years or so, telecommunications policy and regulation have been prominent on the agendas of governments around the world. This reflects the global trend toward liberalization, including, in many countries, privatization of the former monopoly telcos. However, interest from policymakers in telecommunications goes much deeper than this. A great deal of this interest stems from the extended reach and wide impact that information and communication technologies have. Here are some examples:

  • Telephony, e-mail, and information services permit contact between friends and families and offer convenience to people in running their day-to-day lives. Thus, they have major economic and social implications.

  • In the business arena, information and communication technologies offer business efficiency and enable the creation of new business activities. Thus, they have major employment and economic implications.

  • Multimedia and the Internet offer new audio, video, and data services that affect entertainment and education, among other areas. These new services are overlapping with traditional radio and television broadcasting, and major cultural implications are appearing.

  • News delivery influences peoples' perceptions of governments and their own well-being, thereby influencing voter attitudes. Telecommunications brings attention to cultural trends. Therefore, telecommunications has major political as well as cultural implications.

  • Government applications of information and communication technologies affect the efficiency of government. Defense, national security, and crime-fighting applications are bringing with them major political implications.

  • Given this background of the pervasive impact that information and communication technologies have, it is hardly surprising they get heavy policy attention.

    Regulatory Background

    Although many national regulatory authorities today are separate from central government, they are, nevertheless, built on foundations of government policy. Indeed, the very act of creating an independent regulatory body is a key policy decision. Historically, before telecommunications privatization and liberalization came to the fore, regulation was often carried out within central government, which also controlled the state-run telcos. That has changed in recent years in many, but not all, countries.

    Given their policy foundation, and the fact that government policies vary from country to country and from time to time, it is not surprising that regulatory environments evolve and differ from country to country. These evolutions and international variations sometimes pose planning problems for the industry, and these problems can lead to frustrations and tensions between companies and regulatory agencies. They can also lead to disagreements between countries (for example, over trade issues). Although moves to encourage international harmonization of regulatory regimes (for example, by the International Telecommunications Union [ITU] and by the European Commission) have been partially successful, differences remain in the ways in which countries interpret laws and recommendations. Moreover, given that regulations need to reflect changing market conditions and changing technological capabilities, it is inevitable that over time regulatory environments will change, too. So regulation is best viewed as another of the variables, such as technological change, that the telecommunications industry needs to take into account.

    The Policy and Regulatory Players

    At the global level, there are a number of international bodies that govern or make recommendations about telecommunications policy and regulation. In addition to the ITU and the European Commission, there are various standards bodies (for example, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers [IEEE], European Telecommunications Standards Institute [ETSI], American National Standards Institute [ANSI], the Telecommunication Technology Committee [TTC]) and industry associations (for example, the European Competitive Telecommunications Association [ECTA], the Telecommunications Industry Association [TIA]). Representatives of national governments and regulatory authorities meet formally (for example, ITU World Radio Conferences, where many countries are represented) and informally (for example, Europe's National Regulatory Authorities [NRAs] exchange views at Independent Regulators Group [IRG] meetings). Other organizations, such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) and regional bodies, also influence telecommunications policy and regulation at the international level.

    At the national level, several parts of central government are generally involved, and there can sometimes be more than one regulatory body for a nation. Some of these organizations are major players; others play less prominent, but nevertheless influential, roles. In the United States, for example, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is the national regulatory body, and public utility commissions regulate at the state level. The U.S. State Department coordinates policy regarding international bodies such as the ITU. The White House, the Department of Commerce, largely through the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), the Justice Department, the Trade Representative, and the Department of Defense are among the various parts of the administration that set or contribute to telecommunications policy. The U.S. Congress and the U.S. government's legislative branch also play important roles. In addition, industry associations, policy "think tanks," regulatory affairs departments within companies, telecommunications lawyers, and lobbyists all contribute to policy debates and influence the shape of the regulatory environment.

    Other countries organize their policy and regulatory activities differently from the United States. For example, in the United Kingdom, the Office of Telecommunications (OFTEL) mainly regulates what in the United States would be known as "common carrier" matters, whereas the Radiocommunications Agency (RA) deals with radio and spectrum matters. However, at the time of writing, it has been proposed that OFTEL and RA be combined into a new Office of Communications (OFCOM). In Hong Kong, telecommunications regulation was previously dealt with by the post office, but now the Office of the Telecommunications Authority (OFTA) is the regulatory body. So, not only do regulatory environments change, but so, too, do the regulatory players.

    The Main Regulatory Issues

    Let's look briefly at what regulators do. Again, this varies somewhat from country to country and over time. In the early years of liberalization, much time would typically be spent in licensing new entrants and in putting in place regulations designed to keep a former monopoly telco from abusing its position by, for example, stifling its new competitors or by charging inappropriately high prices to its customers. Here the regulator is acting as a proxy for market forces. As effective competition takes root, the role of the regulator changes somewhat. Much of the work then typically involves ensuring that all licensed operators or service providers meet their license obligations and taking steps to encourage the development of the market such that consumers benefit.

    The focus of most regulatory bodies is, or should be, primarily on looking after the interests of the various end users of telecommunications. However, most regulators would recognize that this can be achieved only if there is a healthy and vibrant industry to deliver the products and services. So while there are often natural tensions between a regulator and the companies being regulated, it is at the same time important for cooperation between the regulator and the industry to take place. In Ireland, for example, the role of the regulator is encapsulated by the following mission statement: "The purpose of the Office of the Director of Telecommunications Regulation is to regulate with integrity, impartiality, and expertise to facilitate rapid development of a competitive leading-edge telecommunications sector that provides the best in price, choice, and quality to the end user, attracts business investment, and supports ongoing social and economic growth."

    Flowing from regulators' high-level objectives are a range of activities such as licensing, price control, service-level agreements, interconnection, radio spectrum management, and access to infrastructure. Often, regulatory bodies consult formally with the industry, consumers, and other interested parties on major issues before introducing regulatory changes. A more detailed appreciation of what telecommunications regulators do and what their priorities are can be obtained by looking at the various reports, consultation papers, and speeches at regulatory bodies' Web sites.



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